Eduard Bernstein

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Eduard Bernstein 1895

Eduard Bernstein (born January 6, 1850 in Berlin ; † December 18, 1932 there ) was a social democratic theorist and politician in the SPD and temporarily the USPD . He is considered the founder of theoretical revisionism within the SPD. During the period of the repressive socialist law between 1878 and 1890 he wrote in the newspaper Der Sozialdemokrat under the pseudonym Leo .

Memorial plaque Bozener Str. 18 (Berlin-Schöneberg) for Eduard Bernstein. Newly inaugurated on September 14, 2016.


Bernstein's parents belonged to the Jewish reform community , his father was a train driver. Despite the family's lack of money, Bernstein attended grammar school, but had to leave it in 1866 at the age of 16 for financial reasons. From 1866 to 1878 he worked as a banker. In 1872 he joined the " Eisenachern " and joined the Social Democratic Workers' Party (SDAP). Together with August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht, he prepared the unification party congress of the SDAP with the General German Workers' Association in Gotha in 1875 . The party united at the party congress with the conception of the Gotha program was constituted as the Socialist Workers' Party (SAP).

In 1877, Bernstein resigned from the Jewish community. Nevertheless, he stood up for Jews.

After 1878 he was private secretary to the social democratic patron Karl Höchberg and initially worked in Zurich at the time of the Bismarck socialist laws , in which the activities of social democracy outside the Reichstag were forbidden . Between 1880 and 1890 Bernstein was editor of the newspaper Der Sozialdemokrat . In 1888 he was expelled from Switzerland by Prussian instigation and from then on lived in London . There he had close ties to Friedrich Engels . After the socialist laws were repealed in 1890 and the SAP was renamed “Social Democratic Party of Germany” (SPD) in the same year, the Marxist Erfurt program emerged in 1891 , which Bernstein had designed together with Karl Kautsky .

Bernstein triggered the revisionism dispute in the mid to late 1890s from his exile in London. In 1901 he returned to Germany after the arrest warrant issued on him was repealed and became a member of the Reichstag for the constituency of Wroclaw- West from 1902–1907, 1912–1918 and 1920–1928 . Although the 1903 party congress in Dresden rejected Bernstein's positions at Karl Kautsky's request, Bernstein continued to gain importance within the party. After the split in the SPD during the First World War should MSPD the revisionism ultimately officially take over as the theoretical foundation. The assessment of Bernstein's revisionism, however, has fluctuated to this day between enthusiastic approval and decisive rejection.

In 1913, Bernstein voted in the Reichstag with the parliamentary group on the left against the armaments bill . In June 1915, together with Hugo Haase and Kautsky, he published an appeal against the expansionist war aims of the German government and against the official war policy of the SPD. In 1917, Bernstein was one of the co-founders of the USPD , which split off from the SPD in protest against the civil peace policy and the war-approving attitude of the SPD in the First World War.

Eduard Bernstein on the topic: "What is socialization?", SPD leaflet , 1918

During the First World War, Bernstein, along with Rosa Luxemburg, was one of the few German politicians who spoke out against the war and protested against the genocide of the Armenians . After the opponents of the war were excluded from the SPD faction in the Reichstag, the USPD was founded in 1917, in which Bernstein also participated. After the November Revolution of 1918/1919, during which two camps were formed in the USPD, Bernstein went back to the SPD because of his fundamentally reformist stance, while another section of the USPD members gradually joined the newly founded Communist Party Party of Germany (KPD) changed. After the November Revolution, Bernstein was a member of the USPD in the government of the People's Commissar, and was an alderman in the Reich Treasury, and he worked hard to reunite the MSPD and the USPD. Between 1910 and 1920, Bernstein was a city councilor in his place of residence, the then still independent city of Schöneberg , and thereafter unpaid city councilor.

In 1920, the social democratic Prussian minister of culture, Paul Hirsch , suggested to the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität in Berlin that Bernstein could give a lecture as a visiting lecturer. While in 1907 a request from the “Free Scientific Association” for a lecture by Bernstein at the university had still been rejected, the responsible committee of the philosophical faculty agreed this time. Bernstein's 1921 summer semester lecture was published in 1922 under the title Socialism then and now. Controversial issues of socialism in the past and present.

