Originating from the Sicilian-Greek pastoral songs , bucolic became a literary genre in Hellenism . It can be classified between the drama and the epic : from the epic it borrows the epic meter , the hexameter . The individual poems are often structured as dialogues between two shepherds, which gives the bucolic poetry a dramatic character. The genre was considered appealing due to the tension between its heroic meter and its description of everyday scenes of simple, "unheroic" people.
Its most important representative is Theokrit , whose idylls (Greek Eidyllia , lit. "little pictures") play in the Magna Graecia or on Kos and are characterized by a sometimes crude realism of the shepherd's life. Also Moschos and Bion of Smyrna wrote bucolic poems.
In Latin literature, the bucolic is received by Virgil , who relocates the setting of his pastoral poems ( eclogues ) to Arcadia . The realism in the portrayal of the pastoral life gives way in places to a transfiguration and idealization of it as an idyllic and carefree life (from the point of view of the city dweller). Virgil's point of view and his poetic techniques have significantly shaped the subsequent European tradition of the genre. Poets of Latin bucolic at the time of Emperor Nero are Calpurnius Siculus and the anonymous author of the hermit poems . Late Roman successors are Nemesian and Severus Sanctus Endelechius . In the course of the Carolingian Renaissance, Modoinus appeared as the author of bucolic poems at the court of Emperor Charlemagne. In the Codex Gaddianus an anonymous shepherd poem from this epoch has come down to us ( Carmen bucolicum Gaddianum ).
The bucolic of Renaissance humanism found an important precursor in Dante and a first, often immature, representation in Petrarch's Bucolicum carmen . The outstanding humanist Jacopo Sannazaro , who also had Fischer appear for the first time in his Piscatoriae eclogae, was a significant expansion of the bucolic staff .
Another important further development of bucolic poetry in modern times is the so-called shepherd poetry or shepherd romance. This also deals with the quiet, pastoral life of the shepherds, but the connection with social ideals of the baroque is essential. Important personalities were represented under the "shepherd's mask" and were only easily recognized by the initiated. A major representative of this poetry is Friedrich Spee with his main lyrical work " Trutznachtigall or spiritual-poetic Lustwäldlein " . The bucolic in Germany reached a high point in the shepherd poems of the Pegnese Flower Order , from which Georg Philipp Harsdörffer , Johann Klaj and especially Sigmund von Birken stand out as poets.
The adjective bucolic is also used to characterize landscapes in particular as idyllic .
Editions and translations
- Harry C. Schnur (Ed.): The shepherd's flute. Bucolic poetry from Virgil to Geßner . From Latin, English, French, Dutch and after Polish. Afterword by Rainer Kößling . Short biographies and notes by Harry C. Schnur (= Reclams Universal Library , Volume 690: Fiction ). Reclam, Leipzig 1978 .
- Dietmar Korzeniewski (Ed. / Translator): Shepherd poems from the Neronian era (= texts on research. Vol. 1). WBG, Darmstadt 1971 ISBN 3-534-04627-7
- Dietmar Korzeniewski (Hrsg. / Transl.): Pastoral poems from the late Roman and Carolingian times (texts on research 26). Darmstadt: WBG 1976 (XIV, 148 pages). ISBN 3-534-06829-7
- Renate Böschenstein : Art. Bukolik / Idylle . In: The New Pauly . Enzyklopädie der Antike, Vol. 13 (1999), Col. 561-568 [on the history of effects in the Middle Ages and modern times].
- Bernd Effe / Gerhard Binder : The ancient bucolic. An introduction (Artemis Introductions). Munich / Zurich: Artemis 1989 (187 pages). ISBN 3-7608-1338-0
- Marco Fantuzzi: Art. Bucolic. I. Greek . In: The New Pauly. Enzyklopadie der Antike, Vol. 2 (1997), Col. 828-832.
- Klaus Garber (Ed.): European Bukolik und Georgik (= ways of research . Vol. 355). WBG, Darmstadt 1976 ISBN 3-534-05728-7
- Joachim Gruber , Günter Bernt, Günter Prinzing : Art. Bukolik. A. Literature. I. Ancient requirements. - II. Late Antiquity. - III. Latin literature of the Middle Ages. - IV. Byzantine literature . In: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Vol. 2 (1983), Col. 909-912.
- Robert Kirstein : Young shepherds and old fishermen. The poems 27, 20 and 21 of the Corpus Theocriteum (= texts and commentaries. Vol. 29). De Gruyter, Berlin 2007.
- Konrad Krautter : The renaissance of the bucolic in Latin literature of the XIVth century: from Dante to Petrarch (= theory and history of literature and the fine arts. Volume 65). Fink, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-7705-2110-2 .
- Karl-Heinz Stanzel : Article: Bukolik. II. Latin . In: The New Pauly . Encyclopedia of Antiquity, Volume 2 (1997), Col. 833-835.
- Günter Wojaczek : Daphnis. Studies on Greek bucolic (= contributions to classical philology , Issue 34, ). Hain , Meisenheim am Glan 1969, (dissertation University of Cologne 1969, 155 pages).
- Astrid Eitel: The rediscovery of the bucolic: the poet contest between Dante Alighieri and Giovanni del Virgilio. Solivagus, Kiel 2014, ISBN 978-3-943025-15-6 .
- See: Henry Marion Hall : Idylls of Fishermen, a History of the Literary Species. New York 1912 (with numerous documents for ancient models as well as modern continued influence in Italian, Spanish, French and especially English literature).
- bucolic Duden.de
- This volume contains bucolic poems by: Publius Vergilius Maro , Titus Calpurnius Siculus , Einsiedler-Eklogen , Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus , Alcuin , Modoinus von Autun (“Naso”), Theodulus , Dante Alighieri , Francesco Petrarca , Giovanni Boccaccio , Jean Gerson , loannes lovianus Pontanus , Baptista Mantuanus , Jacopo Sannazaro, Publius Faustus Andrelinus , Bohuslav Hassenstein von Lobkowic , Enrique Cayado , Erasmus von Rotterdam , Petrus Pontanus , Alexander Barclay , Baldassare Castiglione , Andreas Naugerius , Euricius Cordus , Eucharius Synesius , Antonius Marius , Hessus Eobanus , Laurentius Gambara , Marcus Antonius Flaminius , Joachim Camerarius the Elder , Gregorius Vigilantius Samboritanus , Nikolaus Cisner , Johannes Trencker , Simon Simonides , Honoré d'Urfé , Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft , Nicolaus Parthenius Giannetasius , Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle , Johann Christian Alois) (Quirinus) Mickl , Jonathan Swift , Julius Caesar Cordara , Salomon Gessner , C. Arrius Nurus (d. i. Harry C. Schnur) and poetological texts (in translation) on the bucolic by: Titus Lucretius Carus , Julius Caesar Scaliger , George Puttenham , Martin Opitz , Philip Sidney , Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux , Johann Christoph Gottsched , René Rapin , Joseph Warton , Samuel Johnson , Friedrich Schiller , John Aikin , Hugh Blair , Alexander Puschkin , Salomon Geßner, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel .