Contents of the Iliad

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This article describes the content of the Iliad , one of the oldest works of Greek and therefore European literature.

Overview table

Day Night Lot Number of verses action
Proömium 1, 1-7 7th 1. Book : Topic overview
day 1 1, 8-52 45 Agamemnon insults and drives out the priest Chryses, who wants to buy his prisoner-of-war daughter Chryseïs free, whereupon he asks his god Apollo for satisfaction.
Days 2-9 1, 53 1 A plague sent by Apollo raged for nine days.
Day 10 1, 54-476 423 A meeting of the army is called by Achilles because of the plague in which Agamemnon and Achilles fall apart. A placement by Nestor is not successful. Finally Agamemnon gives in, but demands Achilles' booty girl Briseïs as a replacement, which he does not approve. Achilles' request to his mother Thetis for honor and satisfaction from Zeus. Return of the Chryseïs on Chryse Island.
Day 11 1, 477-492 16 Return of the embassy from Chryse.
Day 12-20 (1, 493) (1) All gods are with the Ethiopians for twelve days.
Day 21 1, 493-611 119 The gods are back on Olympus; Zeus grants Thetis Achilles' wish despite Hera's contradiction. Your conflict dissolves in laughter.
Night before day 22 2, 1-47 47 Book 2 : Zeus sends Agamemnon a dream that he will now defeat the Trojans.
Day 22 2, 48
7, 380
3653 First day of slaughter. Army assembly by Agamemnon including examination of the army: The Greeks feel encouraged to leave Troy, but are changed after speeches by Odysseus and Nestor. List of all Greek ship crews and Trojan peoples. Trojans break out of Ilios. 3rd book : Wall exhibition and introduction of the Greek heroes by Helena and Priam. Duel between Menelaus and Paris, from which the latter is saved. 4th book : Oath breach by the Trojans due to an attack on Menelaus. Initially a tie battle. 5th book : Aristie (series of victories) of Diomedes, which among other things leads to the rapture of Aeneas and the wounding of gods. Book 6 : Hector asks Athena in Troy in vain to ward off Diomedes, and there he meets his family for the last time. 7th book : duel between Hector and Aias, which is broken off with slight advantages for the latter. Consultations between the Achaeans and Trojans in the evening.
Day 23 7, 381-432 52 Burial of the dead. Truce.
Day 24 7, 433-482 33 Construction of a wall and a ditch around the Greek camp. Evening celebration.
Day 25 8, 1-488 488 Second day of slaughter. 8th book : After initial advances by the Achaeans, the Trojans, with Zeus' help, can get over the ditch.
Night before day 26 8, 489
10, 579
1369 The Trojans spend the night in front of the Greek camp, followed by meetings on both sides. 9th book : On the Greek side, a delegation with gifts is initiated to Achilles to appease his anger. After Odysseus, Phoinix and Aias have spoken, Aias rejects a peace treaty. Book 10 : Torn from sleep, Agamemnon sends Diomedes and Odysseus as scouts to the Trojan camp. They meet a Trojan scout, Dolon, extort information from him and then kill him. In the Trojans' camp they kill the Thracian king Rhesus and steal two of their horses, on which they then ride back.
Day 26 11, 1
18, 242
5294 Third day of slaughter. 11th book : Aristien Agamemnons and Hector. Several Greek princes wounded. 12th book : First Trojan attack on the Greek wall by mainly Asios, Sarpedon and Hector. 13th book : Poseidon supports the Greeks especially briefly after Hector killed one of his sons. Aristias of Idomeneus and Menelaus. 14th book : Hera distracts Zeus with an erotic belt and hypnos lets him fall asleep after the act of love. Poseidon can now better support the Achaeans, who can push the Trojans towards the city again. 15th book : Zeus wakes up angry and calls Poseidon out of the battle. Apollon supports Hector, who can now penetrate to the ships. Book 16 : Patroclus asks Achilles permission to help his Greek friends with the Myrmidons. This allows him to fend off the Trojans and gives him his armor and horses in return. Patroclus uses this, but pushes on and can kill the Lycian king Sarpedon. After Patroclus tries to take Troy four times, he is pushed back by Apollo, who can finally kill him with Euphorbos and Hector. 17th book : Battle for Patroclus' armor, corpse and team. Hector loots the armor, the corpse is protected by Menelaus and Meriones. 18th book : Antilochus tells Achilles about the death of his friend Patroclus. Thereupon he wishes for new weapons from his mother Thetis and drives away the Trojans just by his appearance and his roar.
Night before day 27 18, 243-617 375 Polydamas advises the Trojans in a meeting to retreat behind the safe city walls. But Hector can prevail with his wish for the battle to be decided. On the Greek side, people mourn the dead Patroclus. Thetis arrives at Hephaestus, who makes a new shield, armor, helmet and greaves for Achilles.
Day 27 19, 1
23, 58
2111 Fourth day of slaughter. 19th book : Handover of the weapons from Thetis to Achilles, who then reconciles with Agamemnon in an army meeting. Achilles wants to attack immediately, but the army is to have breakfast first. After renewed complaints about Patroclus' death, they prepare for battle. 20th book : Aeneas attacks Achilles, but is saved from the impending defeat by Poseidon. Aristie of Achilles. Despite Apollo's ban, Hector attacks Achilles. 21st book : Achilles dishonors the river Skamandros, whereupon the latter attacks him with the Simoeis. Only Hephaestus can save the desperate man. This is followed by a battle of the gods with advantages for the Greek-friendly gods. After the retreat of the other gods, Apollo stays behind and distracts Achilles so that the Trojans can flee into the city. 22. Book : Apollon reveals himself to Achilles, while Hector decides to fight Achilles, but then flees from him first. When he is asked, the gods discuss the outcome of the duel. The balance of fate turns against Hector, whereupon Apollon leaves him and Athena subsequently deceives. Achilles finally kills Hector and drags his body behind the wagon. The Trojans complain about Hector. 23rd Book : Preparations for Patroclus' Burial.
Night before day 28 23, 59-108 50 Patroclus Psyche foretells Achilles' imminent death, asks for a common grave and an early burial.
Day 28 23, 110-216 107 Burial of Patroclus' body.
Night before day 29 23, 217-225 9 Achilles donates wine to Patroclus and laments for him.
Day 29 23, 226-897 672 Competitions to honor the dead: chariot races with dispute over the placements, boxing, wrestling, running, javelin, archery and javelin throwing.
Night before day 30 24, 1-30 30th 24th book : Achilles cannot sleep, mourns Patroclus' corpse and grinds Hector's corpse again.
Days 29-40 (24, 31) (1) Achilles grinds Hector's corpse for a total of twelve days.
Day 40 24, 31-158 128 Advising the gods about the theft or return of Hector's body. Achilles is supposed to be asked for the latter, whereupon Zeus sends Iris to Thetis, who presents her son with the commission of Zeus. Achilles accepts this.
Night before day 41 24, 159-694 536 Iris asks Priam to ask Achilles with gifts to hand over Hector's body. He gets ready to go and is led by Hermes in the form of a Myrmidon to Achilles' tent. In joint discussions, the two people get to know and appreciate each other. Achilles finally grants Priam the return of the body. During the night, Priam is woken up by Hermes so that he can quickly return to Ilios. This is what Priam does too.
Days 41-49 24, 695-784 90 Andromache, Hecabe and Helena complain about Hector. Procurement of wood for Hector's funeral.
Day 50 24, 785-787 3 Hector's funeral pyre lit.
Day 51 24, 788-804 17th Burial of Hector's bones.

1st to 4th book

Apollo sends an epidemic into the camp of the Greeks with his arrows. The pencil drawing made by Stanisław Wyspiański around 1897 is in the National Museum in Warsaw .
The messengers Talthybios and Epeios lead Achilles' girl Briseïs to Agamemnon. The fresco from 1757 by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo is in the Villa Valmarana ai Nani in Vicenza.

1st book

Because Agamemnon dishonored and chased away the Apollo priest Chryses before the assembled army, Apollo is angry with him and sends a plague into the camp. In order to end this, it is not the army commander Agamemnon that calls a meeting, but Achilles. The latter knows that Apollo is the cause of the epidemic, but can no longer remember the cause. He promises the seer Kalchas his support if the angry Apollo, even if it were Agamemnon, would turn against him after the identification. After Kalchas' announcement that he was guilty, Agamemnon gives in to the community under the spokesman Achilles, but demands compensation for the girl Chryseïs, whom he will give up, and mentions Achilles as a possible involuntary donor in addition to the great Aias and Odysseus. Athena stops the upcoming duel, because Agamemnon now wants to choose Achilles' girl Briseïs, and promises Achilles a later compensation. Even Nestor can no longer arbitrate. Briseïs is then continued, whereupon Achilles asks his mother Thetis that Zeus should turn against the Achaeans. To appease Apollo and his priest, Odysseus is sent to Chryse by ship and gives Chryses his daughter back, including presents.
Then the scene changes to Mount Olympus , where Thetis fulfills her son's wish and Zeus initially turns against the Achaeans until Achilles is honored again. Hera - Zeus 'wife and the Achaeans weighed in - sees her plan to destroy Ilios endangered and begins a quarrel with Zeus, which is only overcome by laughing at Hephaestus' limp.

2nd book

Zeus sends Agamemnon a dream that he will now defeat the Trojans. Agamemnon then calls the council, but suggests that the army be put to the test. The princes should then calm the crowd again. In the army assembly the leader of the Achaeans spoke out in favor of the journey home despite considering numbers, which was happily received by the public; the princes did not initially prevent the army from retreating. Only Odysseus - who is urged to do so by Athena (and Hera) - speaks to the people and, strangely enough, rebukes them for disregarding Agamemnon's orders, although they do obey these orders. The non-noble Thersites speaks after him , criticizes Agamemnon for wanting to stay in Ilios (although the latter had just recommended the journey home), and is the second to call for a mutiny. Then he is beaten by Odysseus, whereupon the latter again reprimands the Achaeans for mutinying and thus acting against Agamemnon's plan (although he too had called for mutiny). The army turns away from retreat. Following this, Nestor gives a speech in which he also rebukes the retreat of the Achaeans (although they had just given up on him), and is praised for it by Agamemnon. Afterwards, sacrifices and breakfast are made before the army leaves. The contingents of the Achaeans are listed in an extensive ship catalog. After the Trojans were asked to do so by the goddess Iris in the form of a scout (the fact that Achilles and his companions were missing in the renewed attack would have been difficult for the scout to see, but not even the goddess mentions this), they leave the safe city wall and are presented.

On this Attic , red-figure kylix , Menelaus (left) and Paris, flanked by Aphrodite (left) and Artemis, are depicted in a duel. The vessel, which was made by the potter Kalliades and the painter Duris between the years 490 to 480 BC, is now in the Louvre in Paris.
In this oil painting by Angelika Kauffmann , Aphrodite persuades Helena to go to Paris (right) to sleep with him. The picture was taken in 1790 and is in the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg.

3rd book

During the onslaught of the Achaeans, Menelaus and Paris meet , whereupon the latter falls back and is reprimanded for it by his brother Hector . Because of this, Paris now wants to end the war prematurely through a duel with Menelaus. After Hector's announcement, the Achaeans agree, but ask for Priam's presence for the sacrifices preceding the duel. In between, Helena learns about the duel from Iris and climbs up for a better view of the Skaean Gate , where she finds Priam and introduces him to the most important Greek heroes ( pondoscopy ). After Priam's arrival on the battlefield, the non-aggression pact is sworn in and the conditions for the duel are set so that the surviving victor receives Helena and her booty. After the preparation of the place, the sacrifice and the armor, Menelaus is clearly overweight in the fight, whereupon Paris is raptured by Aphrodite to Ilios. At the same time she quotes Helena in the form of a servant from the tower to the bedroom, where she goes to bed with him. Paris is missing on the battlefield and Menelaus is declared victorious by his brother Agamemnon.

Machaon is treating the wounded Menelaus on this drawing for the Wellcome's Medical Diary.

4th book

On Mount Olympus the gods decide to break the oath and destroy Ilios. Zeus approves this and sends his daughter Athene in the form of Laodocus to Pandaros , who is motivated to shoot Menelaus. Athena protects him from major injuries - the smaller ones are taken care of by the doctor Machaon . Again they are prepared for battle, with Agamemnon praising the able and rebuking the hesitant and addressing the princes above all. The first meeting of the two armies takes place, which the Achaeans can decide for themselves with great losses on both sides, despite the absence of Achilles and his comrades-in-arms, the Myrmidons .