The Weimar National Assembly decided on 21 August 1919, the establishment of a committee of inquiry to ask the outbreak of war, warfare, peace of missed opportunities and the causes of the collapse of the First World War. The First Subcommittee to Investigate the Prehistory of the War, formed on October 20, 1919, joined Bernstein on March 4, 1920 as an expert on German-English relations in the German Empire. In it, Bernstein acknowledged as one of only a few MPs that Germany was guilty of the outbreak of war and was against the majority of MPs from the bourgeois parties. Bernstein was a member of the committee until after 1929.

In 1919 he published the series Collected Speeches and Writings by Ferdinand Lassalle.

Under the influence of various anti-Semitic campaigns during the Weimar Republic, Bernstein became a member of various “Pro-Palestine Committees” and “For Working Palestine” committees.

Eduard Bernstein's grave in 2010

During the Weimar Republic, Bernstein belonged to the Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold organization for the protection of the republic .

Private life

Bernstein married the translator Regina Zadek, divorced Schattner (1849–1923), a sister of Ignaz Zadek senior , in 1887 . She brought two children into contact with Bernstein from her first marriage.


Theoretical positions

The revisionism debate

Between 1896 and 1898 Bernstein published the series of articles “Problems of Socialism” in the journal Die Neue Zeit, which opened the revisionism dispute in the SPD. In 1899, at the suggestion of his then friend Karl Kautsky, the publication of The Requirements of Socialism and the Tasks of Social Democracy followed .

Criticism of the dialectic

In this work, Bernstein subjected the previously existing Marxist theory to a radical criticism: both materialism and Hegelian dialectics were metaphysical and therefore unscientific and should be rejected. The philosophy on which social democracy is based must be renewed by overcoming dialectical materialism and replacing it with neo-Kantianism . He put this demand under the provocative motto: "Kant against Cant" ( English : cant ; hypocrisy).

Criticism of the labor theory

The Marxist doctrine of labor value says in a nutshell that the value of a commodity on the market is measured by the time it takes to work. Bernstein's criticism of labor theory is not fundamental; Bernstein even emphasizes that it is useful to a certain extent as a metaphor for revealing the fundamental mechanisms of capitalist economy. He is of the opinion “that labor value is absolutely nothing but a key, a thought image like the animated atom. A key that, used by the master hand of Marx, has led to a revelation and presentation of the mechanism of the capitalist economy, which has not yet been delivered in a penetrating, consistent and transparent manner, but which fails from a certain point onwards and therefore still almost Every student of Marx has become fatal. ”Specifically, Bernstein misses the consideration of demand in the Marxian value construction, a criticism that today would be called Keynesian . If not everything that has been produced is sold, then the labor value theory loses its validity. Even in goods that are not used or bought, there is work . Even so, they are apparently worthless. Bernstein therefore sees problems in the concrete application of the theory of labor values, which goes beyond a model metaphor.

The decisive factor, however, is that all of this is no reason for Bernstein to reject Marx's theory of surplus value . He recommends, however, not to derive them from deductive abstractions such as labor value theory, but from empirical facts:

“[…] The statistics of incomes show us that the layers not active in production also acquire a much larger share of the total product than their numerical ratio to the productive part makes. The extra work of this latter is an empirical fact that can be proven by experience, which requires no deductive proof. Whether the Marxian theory of value is correct or not is completely irrelevant for the proof of excess work. In this respect it is not a thesis of proof, but only a means of analysis and illustration. "

Criticism of the thesis of polarization, impoverishment and collapse

Likewise, there is also no company concentration in the Marxian sense - the numerical ratio between large and small companies remains constant over the long term. The breakdown theory believed Bernstein even falsified to have: this he performs statistical data on demographics and income growth in several European states, which showed that the population of entrepreneurs and higher-earning employees - had risen - in contradiction to Marx's theory. Therefore, no proletarian revolution will be able to take place, since the educated part of the workforce, on the contrary, is striving to integrate into the existing system and to promote social advancement within it.

