The economic history is a bridge discipline between the economics and the science of history . Depending on the point of view, economics and business administration as well as the history of economic history can serve as auxiliary sciences. Or economic history becomes an auxiliary science of the first-mentioned subjects, for example to investigate the cross-epoch validity of theories. Economic history examines the development, organization and logic of action of or in economies , sectors , companies , actors and groups of actors from a historical perspective.
In the last few decades the methodological and conceptual orientation of economic history in German-speaking countries has changed several times. From the end of the 1950s, it was initially further developed - starting from Anglo-Saxon countries - through cliometry in the direction of quantitative questions, macroeconomic perspectives and statistical-mathematical methods. Since the 1990s, the connection to the New Institutional Economics , whose impulses came from the economic sciences, related institutional theories and cultural studies models of the historical sciences were sought. More and more qualitative questions and methods as well as microeconomic perspectives became the focus of current research perspectives. At the same time, there is also a trend towards international, cross-country and cross-cultural topics and issues. While traditionally the question of the causes and factors of the transition to the modern growth economy ( industrial revolution ) was discussed, economic history is now interested in a broad and diverse field of topics.
At universities , chairs for economic history are usually located either in history or economics faculties. The subject is often coupled with related disciplines such as social or agricultural history . In German university policy, economic history is classified as a small subject together with social history .
Sources of economic history
The source of economic history can be any type of tradition that reveals information about economic circumstances and what has happened in the past.
- published and archival written serial sources (for example, historical balances , exchange list , Preiscouranten , invoices and account books , wills , statistical publications such as customs files )
- Sources on the economic constitution and on economic conduct (e.g. protocols , contracts , letter copy books, laws , guild regulations, etc.)
- Archaeological sources (e.g. coins , furniture , tools , factories , workshops , market places , trade routes )
- Geographical findings, maps, etc.
- so-called meta - sources , which the economic historian constructs himself from existing sources, e.g. genealogical databases, historical data collections (e.g. price series, reconstructed national product accounts , etc.)
Methods of economic history
As a bridging discipline, economic history is located between the methodological approaches of history and economics.
On the one hand there is the more qualitative, inductive historical method (for example hermeneutics ), on the other hand there are the more quantitative, deductive , mathematically and analytically oriented theories and methods of economics. To a certain extent, this reflects the dispute over methods of economics , which was fought out between the historical school of economics and the neoclassical Austrian school of economics, especially in German-speaking countries at the turn of the 20th century . In Great Britain and the USA , the neoclassical New Economic History dominates research on economic history, while in other, above all European countries, a wide variety of approaches that are often strongly interlinked with social history ( e.g. the Annales School ) are important.
The methods used by different researchers therefore differ according to their approach and the question they pose. A pluralism of methods adapted to the question can often be found.
Sub-disciplines and research directions
Sub-disciplines and fields of research in economic history are often closely related to or overlap with other disciplines. Some important fields are:
- Everyday history ; Social history , workers history and craft history
- Agricultural history
- Banking history and monetary history
- Development history ( Kondratiev cycles , Rostov's theory of the stages of economic growth )
- History of the world economy and globalization or history of international economic relations
- Trading history
- Company history
- History of Economic Policy
- History of Economic Thought
- The history of economic systems , economic cultures and economic styles
- Historical demographics
- Migration history
- Postal and traffic history
- Environmental history
Economic history and genealogy
Changes in the frequency of occupations and branches of activity , as can be proven from all genealogical works, are the most important meeting point between the disciplines of economic history and genealogy for the pre-statistical period before 1850.
Further overlaps take place in the area of the company 's history, which is interested in the personality and family of the founder or the company or his financial circumstances and sources of money, which often stem from family relationships with merchant families (see also founding family , marriage group , social mobility ).
Traffic history and postal history
Communication has always been a basic requirement for the functioning of economic processes, which is why postal history - for a long time the postal service was almost the sole mediator of news - is indispensable. Instead of being understood as institutional history, as it used to be, postal history can contribute to an understanding of commercial decisions. Especially since in the 18th and 19th centuries, due to the complex shipping conditions, merchants had to spend a lot of time and money to deliver their messages safely and quickly. The same applies to the history of traffic and modern communication.
Economic history by country and epoch
- Economic history of Chile
- Economic history of the People's Republic of China
- Economic history of Canada
- Economic history of Austria
- Economic history of the Ottoman Empire
- Economy in the Roman Empire
- Economic history of the Middle Ages
- Economic history of the Republic of Venice
- Japanese economic history
Eminent economic historians
- Jean-François Bergier
- Fernand Braudel (1902–1985)
- Marc Bloch (1886–1944), co-founder of the Annales School
- Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. (1918-2007)
- Carlo Maria Cipolla (1922-2000)
- Georges Duby (1919–1996)
- Barry Eichengreen (* 1952)
- Gerald D. Feldman (1937-2007)
- Niall Ferguson (born 1964)
- Robert W. Fogel (1926–2013), Nobel Prize in Economics 1993
- Milton Friedman (1912-2006)
- Alexander Gerschenkron (1904–1978)
- Eli Filip Heckscher (1879–1952)
- Fritz M. Heichelheim (1901–1968)
- Eric Hobsbawm (1917-2012)
- Harold Innis (1894–1952)
- Jan Jörnmark (* 1959)
- Charles P. Kindleberger (1910-2003)
- John Komlos (* 1944)
- Roberto Sabatino Lopez (1910-1986)
- Gino Luzzatto (1878–1964)
- David S. Landes (1924-2013)
- Franz Mathis (* 1946)
- Deirdre N. McCloskey (born 1942)
- Douglass North (1920–2015), Nobel Prize in Economics 1993.
- Joel Mokyr (* 1946)
- Karl Polanyi (1886–1964)
- Emma Rothschild (* 1948)
- Immanuel Wallerstein (1930-2019)
- Jan De Vries (* 1943)
- Herman Van der Wee (* 1928)
- Jeffrey G. Williamson (* 1935)
- Wilhelm Abel (1904–1985)
- Werner Abelshauser (* 1944)
- Jörg Baten (* 1965)
- Georg von Below (1858–1927)
- Hartmut Berghoff (* 1960)
- Knut Borchardt (* 1929)
- Christoph Buchheim (1954-2009)
- Alfred Doren (1869–1934)
- Richard Ehrenberg (1857–1921)
- Wilhelm Heyd (1823–1906)
- Carl-Ludwig Holtfrerich (* 1942)
- Hermann Kellenbenz (1913–1990)
- Jürgen Kuczynski (1904–1997)
- Bruno Kuske (1876–1964)
- Michael North (born 1954)
- Thomas Pekáry (1929-2010)
- Toni Pierenkemper (1944-2019)
- Werner Plumpe (* 1954)
- Hans Pohl (1935-2019)
- Albrecht Ritschl (* 1959)
- Dirk Schaal (* 1970)
- Gustav von Schmoller (1838–1917)
- Aloys Schulte (1857–1941)
- Günther Schulz (* 1950)
- Jochen Streb (* 1966)
- Wolfgang Stromer von Reichenbach (1922–1999)
- Johann Heinrich von Thünen (1783–1850)
- Richard Tilly (* 1932)
- Rolf Walter (* 1953)
- Clemens Wischermann (* 1949)
- Dieter Ziegler (* 1956)
- Journal of Economic History , since 1941
- Economic History Review , since 1927
- Explorations in Economic History , since 1949 (with interruption)
- Journal of European Economic History , since 1972
- European Review of Economic History , since 1997
- Business history , since 1958
- Business History Review , since 1926
- Quarterly journal for social and economic history , since 1903
- Economic History Yearbook , since 1960
- Company history magazine , since 1977
- Bank history archive , since 1975
- Gerold Ambrosius, Dietmar Petzina , Werner Plumpe (ed.): Modern economic history: An introduction for historians and economists . 2., arr. u. exp. Edition. Munich 2006, ISBN 3-486-57878-2 .
- Christoph Buchheim : Introduction to economic history. Munich 1997, ISBN 3-406-41901-1 .
- Ludwig Beutin , Hermann Kellenbenz: Basics of the study of economic history . Cologne et al. 1973, ISBN 3-412-86373-4 .
- Jan-Otmar Hesse, economic history. Origin and change of the modern economy . Frankfurt 2013, ISBN 978-3-593-39958-4 .
- Jan-Otmar Hesse, Sebastian Teupe, economic history. Origin and change of the modern economy . 2nd, updated and expanded edition. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2019, ISBN 978-3-593-51113-9 .
- Mark Spoerer / Jochen Streb: New German Economic History of the 20th Century. Oldenbourg, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-486-58392-2 .
- Rolf Walter: Introduction to economic and social history. 2nd Edition. UTB. Böhlau, Weimar 2008, ISBN 978-3-8252-3085-2 .
- Clemens Wischermann / Katja Patzel-Mattern / Martin Lutz / Thilo Jungkind (eds.): Study book institutional economic and corporate history. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-515-11122-5 .