In this copper engraving from 1795 by Tommaso Pirolio , Diomedes attacks together with Athene Ares. The copper engraving, based on a drawing by John Flaxman from 1793 , is privately owned.

5th to 8th book

5th book

Strengthened by Athena, Diomedes kills several Trojans, including two sons of Priam, but is hit by an arrow himself by Pandaros. Aeneas motivates Pandaros to make a second attack against Diomedes and gives him his famous horses in return. Pandarus is killed by Diomedes, Aeneas is seriously injured. Diomedes 'charioteer Sthenelos loots the horses, while Aineias' mother Aphrodite tries to save her son from the storming Diomedes. Thanks to Athene's help, the latter can recognize the goddess and severely wounds her hand. She flees to Olympus with Ares' chariot and is comforted and healed by her mother Dione . Aeneas is raptured by Apollo to Pergamon , healed there and later brought back to the battlefield. Meanwhile, Ares urges the sons of Priam and Sarpedon on Hector. On the Greek side, too, they motivate each other and initially have success. However, Hector and Ares manage to push Diomedes back. After some back and forth, the goddesses Hera and Athene intervene personally and secretly help the Greeks. Once again Athene supports Diomedes and drives him against Ares, so that he can even hurt him painfully. The latter complains to his father Zeus, cannot find his hearing, but is healed anyway. Athena and Hera return to Olympus.

This Attic , red-figure pelike , which was made by the so-called Hasselmann painter around 420 BC, shows Diomedes (left) and Glaucus while they exchange weapons. It is currently in the Gela Archaeological Museum .
Hector's farewell to his wife Andromache and their son Astyanax before his last fight. The Apulian , red-figure crater from the years 370 to 360 BC is in the National Archaeological Museum of Ruvo di Puglia .

6th book

Despite the lack of the two goddesses, the Achaeans can gain such an advantage that the Trojans begin to flee towards the city. Hector's brother Helenos advises him and Aeneas to keep the Trojans away. Hector and some Trojan women are supposed to ask the city goddess Athena to keep Diomedes away from the city. After Hector has set out for the city, Glaucus and Diomedes meet in battle, discover that their grandfathers were friends and exchange armor. Meanwhile, Hector meets his mother Hekabe, who arranges the sacrifice of the most beautiful peplos and a cattle to Athena, Helena and Paris, whom he rebukes for escaping from the duel with Menelaus and motivates him to fight again, and his wife Andromache with their son Astyanax . Together with Paris, Hector turns back to battle.

The great Aias and Hector swap weapons in this picture by Andrea Alciato after a draw. It was created in Leiden in 1591 and is now in the Royal Library of the Netherlands in The Hague.

7th book

After the brothers have returned to the battlefield, Athene and Apollon decide to end the day of battle in a duel. Hector asks the Achaeans to confront one of their midst. For fear of Hector, the Achaeans hesitate at first - only Menelaus wants to compete, but is stopped by Agamemnon for fear of the likely defeat of his brother. After a reprimanding speech by Nestor, nine fighters face the lot that points to the great Aias. This can assert himself against Hector and even throws him to the ground. Apollo comes to Hector's aid, but the fight is then interrupted by the heralds of both parties and the opponents give each other presents. At dinner in the evening, Nestor suggests building a wall with a ditch around the ships. On the other hand, Antenor suggests returning Helena and the looted property. Paris strictly refuses to return his wife, but wants to return the looted property to the Achaeans. The Achaeans refuse the offer the next day, but agree to Priam's request for a ceasefire to bury the dead. While this is being done, the Achaeans build a wall with towers and gates and a moat around the ships. Poseidon complains to his brother Zeus that she did not sacrifice him for it and that a more important wall than the one he had built for the Trojans. Zeus grants him to destroy the Achaeans after the departure. The day ends with a celebration and thunder.

8th book

In a meeting of the gods, Zeus demands sole intervention in battle. In the same, the balance of fate is lowered after a balanced fight in favor of the Trojans, whom Zeus now helps. Nestor is saved by Diomedes, who rebukes his horses but does not mention the horse that has just been killed. Diomedes kills Hector's charioteer, so that this was put out of action for a long time. Zeus removes the disadvantage on the part of the Trojans by lightning bolts directed against Diomedes, so that they can cross the trench. Agamemnon, motivated by Hera, asks Zeus for support, which he grants. The Trojans are pushed back under the leadership of Diomedes, with Hector's new charioteer being killed by Teukros . After Zeus strengthened the Trojans, they managed to drive them across the ditch again. Zeus prevents Hera and Athena from helping the Achaeans, mocks them both and announces an even greater defeat the next day. At a nightly meeting, Hector suggests retreating into the city and attacking the Achaean ships the next morning.

9th to 12th book

Representation of the embassy, ​​from left to right: Phoinix, Odysseus, Achilles and Patroclus. The Attic , red-figure hydria , which was created around 480 BC by the so-called Cleophrades painter , is now in the State Collection of Antiquities in Munich.
The embassy to Achilles can also be seen on this Attic , red-figure skyphus . It was made by the potter Hieron and painter Makron around 480 BC and is now in the Louvre in Paris.

9th book

In a new army meeting Agamemnon advises to flee and is then reprimanded by Diomedes and Nestor, the latter proposing the convening of a council of elders. In this he advises Agamemnon to ally himself with Achilles. Agamemnon wants to do this and indeed offers Achilles innumerable gifts, but not the verbal apology demanded by Nestor, as he finds out. Odysseus, the great Aias and Phoinix along with two heralds are chosen as conveyors of the gifts . The embassy found Achilles making music and was warmly received. Odysseus was the first to speak, sketching the desperate situation of the army and naming Agamemnon's reparation gifts. Achilles rejects this harshly and emphasizes his anger at Agamemnon's appropriations of prey, especially from Briseïs. He threatens to go home the next day. Phoinix tries to talk him out of this by talking about his own past (including with Achilles' father) and uses a mythical example to emphasize that Agamemnon was wrong, but that Agamemnon wanted to make up for his mistake; Achilles should accept this. But Achilles rejects that too and urges Phoinix to remain loyal to him and to return home with him. Aias speaks briefly and is angry with Achilles that he does not stand up for his friends because of a prey girl. Achilles agrees, but is subject to his own anger to reconcile himself with Agamemnon. He would only intervene in the fight if Hector dared to attack his own ship. After the discussions, Achilles and his companions go to bed, the ambassadors report the results to the council, which now distances itself from Achilles, but accepts his decision and hopes to return.

