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Aöde , also Aoide or Aoede (from ancient Greek ἀοιδός aoidós 'singer', 'poet', 'conjurer', to ἀείδειν aeidein , later ᾄδειν adein ' to sing'), was a name for an artistic profession of the pre-Homeric and Homeric times.

Aoids were in part simple poets, but ideally ideal intellectuals. From the works of Homer one can infer a picture of the class, their position, self-conception and effect. In the Odyssey , in addition to nameless aoids, two poets known by name appear: Demodokos and Phemios . The best Aoids were permanently employed by important rulers such as Agamemnon or Menelaus , but also by foreign rulers. So busy Alkinoos , king of the Phaeacians , Demodokos, Ulysses the Phemius. Aoids showed their art especially at banquets and feasts. Less good representatives of the profession were traveling as traveling singers and were considered to be community workers . With their songs and lyrics, the Aoids were the custodians of cultural memory. In addition, their depictions of great deeds were community-building elements. They were seen as god-favored and surrounded by the gods, especially Zeus , Apollo and the muses . Blind singers in particular were considered particularly gifted: it was believed that the gift of singing was acquired at the cost of sight. With the introduction of writing around 800 BC The Aoids lost more and more importance. They were replaced by the rhapsodes , who were not productive themselves, but recited what they had learned by heart . This transition was around 700 BC. Completed. In addition, the group of the kitharoden , who performed lyrical solo singing, also emerged at this time . During the Dark Centuries , legends and myths were passed on orally through the Aoden . They were used by Homer , for example, as a source for the Iliad and the Odyssey. The name of the poet-singers comes from the muse of music and song, Aoide . A moon of Jupiter is named after this muse , see Aoede (moon) .

Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker has reconstructed the work and the work of the Aoids, Joachim Latacz researched the transformation process to the Rhapsodes. Milman Parry examined the rhetoric's presentation technique .

See also


supporting documents

  1. ^ Milman Parry: Studies in the Epic Technique of Oral Verse-Making. I: Homer and Homeric Style , 1930 (Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 41); II: The Homeric Language as the Language of an Oral Poetry , 1932 (Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 43)