Reform instead of revolution

On the basis of these theoretical assumptions, Eduard Bernstein demanded the abandonment of the principle of revolution and participation in the political system of the empire . Socialism can be brought about through reforms. Bernstein opposes the violent revolution , in principle he has an aversion to thinking in terms of “before” and “after”. This almost religious division between this world before the revolution and a paradisiacal afterlife was common in the promising and pathetic speeches of the 19th century. Perhaps Bernstein's most famous sentence sums up one of his essential theoretical building blocks in this matter. In the debate about the relevance of the ultimate goal of the socialist movement, he wrote: “What is commonly called the ultimate goal of socialism is nothing to me, the movement is everything.” Bernstein explicitly emphasizes that he is neither giving up principles nor giving up medium-term concrete goals. Rather, he is of the opinion that any formulation of an ultimate goal cannot do without “utopianism”. The core of Bernstein's revisionist-reformist worldview is to explain the way to the goal.

Democracy is a means and an end

Eduard Bernstein

For him, democracy is not just a strategic weapon, but has political value in itself. “Democracy is a means and an end at the same time. It is the means of fighting for socialism, and it is the form of realizing socialism. ”He tries not to over- or underestimate democracy:“ Democracy is in principle the abolition of class rule, even if it is not yet the de facto abolition of the classes. ”His deductions for the political strategy of the labor movement are clear:“ And social democracy cannot promote this work any better than if it unreservedly, even in doctrine, stand on the ground of universal suffrage, democracy all the consequences of this for their tactics. In practice, that is, in her actions, she has always done it. "

Amber and the Colonies

While Bernstein was opposed to chauvinism and war, he gave colonialism the right to steal the soil from the "savages" in tropical countries, because Europe had the higher culture:

“It is not necessary for the occupation of tropical countries by Europeans to damage the indigenous people's enjoyment of life, nor has it been the case until now. In addition, only a limited right of savages to the land they occupy can be recognized. In the extreme case, the higher culture also has the higher right. Not the conquest, but the maintenance of the soil gives the historical legal title to its use. "

Bernstein's "revision" against the "new theory"

Bernstein did not understand his criticism as a general attack on Marxism , but as a further development of the existing one, but “the further development and development of Marxist teaching must begin with its criticism.” He makes it clear that for him there are no pillar saints: “A mistake is not worth maintaining because Marx and Engels once shared it ”. In his proposals for a modification of the Marxian doctrine, it never occurred to him to see himself on an equal footing with Marx. Nonetheless, he insisted: "Someone can be right against Marx who does not hold a candle to him in knowledge and spirit." Bernstein wanted to keep what was useful and to reject what he saw as metaphysical. In this context, he refers to Kant in order to separate the useful from the traditional with his sharpness of thought: “The tantrums that I put various people into have only strengthened my conviction that the social democracy needs a Kant who once with the traditional doctrinal opinion critically - with full severity - goes into judgment, [...] who laid bare with convincing severity what of the work of our great champions is worth living on and what must and can fall. "

Bernstein emphasizes several times that for him it is not a question of disposing of Marxism per se: “However, it is actually a question of overcoming Marxism or rather of rejecting certain remnants of utopianism that Marxism carries around with it and in which we are the original source who have to look for contradictions in theory and practice that Marxism's critics have proven? ”He would like to see the later and, in his view, more mature texts by Marx and especially Engels weighted more heavily than the pamphlets from Sturm-und-Drang -Times. Again he points out that he intends to improve the theory and not its liquidation: "The basic idea of ​​the theory does not lose its uniformity, but the theory itself gains in scientificity." Bernstein regards his own work in this context as persuading a paradigm shift within Marxist doctrine: “The errors of a doctrine can only be considered to have been overcome if they are recognized as such by the proponents of the doctrine. Such recognition does not yet mean the downfall of teaching. "

Bernstein demanded a partial revision of the existing doctrine in order to resolve the existing contradictions. One should not be afraid to attack the old holy dogmas: “But for those who have only retained a little theoretical sense, for whom the scientific nature of socialism is not just a showpiece that one takes out of the silver cupboard on festive occasions, but otherwise disregarded, as soon as he becomes aware of these contradictions, he will also feel the need to clear them up. The task of the students is based on this and not on the eternal repetition of the masters' words. ”Bernstein not only grants the students the intellectual freedom not only to interpret thoughts but to develop them further. He also admits political opponents to occasionally criticize them Meeting black people. If this is the case, one has to modify what has been criticized and not ignore the criticism because of its origin: "A truth does not lose its weight because it was first found or presented by an anti-socialist or not entirely socialist economist."