This Attic , red-figure lekythos from around 460 BC, which is currently in the Louvre in Paris, shows Dolon in a wolf costume.
Depiction of the killing of the Thracian king Rhesus by Odysseus and Diomedes and the stealing of the king's swift horses. The Apulian , red-figure volute crater by the so-called Darius painter is exhibited in the Berlin Collection of Antiquities .

10th book

Agamemnon cannot sleep, thereupon checks the guards and, with his brother Menelaus and Nestor, gathers the council of princes, in which it is decided to send a scouting party to the Trojan camp. Diomedes is chosen for this, who chooses Odysseus as a companion. At the same time, Hector promises Achilles' horses to the volunteer who will check that the Greek camp is well guarded that night. Dolon answers, but is ambushed when Diomedes and Odysseus happen to notice him in the forest. They extort information from him about the Trojan camp that famous Thracian horses had recently arrived there, and they kill him despite the promise to spare him. The two Achaeans then attack the Trojan camp, kill the Thracian king Rhesus and steal two of his horses, on which they ride back.

11th book

The next morning Agamemnon prepares and Zeus sends negative omens, but the fight initially remains balanced. Agamemnon can, however, excel and kills several important Trojans, including sons of King Priam. Hector learns from Zeus through Iris that he should only attack the Achaeans again when Agamemnon has to withdraw from the battle wounded. This happens after an arm hit by Koon. Now Hector stands out and is only incapacitated by Diomedes (and Odysseus). As a result, many Achaean leaders are wounded, including Diomedes and Machaon through Paris. They will be brought back to the camp, to which Odysseus, injured, will also have to retreat. At this time Achilles sends Patroclus to Nestor to inquire about a wounded man. Patroclus learns from Nestor and Eurypylos the gravity of the situation and is reminded of the warnings from his father Menoitius .

12th book

After a brief look at the fate of the Greek fortifications, the Trojans prepare to conquer it. Despite the instruction not to do this with the car, Asios drives towards a gate and is accordingly pushed back. Only Hector can help Asios against the defense of the two Aiantes despite the unfavorable signs. The Lycians attack a tower, and although Sarpedon manages to tear down part of the wall, he cannot advance any further. Only Hector succeeds in destroying a gate so that the Trojans can get into the ship's warehouse. The Achaeans flee.

13th to 16th book

13th book

Zeus briefly turns away from the battle, which Poseidon uses to support the Achaeans. He strengthens the two aiants in the form of the seer Kalchas, so that they and their companions can stop Hector. Hector kills Poseidon's son Amphimachus, whereupon his father drives Idomeneus to fight. The latter kills many Trojans, including Othryoneus - Kassandra's groom  -, Asios and Anchises ' son-in-law Alkathoos , for whose body a fight ensues. Menelaus stands out among numerous fighters; a duel between Aeneas and Idomeneus ends in a draw. Attempts on both sides remain unsuccessful.

14th book

Nestor encounters undecided whether he should go to the other Achaeans or Agamemnon, the very one who is wounded like Diomedes and Odysseus. Agamemnon advises again to go home, and this time Odysseus discourages it and urges him to motivate his companions even if he is wounded. To help Poseidon, Hera tries to distract her husband Zeus from what is happening. She makes herself beautiful, tricked Aphrodite's erotic belt and persuades Hypnos to put Zeus to sleep after the act of love. This then takes place according to the plan, so that Poseidon can now intervene directly on the battlefield. He and Hector initially arrange the armies, but the former is soon put out of action by the great Aias by throwing a stone. Strengthened by this, the Achaeans can push the Trojans back towards the city.

Depiction of the battle for the ships on a Neo-Attic sarcophagus from the second half of the third century CE, which is now in the National Archaeological Museum in Thessaloniki .

15th book

Zeus wakes up and gets angry with Hera. This blames Poseidon and is sent by Ida to Olympus. There she complains about Zeus and sends him the requested Iris and Apollon. Iris tells Poseidon to withdraw from the fight, which he disgruntledly follows; Meanwhile, Apollo supports Hector in another attack on the Greek camp using the Aegis and in clearing the ditch. The line of defense must give way so that the Trojans can get to the ships. This prompts Patroclus to go to Achilles. In addition to individual battles for the ships, Teukros' bowstring is torn by Zeus. Zeus wants to see a ship burn first before he wants to turn the battle. Therefore the Achaeans can be pushed further to the ships; only Aias can defend Protesilaos ' ship with the last of his strength.

Patroclus kills Sarpedon before Glaukos can help him. The red-figure hydria , which was made by the so-called Policoro painter around 400 BC , belongs to the collection of the National Archaeological Museum in Policoro .
Hypnos ("sleep") and Thanatos ("death") rapture Sarpedon's corpse. The Attic , red-figure amphora from the years 500 to 490 is in the Louvre in Paris.

16th book

After Patroclus has reached Achilles, he asks him to help. He allows this under the conditions that only in his armor and with the Myrmidons only to drive the Trojans back from the camp. Meanwhile, Aias has to give way to Hector so that the first ship can be set on fire. Patroclus and his horses are made ready to fight, while Achilles encourages the Myrmidons to fight and Zeus asks for success. The myrmidons are presented in a catalog. When Patroclus intervenes, the Trojans think, because of Achilles' armor, that Achilles would intervene, and flee from the camp - the fire can be extinguished. Patroclus hurries after them and among other things can kill the Lycian king Sarpedon in a duel. His father Zeus was considering saving him, but Hera changed his mind. While dying, Sarpedon asks Glaukos for vengeance, whereupon the latter is healed by Apollon and then a battle for armor ensues. Patroclus wins the armor, but Sarpedon's body is raptured by Apollo to Lycia. Patroclus decides against Achilles' advice to attack Ilios. He storms against the walls of the city four times, each time being held back by Apollon, who furiously drives him away the fourth time and encourages Hector to fight him. In this fight, Hector's new charioteer Kebriones is killed and his armor stolen. But then Patroclus dies under Apollons, Euphorbos' and Hector's hands and predicts Hector's imminent death.

