Origin and studies
Karl Schwarzschild was born in Frankfurt as the eldest of six children to a wealthy Jewish family (but was later baptized). The Schwarzschild-Ochs family was a long-established trading dynasty in the textile industry, a branch of an old Jewish family from the Lower Rhine who immigrated to Frankfurt in 1499 with a shop in an outstanding location at Roßmarkt 13 (formerly Roßmarkt 7) and on Leipziger Strasse . His parents were Henrietta Sabel and Moses Martin Schwarzschild. His four younger brothers were named Alfred, Otto, Hermann and Robert, his only sister Clara. Alfred (1874–1948) became a painter. Karl grew up in a cultivated upper class environment in which diverse interests (including music and art) were cultivated. In Frankfurt he attended the Jewish elementary school and then the municipal high school , where his interest in astronomy was aroused at an early stage . As a 16-year-old student he published two papers on the orbit of planets and binary stars in the Astronomische Nachrichten .
After graduating from high school , which he passed as the best of his class, he studied astronomy at the University of Strasbourg from 1890 . In 1892 he moved to the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich , where he 1896 of Seeliger Hugo about the emergence of equilibrium figures in rotating fluids doctorate .
Activity in Vienna and Munich
From 1897 he worked for two years as an assistant at the Kuffner observatory in Vienna . There he dealt with the photometry of star clusters and laid the foundations for a formula that describes the relationship between the intensity of starlight, exposure time and blackening of the photo plate in astrophotography . An important part of this formula is the Schwarzschild exponent . In 1899 he returned to Munich and completed his habilitation there.
Activity in Göttingen and Potsdam
Military service and death
When the First World War broke out in 1914, he volunteered for the army. He served in the artillery troops on the Eastern and Western Fronts and had to perform ballistic calculations there, among other things . During the war, however, he became seriously ill with an autoimmune skin disease ( pemphigus vulgaris ) and returned from the front as an invalid in March 1916 . He died two months later at the age of only 42.
His grave and that of his family are in the Göttingen city cemetery (section 35).
Karl Schwarzschild married Elisabeth Rosenbach, a great-granddaughter of Friedrich Wöhler , in 1909 . The marriage had three children: Agathe Thornton b. Schwarzschild (1910-2006), who emigrated to Great Britain in 1933 and went to New Zealand in 1948, where she became professor of ancient philology at the Otago University of Dunedin, the astrophysicist Martin Schwarzschild and Alfred Schwarzschild (1914-1944), who stood up because of the persecution of the Jews took his life by the National Socialists.
His work on relativity yielded the first exact solutions to the field equations of general relativity - one for uncharged, non-rotating spherical symmetrical bodies and one for static isotropic empty spaces around solid bodies.
Schwarzschild did some fundamental work on classical black holes . Some properties of black holes got its name from this, namely the Schwarzschild metric , the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metric and the Schwarzschild radius . The center of a non-rotating, uncharged black hole is called the Schwarzschild singularity .
In astronomy he worked, among other things, on the photographic measurement of the brightness of stars . In the course of studies on radiation transport in the solar atmosphere , Schwarzschild coined the term radiation equilibrium . Using stellar statistics methods , he examined the distribution of stars in the Milky Way .
During his time at the astrophysical observatory in Potsdam he also dealt with the explanation of the emission spectra of atoms . He introduced methods of celestial mechanics for the calculation of emission spectra in the Bohr-Sommerfeld atomic model . His last publication is a contribution to early quantum mechanics about the Stark effect .
The scholarly estate of Schwarzschild is kept in the special collections of the Lower Saxony State and University Library in Göttingen .
to optical systems:
- Investigations into geometrical optics I. Introduction to the error theory of optical instruments on the basis of the concept of eikonal , 1906, Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in Göttingen, Volume 4 , Number 1, pp. 1–31
- Investigations on geometric optics II. Theory of mirror telescopes , 1906, Treatises of the Society of Sciences in Göttingen, Volume 4 , Number 2, pp. 1–28
- Investigations into geometrical optics III. About the astrophotographic lenses , 1906, Treatises of the Society of Sciences in Göttingen, Volume 4 , Number 3, pp. 1-54
- About difference formulas for calculating optical systems , 1907, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , pp. 551-570
for brightness measurement:
- Actinometry of the stars of the BD up to size 7.5 in the zone 0 ° to + 20 ° declination. Part A. With the participation of Br. Meyermann, A. Kohlschütter and O. Birck , 1910, Treatises of the Society of Sciences in Göttingen, Volume 6 , Number 6, pp. 1–117
to the solar atmosphere:
- About the balance of the solar atmosphere , 1906, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , pp. 41-53 (available on the web in the European Digital Mathematics Library , in German).