His positions led to a break with Karl Kautsky and the Marxist center of the SPD, they triggered a wave of protest within the entire social democracy. At times, August Bebel intended to expel Eduard Bernstein from the SPD - a project that he abandoned because it had already gained a large following, so that there was a risk of the revisionists splitting off and the founding of a separate reformist-social-democratic party. He explains the violent reactions to his book The Prerequisites of Socialism and the Tasks of Social Democracy as follows: “This is the first time that a socialist belonging to the Marxist school criticized a number of theorems of Marxism himself, while until then the discussion was under Marxists almost always only about the interpretation of such sentences. ”From today's perspective it can be stated that Bernstein actually created a new theoretical school of thought. Even if there were reform-oriented currents in the SPD before the Social Democrats adopted the Marxist doctrine completely at the Gotha Party Congress in 1875, Bernstein's work was the first complete and theoretically well-founded draft of social democratic reformist policy, a fact which, however, in this form was never noticed by the SPD. Former Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky said of Bernstein: “The German social democracy became reformist, it got so involved in the course of the reform socialist Eduard Bernstein that the world didn't even notice. It had even been forgotten that amber was still alive at the time. He died very quietly without being given the honor he deserved. "

Horst Heimann stated in this context: “In the Godesberg program of 1959, the SPD finally turned away from the orthodox-Marxist concept of socialism and made the revisionist-reformist concept of socialism founded by Bernstein the basis of its theoretical-programmatic self-image. But most of the Social Democrats were never aware of this connection between Bernstein's revisionism and the Godesberg program. “Only very few were able to establish this theoretical and historical connection, for example the former German Federal Minister Carlo Schmid , who stated in 1964 on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Socialist International in Brussels : "Eduard Bernstein has triumphed across the board." Neither Bernstein himself nor the authors of the Godesberg program finally understood that Bernstein, as opposed to Marxist orthodoxy, was the spiritual father of social democracy. Bruno Kreisky acknowledges this with the remark; "He (Bernstein) was actually the great political reformer, not Marx."

Bernstein's opponents accused him of having placed his views outside of Marxism and of having become a bourgeois democrat. Bernstein did not share this view throughout his life. In historical retrospect, however, there are many arguments to suggest that he had created a new political theory outside of Marxist doctrine. Thomas Meyer states in his book Bernstein's constructive socialism , the first comprehensive scientific overall presentation of Bernstein's theoretical work, that he not only criticized Marx's theory, as some believe, but that he himself conceived an alternative theoretical approach to socialism.

Bernstein's position within the social democracy

Eduard Bernstein in 1932, a few months before his death (photography by Robert Sennecke )

Bernstein's reformism was much less radical in theory than the doctrine propagated by the Marxist center. Bernstein accused his opponents, however, of letting their theoretical radicalism degenerate into a phrase and of acting entirely reformist in practice. In fact, Bernstein was far more radical than the party leadership on important practical issues. This selective radicalism was admitted even by the once orthodox Marxist and today's political scientist in Cologne, Christoph Butterwegge . In a text from 1976 he points out that Bernstein

  • had the intention to form an alliance against monopoly capital together with the bourgeois middle class,
  • advocated the socialization of monopoly capital enterprises,
  • advocated the political mass strike and other extra-parliamentary means of struggle, for example to enforce fair suffrage in Prussia,
  • On the question of war credits , he took a consistently anti-militarist stance against the majority in the Social Democrats as early as 1915 and became one of the founding members of the USPD in 1917.