17th to 20th book

Menelaus and Hector fight over Euphorbos ' body. This plate, which was made in Kameiros on Rhodes around 600 BC , is in the British Museum in London.
Menelaus and Meriones lift Patroclus' body onto a cart to save it from the Trojans. The Etruscan alabaster urn from the second century BC is in the National Archaeological Museum in Florence.

17th book

In the fight for Patroclus' armor, corpse and team, Euphorbos is killed by Menelaus, who in turn is driven back by Hector and can capture Patroclus' (actually Achilles') armor. Glaukos wants to exchange Patroclus' body for that of Sarpedon and motivates Hector. He puts on Achilles' armor and awards a price for the capture of the corpse. On the other hand, the great aias motivates the Greeks, who then initially gain the upper hand. Patroclus is enveloped in fog, while those ignorant of the battle fight in the sun, and Aeneas attacks with Apollo. Meanwhile Achilles does not know anything about these battles. His chariot is attacked by Hector and Aineias and defended by the charioteer Automedon , whom both Aianten and Menelaus protect. Zeus gives victory to the Trojans. In order to be able to save Patroclus anyway, Zeus removes the fog around his corpse at the request of the great Aias, whereby this drives Antilochos over Menelaus to summon Achilles. Menelaus and Meriones drag Patroclus' body towards the camp and are protected by the two aiants.

On this marble statue based on the Hellenistic Pasquino original from the third century BC, Menelaus laments Patroclus' corpse. The statue shown is in the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence.
Hephaestus gives Thetis the armor that has just been made for Achilles. The Berlin Foundry Cup -called Attic - red-figure kylix , which originated from 490 to 480 BC, is now in the Altes Museum in Berlin.

18th book

Antilochus brings Achilles the news of the death of his friend, whereupon he complains loudly. He reports his self-reproaches to his mother Thetis, who therefore appears, and announces Hector's death, even if this would seal his own fate of an early death. He would like to see new weapons that Thetis can get from Hephaestus. Meanwhile Achilles appears roaring in front of Patroclus' corpse and drives away the Trojans. At night, Polydamas advises returning to Ilios. Hector speaks out in favor of a decision of the battle under the still favorable signs of Zeus. The Trojans follow Hector. Patroclus' corpse is cleansed and anointed, and twelve Trojans are sacrificed. Meanwhile, Thetis arrives at Hephaestus, who interrupts his work and is asked by her for new weapons for Achilles. He immediately begins to make a shield on which the cosmos and the city are represented in peace and war. Afterwards, armor, helmet and greaves are made.

Thetis gives Achilles, who is in mourning for Patroclus' body, the armor created by Hephaestus. The engraving by Johann Balthasar Probst is exhibited in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco .

19th book

The next morning, Thetis hands over the weapons to Achilles and preserves Patroclus' body. Achilles calls the army assembly, regrets his anger and ends it. Agamemnon also recognizes his delusion, but looks for the cause in Zeus, the Moiren , the Erinyes and Ate , which even Zeus has already deceived. He offers Achilles the gifts again, but he initially refuses and wants to fight immediately. Odysseus is the first to get the Achaeans to have breakfast, but once again admonishes Agamemnon to honor Achilles. Although the latter insists on an immediate attack, breakfast is served first. Achilles abstains from this. Then the previously promised gifts are collected and carried by the Myrmidons to Achill's ship. After Briseïs and Achilles complained again about Patroclus' death, Achilles is strengthened by Athena with nectar and ambrosia. Achilles equips himself and his horses finally - one of them prophesies death - and attacks the Trojans.

20th book

Zeus calls for the gods to intervene in battle, which they then do. This is how Apollo motivates Aeneas to oppose Achilles. After that, the gods initially abstain from battle. Aeneas first attacks Achilles verbally and then enumerates his entire family tree. The otherwise Achaean-friendly god Poseidon rescues Aeneas from the fight that follows, in order to preserve his family and rule over the Trojans (although this is currently with Priam). Following this battle, Achilles kills several Trojans, including a son of Priam. Hector urges his companions to oppose Achilles, but is warned by Apollo to do so himself. When he notices the death of his brother, he turns against Achilles despite the warning, but is saved by Apollo. More fighters are killed by Achilles.

21st to 24th book

21st book

Achilles drives the Trojans across the river Xanthos (or Skamandros ), catches twelve of them for Patroclus' cremation and kills others in the river bed, including the formerly spared Lycaon, who this time pleading in vain for protection . Achilles irritates the river god by throwing his corpse into him and even kills a son of the river god. The river then asks Achilles to stop, but the latter refuses and is then attacked by the river. Poseidon and Athena help the desperate, but the Scamandros calls Simoeis for support. Only Hephaestus sent by Hera can tame the river with his fire. This is followed by a battle between the gods, which Zeus is happy about. Athena defeats Ares and Aphrodite - she later weeps herself to Zeus -, Hera triumphs over Artemis and Apollon does not want to fight his uncle Poseidon, for which he is reprimanded by Artemis and Hera. Hermes doesn't want to fight either. While the other gods return to Olympus, Apollo remains to protect against Ilios. He lures Achilles away from Ilios in the form of the Agenor, so that Priam can open the gates to receive the Trojans.

This picture, painted by Peter Paul Rubens between 1630 and 1635 , depicts the killing of Hector by Achilles' lance. It is currently in the Boijmans Van Beuningen Museum in Rotterdam.
The illustration of this limestone sarcophagus shows Andromache who has to watch from the Trojan wall as her husband Hector is dragged behind Achilles' chariot by means of the latter. It is located in the National Archaeological Museum of Reggio di Calabria.

22. Book

Now Apollon reveals himself to Achilles, whereupon he immediately turns against Ilios. Contrary to his parents' wishes, Hector decides to wait for Achilles at the gates of the city so as not to show any weakness in front of his companions. But when Achilles rushes up, he is forced to flee from him. They circle the city three times before the council of gods meets to discuss what to do next. Zeus uses the balance of fate, which speaks for Hector's death, whereupon Apollon leaves Hector and Athena enters the duel. In the form of Hector's brother, Deiphobos , she persuades him to face the fight. Achilles does not react to any requests from Hector for a possible burial, but throws a lance at him. He misses him, but Athena gives it back to him. Hector's lance bounces off the new shield, when he wants a replacement lance from his brother (actually Athene), the latter has disappeared. He storms towards Achilles, but is pierced in the neck by his lance. While dying, Hector announces Achilles' imminent death. The latter takes his armor and does not give the body back to the Trojans, but drags it behind his wagon. Hector's parents complain about the loss of their eldest son. His wife Andromache overhears this lawsuit . When she sees her husband being dragged, she faints.