- Wolfgang Zorn : Introduction to the economic and social history of the Middle Ages and modern times. Problems and Methods. 2nd Edition. Munich 1974, ISBN 3-406-05484-6 .
- Moses Finley : The ancient economy. Berkeley 1973 full view
- Gerold Blümle : Economic history and economic thinking. Selected essays. Metropolis, Marburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-89518-597-7 .
- Timothy Earle: Bronze Age Economics: The First Political Economies. Westview Press, Boulder Colo 2002, ISBN 0-8133-3969-3 .
- Marshall David Sahlins : Stone Age Economics. Aldine Atherton, Chicago 1972, ISBN 0-202-01098-8 .
- Jörg Baten (Ed.): A History of the Global Economy: 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press 2016, ISBN 978-1-107-50718-0 .
- Christian Marx : Economic Networks. In: European History Online , ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) , 2012 Accessed on: December 17, 2012
- Werner Plumpe (Ed.): Economic history. Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-515-09064-3 .
- Bertram Schefold : Contributions to the history of economic dogma. Publishing house economy and finance, Düsseldorf 2004, ISBN 3-87881-182-9 .
- Günther Schulz , Christoph Buchheim , Gerhard Fouquet (eds.): Social and economic history. Areas of work - problems - perspectives. Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-515-08771-0 .
- Rolf Walter : Economic history: from mercantilism to the present. 4th edition. Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-412-11803-6 .
- Rolf Walter: History of the World Economy. An introduction. UTB. Böhlau, Weimar 2006, ISBN 3-8252-2724-3 .
- Jürgen Kocka : History of Capitalism , Beck, Munich 2013. ISBN 978-3-406-65493-0
- Hugo Ott and Hermann Schäfer (eds.): Wirtschafts-Ploetz. Economic history to look up. Ploetz, Freiburg / Würzburg 1984, ISBN 3-87640-073-2 (with the collaboration of numerous specialist scientists, with a good 100 graphic and tabular overviews)
- Kai Ruffing : Economics in Greco-Roman Antiquity. (Compact story). Darmstadt 2012, ISBN 978-3-534-22836-2 .
- Hans-Joachim Drexhage , Heinrich Konen, Kai Ruffing : The economy of the Roman Empire (1st-3rd century): An introduction. Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-05-003430-0 .
- Hans-Jörg Gilomen : Economic history of the Middle Ages (= Beck'sche series 2781). CH Beck, Munich 2014. ISBN 978-3-406-65484-8
Regional treatises, especially Germany
- Werner Abelshauser, Dietmar Petzina (ed.): German economic history in the industrial age. Economy, crisis, growth. Königstein / Taunus 1981, ISBN 3-7610-7239-2 . (with a bibliography organized by subject area)
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Henning : Preindustrial Germany 800 to 1800. Schöningh, Paderborn 1974, ISBN 3-506-99162-0 .
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Henning: The industrialized Germany 1914 to 1976. 4th edition. Schöningh, Paderborn 1978, ISBN 3-506-99168-X .
- Hermann Kellenbenz: German economic history . 2 vols. Munich 1977/1981, ISBN 3-406-06987-8 , ISBN 3-406-06988-6 .
- Hans-Heinrich Müller (Red.): Productive forces in Germany from 1870 to 1917/18. Edited by Rudolf Berthold u. a., Institute for Economic History of the Academy of Sciences Berlin. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1985.
- Michael North (ed.): German economic history. An overview of a millennium. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-50266-0 .
- Mark Spoerer, Jochen Streb : New German Economic History of the 20th Century. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-486-76656-1 .
- Rosemary Thorp: Progress, Poverty and Exclusion. An Economic History of Latin America in the 20th Century. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1998, ISBN 1-886938-35-0 .
- Rolf Walter : Economic relations between Europe and the non-European world. In: European History Online . ed. from the Institute for European History (Mainz) . 2012, accessed April 26, 2012.
- Society for social and economic history
- Presentation of the subject by Toni Pierenkemper , Verein für Socialpolitik , Economic History Committee (PDF file; 102 kB)
- Overview page from the Vienna University of Economics and Business
- André Steiner : Economic history . Version: 1.0, In: Docupedia Contemporary History . 15 October 2013.
- Mark Spoerer, Jochen Streb: New German Economic History of the 20th Century . Munich 2013, pp. 1–23.
- Cf. Clemens Wischermann et al .: Study book institutional economic and corporate history . Stuttgart 2015.
- For example at the universities of Münster, Regensburg and Hohenheim.
- see specialist locations for economic and social history of the small subjects office (Mainz) , accessed on December 6, 2015