Bernstein's anti-nationalist stance after 1918 is added to this list of Butterwege. He wanted to get the SPD and Germany to admit the German war guilt, as Teresa Löwe found in a detailed investigation. Although one can accuse him of having little instinct between speech and action, it is ultimately not easy to categorize Bernstein. Horst Heimann, who attests to Bernstein's steadfastness in an environment that has lost his bearings, gives a very positive assessment. Heimann asks whether Bernstein was not always on the right side: before the war on those who wanted to close the gap between phrase and deed, during the war on the side of the anti-militarists and after the war on the side of those who wanted the Germans Wanted to confront nationalism directly.


Independent writings (selection)

What is socialism Lecture in the Berlin Philharmonic , December 28, 1918
  • The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. JHW Dietz, Stuttgart 1899 digital copy (reprint: Dietz-Verlag, Berlin, 1991, ISBN 3-320-01582-6 ).
  • Collected treatises on the history and theory of socialism. Academic publishing house for social sciences, Berlin 1901 digitized .
  • On the theory of the law of wages and related matters. Problems of socialism. Socialist controversies. Dümmler, Berlin 1901 (new reworked and supplemented edition, 4th ed. 1904).
  • Ferdinand Lassalle and its importance for the working class. On the fortieth anniversary of his death. Berlin 1904.
  • The history of the Berlin labor movement. Part 1: From 1848 to the enactment of the Socialist Law. Part 2: The History of the Socialist Law in Berlin. Part 3: Fifteen years of the Berlin labor movement under common law. Vorwärts bookstore, Berlin 1907–1910 (Reprint: Detlev Auvermann, Glashütten im Taunus 1972).
  • Socialism and Democracy in the English Revolution. Dietz, Stuttgart 1908 (second, reviewed, enlarged and illustrated edition; 1st edition was published as the 5th section by Kautsky / Bernstein (ed.): The history of modern socialism in individual presentations. Vol. 1. Dietz, Stuttgart 1895–1898) .
  • The labor movement. Rütten & Loening, Frankfurt a. M. 1910 (reprint: Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-89518-651-6 ).
  • From the years of my exile. Memories of a socialist. Reiss, Berlin 1918 (peoples at home).
  • The strike. His being and his work. Rütten & Loening, Frankfurt a. M. 1920.
  • The German Revolution of 1918/19. History of the formation and first working period of the German republic. Publishing house for society and education, Berlin-Fichtenau 1921 (reprint: Dietz, Bonn 1998, ISBN 3-8012-0272-0 ).
  • The Görlitz Program of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Introduced and explained for everyone. Publishing house for social sciences, Berlin 1922.
  • What is socialism Issues of Socialism Past and Present. JHW Dietz Nachf., Berlin 1922. (2nd probably edition 1923) (reprint: Dietz, Berlin, Hannover et al. 1975, ISBN 3-8012-1082-0 ).
  • The Berlin labor movement from 1890 to 1905. Illustrated with pictures and documents from the period. JHW Dietz Nachf., Berlin 1924.
  • Social democratic apprenticeship. Der Bücherkreis, Berlin 1928 (reprint: Dietz-Verlag, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-320-01583-4 ).
  • Course of development of a socialist. Meiner, Leipzig 1930.
  • Ludger Heid (Ed.): "I am the last to keep silent about it." Texts on Jewish matters. Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 2004, ISBN 3-935035-54-3 .

Journal articles (selection)

Editor (selection)

  • Documents of Socialism. Booklets for the history, documents and bibliography of socialism . Berlin 1902–1905 (Reprint: Detlev Auvermann 1968)
  • Intimate letters from Ferdinand Lassalle to parents and sister . Vorwärts bookstore, Berlin 1905
  • Karl Marx. Wages, prices and profits. Lecture given in the General Council of the “Internationale” on June 26, 1865. Volksstimme bookstore, Frankfurt 1908
  • David Lloyd George : Better times . Diederichs, Jena 1911
  • The correspondence between Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx . 1844 to 1883 Ed. By A. Bebel and Ed. Amber. 4 vols. JHW Dietz, Stuttgart 1913
  • Principles of Communism by Friedrich Engels. From his estate. Vorwärts bookstore, Berlin 1914
  • Documents on World War 1914 . 18 booklets. Vorwärts bookstore, Berlin 1914–1915
  • Po and Rhine, Savoy, Nice and the Rhine. Two treatises by Friedrich Engels . JHW Dietz Nachf., Stuttgart 1915 (Small Library 32)
  • Ferdinand Lassalle. Collected speeches and writings . 12 vols. Cassierer, Berlin 1919–1920
  • August Bebel. The woman and socialism . Anniversary edition . JHW Dietz Nachf., Berlin 1929