23rd book

After Hector has been defeated, Patroclus is to be buried the next day. During the night his psyche visits Achilles, prophesies his imminent death, asks for a common grave and an early burial for his corpse. The next morning, wood is procured and Patroclus' stake is lit by the winds of Boreas and Zephyros next to animal and human sacrifices . Achilles promises to throw Hector's corpse to the dogs, which is still protected from grinding marks by Aphrodite and Apollon. The next day Patroclus' bones are buried in a burial mound. In order to honor the dead, one fights competitions. Nestor's son Antilochus, Eumelus , Diomedes, Menelaus and Meriones compete in the chariot race . Eumelus is eliminated, Diomedes wins, Antilochus uses a trick to win second place ahead of Menelaus. Achilles wants to grant Eumelos the second prize because of the wheel breakage through no fault of his own. Since Antilochos insists on these, Eumelos receives a special price. Menelaus mentions Antilochus' ruse and demands that he swear not to have acted illegally. Instead, he grants him the second prize, but Menelaus is reconciled and gives him the second prize. The remaining competitions are boxing (victory for Epeios ), wrestling (draw between the great Aias and Odysseus), running (Odysseus wins), javelin (here Polypoites wins ), archery (Meriones wins the competition) and javelin (here Agamemnon becomes the first Prize awarded).

Priam asks Achilles not to desecrate Hector's body anymore and to give it to him. This Attic , red-figure kylix , which was made around 480 by the so-called Briseis painter and is now in the British Museum in London.
This marble sarcophagus shows the arrival of Hector's body in Ilios. The Roman work of art was created around 180 to 200 AD and is now in the Louvre in Paris.

24th book

Achilles continues to drag Hector's corpse, whereupon the gods dispute whether it should be stolen from him and returned to the Trojans. Zeus finally decides that he should return it himself. To do this, he sends Iris to Thetis, who should inform her son about the other resentment. Achilles accepts the return without objection. Iris then announces Zeus' plan to Priam, so that he goes to Achilles with a ransom and gifts , despite the concerns of his wife Hecabe . Hermes shows him the way in the form of a young Myrmidon. He can be recognized by Achilles' tent. Priam enters, remembers his father (who is similar to Priam) and asks for his son to be released. Achilles weeps for his friend and finally grants him the return. Priam gives him the ransom and receives his washed son in return. During dinner together, they get to know and appreciate each other; Achilles grants an eleven-day truce for the burial of the former adversary. Priam goes to sleep, but is woken up that night by Hermes, who rebukes him for being noticed by Agamemnon, and quickly leads him back out of the camp to see Scamandros. When the Trojans recognize Hector's body on Priam's car, they complain loudly. In Priam's house this is done by his wife Andromache, his mother Hecabe and his sister-in-law Helena. Before the cremation, wood is collected nine days, on the eleventh day the bones are collected in a tomb. The epic closes with a funeral meal.


Used specialist literature

  • Robert Fowler (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Homer . Cambridge 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-01246-1 ,
    • Richard Hunter : Homer and Greek literature . In: Robert Fowler (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Homer . Cambridge 2004, pp. 235-253.
    • Joseph Farrell : Roman Homer . In: Robert Fowler (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Homer . Cambridge 2004, pp. 254-271.
    • Timothy Webb : Homer and the Romantics . In: Robert Fowler (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Homer . Cambridge 2004, pp. 287-310.
    • James I. Porter : Homer: the history of an idea . In: Robert Fowler (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Homer . Cambridge 2004, pp. 324-343.
    • Lorna Hardwick : 'Shards and suckers': contemporary receptions of Homer . In: Robert Fowler (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to Homer . Cambridge 2004, pp. 344-362.
  • Wolfgang Kullmann ; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homeric motifs . Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 978-3-515-06206-0
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: A pre-Homeric motif in the Iliasproömium . In: Philologus , Berlin 1955, pp. 167–192 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 11–36).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: To the Διὸς βουλή [Diòs boulē] of the Ilias Proömiums . In: Philologus , Volume 100, Berlin 1956, pp. 132-133 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 36-37).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: The rehearsal of the Achaean army in the Iliad . In: Museum Helveticum , Volume 12, Basel 1955, pp. 253-273 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 38-63).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: The daughters of Agamemnons in the Iliad . In: Gymnasium , Volume 72, Heidelberg 1965, pp. 200-203 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 64-66).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: Past and Future in the Iliad . In: Poetica , Volume 2, Munich 1968, pp. 15-37 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 219-242).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: Gods and Men in the 'Iliad' and the 'Odyssey' . In: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology , Volume 89, Harvard 1985, pp. 1-23 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 243-263).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: Interpretation and meaning of the gods in Euripides . In: Sebastian Posch , Erich Thummer , Karlheinz Töchterle (Eds.), Innsbruck 1987, pp. 7-22 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 319-338).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: Some remarks on the Homer image of the Middle Ages . In: Michael Borgolte , Herrad Spilling (Ed.): Litterae medii aevi. Festschrift for Johanne Autenrieth . Sigmaringen 1988, pp. 1-15 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 353-372).
    • Wolfgang Kullmann: Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker on Homer and the epic Kyklos . In: William Musgrave Calder III , Adolf Köhnken , Wolfgang Kullmann, Günther Pflug (eds.): Friedrich Gottlob Welcker. Work and effect . Stuttgart 1986, pp. 105-130 (= Wolfgang Kullmann; Roland J. Müller (Ed.): Homerische Motive . Stuttgart 1992, pp. 373-399).
  • Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad. Overall comment . Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000 ISBN 3-598-74300-9
    • Joachim Latacz: On the Homer comment. From the beginning to this comment . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000a, pp. 1–26.
    • Martin Litchfield West : History of the Text . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, pp. 27-38.
    • Joachim Latacz: Formula and orality . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000b, pp. 39-59.
    • Rudolf Wachter : Grammar of the Homeric Language . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, pp. 61-108.
    • René Nünlist : Homeric Metric . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, pp. 109-114.
    • Fritz Graf : On the inventory of figures in the Iliad: Gods . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, pp. 115-132.
    • Magdalene Stoevesandt : On the inventory of figures in the Iliad: people . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, pp. 133-143.
    • Joachim Latacz: On the structure of the Iliad . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000c, pp. 145–157.
    • René Nünlist , Irene de Jong : Homeric poetics in keywords . In: Joachim Latacz (Ed.): Homer's Iliad . Overall comment. Prolegomena, Munich / Leipzig 2000, pp. 159-171.
  • Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub , Peter Blome , Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art , Munich 2008 ISBN 978-3-7774-3965-5
    • Joachim Latacz: Why Homer? In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 15-17.
    • Peter Jablonka : The scene of the Iliad: Troy . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 81-89.
    • Sigrid Deger-Jalkotzy : The pre-Homeric epic - clues and probabilities . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 99-105.
    • Stefan Hagel : The singers from a music-archaeological perspective . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 106–111.
    • Ernst-Richard Schwinge : The large structure of the epics . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 151–156.
    • Irene de Jong : Homer's storytelling . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 157–163.
    • Arbogast Schmitt : God and man in Homer . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 164–170.
    • Martin Litchfield West: History of Lore . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 182–194.
    • Peter Blome: The Reception of Homeric Poetry in Greek Visual Art . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 196-207.
    • Anton Bierl : The Reception of Homeric Poetry in Greek Literature . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 208-214.
    • Hellmut Flashar : The reception of Homer by the philosophers . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 215-220.
    • Henriette Harich-Schwarzbauer : Homer in Roman literature . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 245-250.
    • Carolina Cupane : The Homer Reception in Byzantium . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 251-258.
    • Thierry Greub: Proximity and Distance to Homer: The Artistic Reception of Homer in Modern Times . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 265-275.
    • Bernd Seidensticker : Homer's literary reception in modern times . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 276–282.
    • Martin M. Winkler : Tell me, Muse, the father of mass culture: Homer in commerce and cinema . In: Joachim Latacz, Thierry Greub, Peter Blome, Alfried Wieczorek (eds.): Homer. The Myth of Troy in Poetry and Art . Munich 2008, pp. 283–289.
  • Ian Morris , Barry Powell (Eds.): A new companion to Homer . Leiden 1997, ISBN 90-04-09989-1
    • Robert Lamberton : Homer in Antiquity . In: Ian Morris, Barry Powell (Eds.): A new companion to Homer . Leiden 1997, pp. 33-54.
    • Ralph M. Rosen : Homer and Hesiod . In: Ian Morris, Barry Powell (Eds.): A new companion to Homer . Leiden 1997, pp. 463-488.
    • Jenny Strauss Clay : The Homeric Hymns . In: Ian Morris, Barry Powell (Eds.): A new companion to Homer . Leiden 1997, pp. 489-507.
    • Anthony Snodgrass : Homer and Greek Art . In: Ian Morris, Barry Powell (Eds.): A new companion to Homer . Leiden 1997, pp. 560-597 ISBN 90-04-09989-1

