Charlotte (Luxembourg)

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Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, Duchess of Nassau

Charlotte von Nassau-Weilburg (born January 23, 1896 at Berg Castle in Luxembourg; † July 9, 1985 at Fischbach Castle ; full name Charlotte Adelgonde Élisabeth Marie Wilhelmine ) was Grand Duchess of Luxembourg , Duchess of Nassau from 1919 to 1964 .


Charlotte was the second oldest of the six daughters of Grand Duke William IV of Luxembourg (1852-1912) and Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal (1861-1942). After her sister Marie-Adelheid abdicated , Charlotte succeeded her as Grand Duchess of Luxembourg on January 15, 1919. The referendum of September 28, 1919 confirmed the constitutional hereditary monarchy under Grand Duchess Charlotte.

On November 6, 1919, she married her cousin Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma , the brother of Zita , the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, with whom she had six children: Jean , who was born on January 5, 1921, and her He was succeeded by Elisabeth (1922–2011), Marie-Adelheid (1924–2007), Marie-Gabrielle (* 1925), Charles (1927–1977) and Alix (1929–2019).

After the occupation of Luxembourg by German troops on May 10, 1940, the Grand Duchess fled with her family and the government via France , Portugal and the United States into exile in Canada and London .

From 1940 to 1944 the Grand Duchess became a symbol of her country's freedom and independence through her radio addresses on the BBC . During this time in 1941 she also visited Luxembourgish emigrant groups and associations in the United States. Then she traveled in 1942 and 1943 on the so-called "Good Will Tours" through the United States.

On August 25, 1942, the grand ducal family was received by US President Roosevelt .

Finally, on September 10, 1944, the city of Luxembourg was liberated by American troops. Prince Felix and Hereditary Grand Duke Jean returned that same day and were enthusiastically received by the population.

The Grand Duchess returned from exile on April 14, 1945. In the following time she visited the villages and towns of the country destroyed during the Ardennes offensive . On June 29, 1945, the small Luxembourg army within the Allied troops, the so-called Brigade Piron or La Luxembourg battery, was officially demobilized in the capital in the presence of Charlotte and Félix.

On November 12, 1964, Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg abdicated in favor of her son Jean after a term of 45 years.

On July 9, 1985, Grand Duchess Charlotte died at the age of 89 at Fischbach Castle and was buried in the crypt of Luxembourg Cathedral.


Henri (Luxemburg) Jean (Luxemburg) Charlotte (Luxemburg) Maria-Adelheid (Luxemburg) Wilhelm IV. (Luxemburg) Adolph (Luxemburg) Wilhelm III. (Niederlande) Wilhelm II. (Niederlande) Wilhelm I. (Niederlande)
Pedigree: Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg (1919–1964)

Prince Friedrich Wilhelm (Nassau-Weilburg) (1768–1816)
⚭ 1788
Countess Isabelle zu Sayn-Hachenburg (1772–1827)

Friedrich (Sachsen-Altenburg)
⚭ 1785
Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1769–1818)

Hereditary Prince Friedrich von Anhalt-Dessau
⚭ 1792
Princess Amalie of Hessen-Homburg

Landgrave Wilhelm von Hessen -Kassel-Rumpenheim
⚭ 1810
Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark

King Peter III (Portugal) (1717–1786)
⚭ 1760
Queen Maria I (Portugal) (1734–1816)

King Charles IV (Spain)
⚭ 1765
Princess Maria Luise of Bourbon-Parma (1751–1819)

Prince Karl (Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg)
⚭ 1799
Countess Sophie zu Windisch-Grätz (1784–1848)

Prince Karl Ludwig (Hohenlohe-Langenburg)
⚭ 1789
Countess Amalie Henriette zu Solms-Baruth (1768–1847)

Great grandparents

Wilhelm I (Nassau)
⚭ 1813
Luise of Saxony-Hildburghausen

Prince Friedrich August von Anhalt-Dessau
⚭ 1832
Marie of Hessen-Kassel

John VI (Portugal)
⚭ 1785
Charlotte Joachime of Spain

Hereditary Prince Konstantin zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
⚭ 1829
Marie Agnes zu Hohenlohe


Crown of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Grand Duke Adolph (1817–1905)
⚭ 1851
Princess Adelheid Marie von Anhalt-Dessau

King Michael I (Portugal)
⚭ 1851
Princess Adelheid von Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg


Crown of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Grand Duke Wilhelm IV. (1852–1912)
⚭ 1893
Infanta Maria Anna of Portugal (1861–1942)

Crown of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg (1896–1985)


Charlotte married Prince Felix of Bourbon-Parma (1893–1970) in 1919 . The couple had six children:


  • André Linden: Léif Lëtzebuerger,… dir dohém a mir hei baussen… the radio speeches of Great-Duchess Charlotte in exile. In … ët wor alles net esou simply. Questions about Luxembourg et la Deuxième Guerre mondiale . Luxembourg 2002


  • Léif Lëtzebuerger… D'Grande-Duchesse in exile 1940–1945. British-Luxembourgish documentary by Ray Tostevin, 2007

Web links

Commons : Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. Image: Charlotte and Félix say goodbye to the Piron Brigade, 1945. Luxemburger Wort , September 15, 2014
predecessor Office successor
Marie-Adelheid Grand Duchess of Luxembourg