  • Friedrich Engels' letters to Eduard Bernstein. With letters from Karl Kautsky to the same ed. by Eduard Bernstein. JHW Dietz Nachf., Berlin 1925
  • Correspondence with August Bebel and Karl Kautsky as well as letters from and to Ignaz Auer, Eduard Bernstein, Adolf Braun, Heinrich Dietz, Friedrich Ebert, Wilhelm Liebknecht, Hermann Müller and Paul Singer / Victor Adler . Collected and redeemed by Friedrich Adler. Edited by the executive committee of the Socialist Party of Austria. Verlag der Wiener Volksbuchhandlung, Vienna 1954
  • Eduard Bernstein's correspondence with Friedrich Engels . Edited by Helmut Hirsch. Van Grocum, Assen 1970 (Sources and studies on the history of the German and Austrian labor movement. New series 1)
  • Eduard Bernstein's correspondence with Karl Kautsky. 1895-1905 . Single and ed. by Till Schelz-Brandenburg with collabor. by Susanne Thurn. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 2003 (Sources and Studies on Social History 19) ISBN 3-593-37238-X
  • Eduard Bernstein's correspondence with Karl Kautsky. 1912-1932 . Single and ed. by Eva Bettina Görtz using preliminary work by Jürgen Rojahn and Tine Koldehofe. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 2011 (sources and studies on social history 22)

Literature (selection)

Contemporary and sources

  • G. Plekhanov : Bernstein and materialism. In: The new time. Review of intellectual and public life. 16.1897 / 98, 2nd vol. (1898), issue 44, pp. 545-555,
  • Bernstein and the Social Democratic Program. An anti-criticism from Karl Kautsky. JHW Dietz, Stuttgart 1899.
  • Basics of the day fight. Festive offering for Eduard Bernstein offered by the employees of the Wroclaw People's Watch. People's Watch, Breslau 1925.
  • Paul Kampffmeyer : Eduard Bernstein and the socialist construction. For Ed's 80th birthday. Amber. JHW Dietz Verlag Nachf., Berlin 1930.
  • Helmut Hirsch (ed.): A revisionist image of socialism. Three lectures by Eduard Bernstein. JHW Dietz Nachf., Hanover 1966.

Biographies and Biographical Articles

Theory history and politics

  • Peter Gay : The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism. Eduard Bernstein's examination of Marx. Nest Verlag, Nuremberg 1952
  • Paul Mayer:  Bernstein, Eduard. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4 , p. 133 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Pierre Angel: Eduard Bernstein et l'évolution du socialisme allemand . Didierer, Paris 1961
  • Lucio Colletti : Bernstein and the Marxism of the Second International. EVA, Frankfurt am Main 1971
  • Horst Heimann, Thomas Meyer (ed.): Bernstein and democratic socialism. Report on the scientific congress 'The historical achievement and current importance of Eduard Bernstein' . JHW Dietz Verl. Nachf., Berlin / Hanover 1978
  • Manfred Tetzel: Philosophy and Economics or the example of Bernstein. Study on the History of Historical Materialism . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1984 (selection of bibliography, pp. 177–182).
  • Till Schelz-Brandenburg: Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky. The emergence and transformation of social democratic party Marxism as reflected in their correspondence from 1879 to 1932 . Bremen, Univ., Diss., 1991. Böhlau, Cologne 1992, ISBN 3-412-05892-0
  • Horst Klein: Testimony to a lifelong friendship and spiritual community: The correspondence between Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky from 1891 to 1932 . In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Volume III / 2013.
  • Ehrenfried Pößneck: What did Bernstein want? A contribution to the content of his conception of society. Society for Politics and Contemporary History, Leipzig 1993
  • Wolfgang Eichhorn: About Eduard Bernstein. Contrasts and points of contact with Rosa Luxemburg - and VI Lenin . In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Issue I / 2002.
  • Sandor Vadasz: The role of Bernstein in founding the USPD . In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Book II / 2004.
  • Matthias Lemke : Republican Socialism. Positions by Bernstein, Kautsky, Jaurès and Blum. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt / New York 2008, ISBN 978-3-593-38600-3
  • Hans G. Nutzinger : The labor movement. In: Eduard Bernstein: The labor movement. Metropolis-Verlag, Marburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-89518-651-6 , pp. 215-311
  • Tom Strohschneider (Ed.): Eduard Bernstein or: The freedom of those who think differently. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-320-02361-4 , (free download of the PDF file from, accessed on June 20, 2020)
  • Horst Heimann, Hendrik Küpper, Klaus-Jürgen Scherer (eds.): Spiritual renewal to the left of the center. The Democratic Socialism of Eduard Bernstein , Schüren Verlag, Marburg 2020, ISBN 978-3-7410-0267-0 .