Other important specialist literature

Web links

Portal: Greek Antiquity  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of Greek Antiquity
Commons : Iliad  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: ΙΛΙΑΣ (Greek; original text)  - sources and full texts (Greek)

References and comments

  1. An overview of the structure of the Iliad - there are two main narrative threads: The Wrath of Achilles 'from the first to the 19th book and the avenging of Patroclus' death in the 16th book to Hector's burial in the 24th book - also offer Latacz ( 2000c) pp. 145-157; Schwinge (2008) pp. 151–156. Hasper (1867) pp. 41-44 and Seeck (2004) pp. 69-74.89-90. The latter also places it in the background of the Trojan War.
  2. This is generally seen as an outrage against the Commander-in-Chief; Seeck (2004) p. 108 assumes the possibility that any prince can call a meeting.
  3. In a similar way, Achilles only mentions the obvious cause of his suffering at the end of a conversation with Patroclus, cf. Hom. Il. 16, 4-19, cf. Lesky (1968) pp. 772-773.
  4. For an overview cf. Seeck (2004) pp. 103-112.
  5. See Homeric Laughter .
  6. See Hermog. Περὶ μεθόδου δεινότητος [Perì metʰódou deinótētos] 22 u. Dion. Hal. rhet. 8, 15.
  7. The peculiarities and duplicates of these scenes are interpreted differently by the Homer theories: The analysis is based on the revision of another, younger poet and removes the corrupted passages ; neo-analysis does not regard the errors as serious enough that a person could not have made them, and attributes the imagination and writing of the text to Homer using sources that could lead to these errors; the oral poetry theory is based on several oral versions which were contaminated during the conservative writing ; see “ Iliad and Homeric Question ” and Seeck (2004) pp. 125-129; for an overview cf. Peter Gerhard Katzung : The Diapeira in the iliac story . Mannheim 1960. Peter von der Mühll : The Diapeira in the "B" of the Iliad . In: Museum Helveticum , Volume 3, Basel 1946, pp. 197–209; Franz Lämmli : Mutiny or Temptation . In: Museum Helveticum , Volume 5, Basel 1948, pp. 83–95; Kullmann (1955) pp. 253-273 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 38-63, especially pp. 43-59) u. Lesky (1968) pp. 784-785.
  8. See “ Ship Catalog ”.
  9. Achilles' absence is also not mentioned in Agamemnon's dream and the later Teichoscopy; on the question of whether this scene could mean the first attack after the landing, cf. Heitsch (2006) pp. 8-11; on the eruption of the Trojans cf. Ernst Heitsch : The Trojans erupted . In: Sabine Doering , Waltraud Maierhofer , Peter Philipp Riedl (eds.): Resonances. Festschrift for Hans Joachim Kreutzer for his 65th birthday . Würzburg 200, pp. 15–25 (= Ernst Heitsch, Gesammelte Schriften I: To the early Greek epic, Munich / Leipzig 2001, pp. 85–96) and Günther Jachmann : The attachment of the Trojan catalog of the Iliad . In: Festschrift Karl Arnold . Cologne 1955, p. 49; for an overview of the deployment of the armies cf. Seeck (2004) pp. 121–135, on the iris problem cf. especially pp. 124-125.
  10. Cf. Wolfgang Bergold : The duel between Paris and Menelaus . Bonn 1977.
  11. Agamemnon, Odysseus, Aias and Idomeneus are mentioned, Helena misses her brothers Castor and Polydeukes , but (besides her former consort Menelaus and Diomedes) not the best warrior of the Greeks: Achilles.
  12. See. Friedrich Lillge : composition and poetic technique of Διομήδους ἀριστεία [Diomēdous Aristeia]. A contribution to understanding the Homeric style . Gotha 1911. Engelbert Drerup : The fifth book of the Iliad. Basis of a Homeric poetics . Paderborn 1913. Hartmut Erbse : Reflections on the 5th book of the Iliad . In: Rheinisches Museum für Philologie , Volume 104, Frankfurt am Main 1961, pp. 156–189.
  13. Cf. Giuseppe Broccia : Struttura e spirito del libro Ζ dell'Iliade . Sapri 1962. Giuseppe Broccia : La chiusa di Ζ secondo la 'critica' e secondo l'esegesi . In: Rivista di filologia , Volume 92, Rome 1964, p. 385.
  14. She is even the protector of the city, cf. Hom. Il. 6, 305: πότνι 'Ἀθηναίη, ἐρυσίπτολι, δῖα θεάων [pótni Atʰēnaíē, rʰusíptoli, dîa tʰeáōn] "Mistress Athena, city protector, exalted of the goddesses"; see. Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff : The Athena of Ilion . In: The Iliad and Homer . 2nd Edition. Berlin 1920 and Bröcker (1975) p. 34.