- The diffraction and polarization of light through a slit. I. , 1902, Mathematische Annalen, Volume 55 , pp. 177-247
- To electrodynamics. I. Two forms of the principle of action in electron theory , 1903, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , pp. 126-131
- To electrodynamics. II. The elementary electrodynamic force , 1903, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , pp. 132–141
- To electrodynamics. III. About the movement of the electron , 1903, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , pp. 245-278
- About the proper movements of the fixed stars , 1907, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , pp. 614-632
- About the determination of vertex and apex according to the ellipsoid hypothesis from a smaller number of observed proper movements , 1908, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen , pp. 191-200
- K. Schwarzschild, E. Kron: About the brightness distribution in the tail of Halley's comet , 1911, news from the Society of Sciences in Göttingen , pp. 197-208
- The scientific results and goals of modern mechanics. , 1904, Annual Report of the German Mathematicians Association, Volume 13 , pp. 145–156
- About the astronomical training of the teacher training candidates. , 1907, Annual Report of the German Mathematicians Association, Volume 16 , pp. 519-522
to Einstein's field equations
- About the gravitational field of a mass point according to Einstein's theory. Reimer, Berlin 1916, p. 189 ff. (Meeting reports of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences; 1916)
- Via the gravitational field of a ball of incompressible liquid . Reimer, Berlin 1916, pp. 424–434 (session reports of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences; 1916)
The street at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) in 85748 Garching near Munich bears his name, as do streets in Berlin and Göttingen . Since it opened on October 19, 1960, today's Thuringian State Observatory Tautenburg has been called the Karl Schwarzschild Observatory .
"It's always nice to have strict, simple-form solutions."
- Horst Kant : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 24, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-428-11205-0 , p. 33 f. ( ).
- Wolfgang Klötzer (Hrsg.): Frankfurter Biographie . Personal history lexicon . Second volume. M – Z (= publications of the Frankfurt Historical Commission . Volume XIX , no. 2 ). Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-7829-0459-1 , p. 362-363 .
- Klaus Reinsch, Axel D. Wittmann (eds.): Karl Schwarzschild. A pioneer and trailblazer in astrophysics. Memorial colloquium ; (Göttingen): 2016.05.19. Göttinger Universitätsverlag, Göttingen 2017, ISBN 978-3-86395-295-2 http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl?univerlag-isbn-978-3-86395-295-2
- Literature by and about Karl Schwarzschild in the catalog of the German National Library
- Publications by K. Schwarzschild in the Astrophysics Data System
- Obituaries for K. Schwarzschild in the Astrophysics Data System
- Karl Schwarzschild - life and work
- Karl Schwarzschild - observer at the Kuffner observatory from 1897–1899
- astronews.com: Pioneers of Modern Astrophysics May 11, 2016
- Biography of his brother Alfred Schwarzschild (1874–1948)
- Holger Krahnke: The members of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen 1751-2001 (= Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Philological-Historical Class. Volume 3, Vol. 246 = Treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen, Mathematical-Physical Class. Episode 3, vol. 50). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2001, ISBN 3-525-82516-1 , p. 221.
- Michael Eckert: The quantum sky full of violins - quantum theory in the language of celestial mechanics - Karl Schwarzschild's last work In: Physik Journal, May 2016, p. 41.
- Karl Schwarzschild: To the quantum hypothesis In: Session reports of the Kgl. Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin January - June, 1916, p. 548; at archive.org on the Internet
- Member of Karl Schwarzschild at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , accessed on June 20, 2016.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German astronomer and physicist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 9, 1873|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Frankfurt am Main|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 11, 1916|
|Place of death||Potsdam|