Web links

Commons : Eduard Bernstein  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. See e.g. B .: Eduard Bernstein: How I grew up as a Jew in the Diaspora. In: The Jew. A monthly. Edited by Martin Buber , Jg. 18917/18, pp. 186-195; “I am the last to keep silent about it.” Texts in Jewish affairs. by Eduard Bernstein. Edited and introduced by Ludger Heid. Publishing house for Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 2004.
  2. ^ Wolfgang Eichhorn: About Eduard Bernstein. Contrasts and points of contact with Rosa Luxemburg and VI Lenin . In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Issue I / 2002.
  3. Sandor Vadasz: The role of Bernstein in founding the USPD . In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Book II / 2004.
  4. Teresa Löwe: The politician Eduard Bernstein . Bonn 2000, pp. 149f.
  5. Bernstein's fight for the recognition of the German war guilt Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung , digital library, accessed on September 16, 2016
  6. Teresa Löwe: The politician Eduard Bernstein . Bonn 2000, p. 54ff.
  7. Ludger Heid: Bernstein, Eduard. In: Julius H. Schoeps (Ed.): Neues Lexikon des Judentums , p. 72 and the listing of Bernstein's writings on the "Jewish question"
  8. ^ Heinrich Weder: Social hygiene and pragmatic health policy in the Weimar Republic , Matthiesen, 2000. Page 438
  9. Press release of June 7, 2016 "Honorary graves for well-known and deserving personalities"
  10. . See מַדְרִיךְ הָרְחוֹבוֹת שֶׁל תֵּל-אָבִיב-יָפוֹ (transcribed: madrich ha-R ə chōvōt shel Tel-Aviv-Jaffa , German, road guide of Tel Aviv-Jaffa ") , accessed on January 4, 2020.
  11. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, pp. 29-65
  12. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. Edited by Günther Hillmann , Reinbek bei Hamburg 1984, pp. 219–232
  13. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 70
  14. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 68
  15. Eduard Bernstein: The Premises of Socialism and the Tasks of Social Democracy. 1984, pp. 65-113
  16. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 201
  17. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 154
  18. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 155
  19. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 156
  20. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 180
  21. a b c Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 45
  22. ^ A b Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 204
  23. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 207
  24. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 219
  25. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 211
  26. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 37
  27. On the break and the later rapprochement with Kautsky cf. Horst Klein: Testimony to a lifelong friendship and spiritual community - the correspondence between Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky from 1891 to 1932 . In: Yearbook for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Volume III / 2013.
  28. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. 221
  29. a b "With us the clocks go differently" . In: Der Spiegel . No. 14 , 1983, p. 126 ff . ( online - Spiegel talk; Dieter Wild, Erich Böhme with Bruno Kreisky).
  30. Eduard Bernstein: The requirements of socialism and the tasks of social democracy. 1984, p. XXI
  31. Manfred Rexin : On the 70th anniversary of Eduard Bernstein's death . Website of the SPD Berlin
  32. Thomas Meyer: Bernstein's constructive socialism. 1977
  33. Christoph Butterwege: Amber boom in the SPD. In: Sheets for German and international politics. 1978, pp. 579-592.
  34. Teresa Löwe: The politician Eduard Bernstein .
  35. Another 37 articles are marked with "EB" or "eb".