  15. Bröcker (1975), p. 64, note 2, argues that the wall only needed to be built after Achilles' strike; on the other hand, Heitsch (2006) pp. 14-17.
  16. See Wolfgang Schadewaldt : Iliasstudien . 3. Edition. Darmstadt 1966, p. 96.109.
  17. See Heitsch (2006) pp. 24-25.
  18. See Hom. Il. 9, 113.164; see. Heitsch (2006) p. 7.
  19. ↑ Dual forms appear in the text , whereupon Phoinix's person is commonly assumed to be added later, cf. Margarete Noë : Phoinix, Iliad and Homer. Studies on the ninth of the Iliad . Award writings crowned and published by the Princely Jablonowskische Gesellschaft zu Leipzig, Volume 56, Leipzig 1940. Wolfgang Schadewaldt : Iliasstudien . 3. Edition. Darmstadt 1966, p. 137. Geoffrey Stephen Kirk : The Songs of Homer . Cambridge 1962, p. 218. Dieter Motzkus : Investigations on the 9th book of the Iliad with special consideration of the phoenix figure . Hamburg 1964. Denys Lionel Page : History and the Iliad . Berkeley 1959. Seeck (2004) p. 151; on the other hand Franz Boll : On the Homeric Presbeia . In: Zeitschrift für die Österreichische Gymnasien 68, volume (born 1917/18), Vienna 1919, pp. 1–6; Franz Boll : Once more on the Homeric Presbeia . In: Zeitschrift für die Österreichische Gymnasien 69, volume (year 1919/20), Vienna 1920, pp. 414–416 u. Bröcker (1975) p. 64 note 3, the latter opting for Aias 'speech, which is not mentioned in Odysseus' later report on the legation in the council of elders; for other explanations cf. Eichhorn (1971) pp. 73-80. Renate von Scheliha : Patroclus . Basel 1943, p. 226. Franz Dornseiff : Doloneia . In: Hermes , Volume 82, Berlin 1954, p. 257; it is also noticeable that in Hom. Il. 16, 83–86 Achilles would like to receive Briseïs and reparation gifts to end the dispute, cf. Hom. Il. 1, 197-205 et al. Lesky (1968) p. 772.
  20. Seeck (2004), pp. 151–157, provides an overview.
  21. Plat. Crit. 44b interprets verses 9, 363 as death on the day after next.
  22. See Lesky (1968) pp. 757-759.
  23. That he is risking the death of his friends is only revealed in Hom. Il. 18, 78-106 notes.
  24. On the symmetry of the 9th book cf. Eichhorn (1971) p. 73.
  25. See Heinrich Düntzer : The Doloneia . In: Philologus , Volume 12, Berlin 1857, pp. 41–59; Heinrich Düntzer : Homeric treatises . Leipzig 1872, pp. 303-325. Albert Gemoll : The relationship of the 10th book of the Iliad to the Odyssey . In: Hermes , Volume 15, Berlin 1880, pp. 557-565. Fritz Ranke: Homeric Investigations I: The Doloneia . Supplement to the annual report of the Realschule i. O. zu Goslar, Leipzig 1881. Alexander Shewan: The Lay of Dolon (the tenth book of Homer's Iliad) . London 1911. Wolfgang Schadewaldt : Iliasstudien . 3. Edition. Darmstadt 1966, p. 142, note 2; Hans Heusinger : Stylistic studies on the 'Dolonie'. A contribution to the authenticity of the K of the Iliad . Leipzig 1939. Friedrich Klingner : About the Dolonie . In: Hermes , Volume 75, Berlin 1940, pp. 337-368. Siegfried Laser : Studies on Dolonie . Kiel 1950. Siegfried Laser : About the relationship between the Dolonie and the Odyssey . In: Hermes , Volume 86, Berlin 1958, pp. 385-425. Walter Jens : The Dolonie and its poet . In: Studium generale , Volume 8, 1955, pp. 616–625. Bernard Fenik : Iliad Χ and the Rhesus . In: Collection Latomus , Volume 73, 1964.
  26. Because of this singular riding among other things, the 10th book of the Iliad, the so-called "Dolonie", is recognized as spurious by almost all followers of the individual Homer theories, an exception, for example, is Eichhorn (1971) p. 32; that the Dolonie is dependent on the Odyssey is first found in Albert Gemoll : The relationship of the 10th book of the Iliad to the Odyssey . In: Hermes , Volume 15, Berlin 1880, pp. 557-565, on this Carl Robert : Studies on the Iliad . Berlin 1901, p. 501: "Sie [die Dolonie sc.] Is the only book for which the use of the Odyssey can be proven with certainty." West (2008) p. 184 dates the Dolonie around 600 BC; see. also Ernst Heitsch : Aphroditehymnos. Aeneas and Homer (Hypomnemata 15), Göttingen 1965, p. 17, note 2 and Heitsch (1968) p. 83, note 18; see. Eurip. Rhes.
  27. Three days later, however, the injured can already compete for Patroclus' corpse completely recovered; see. 23rd book .
  28. For the conception and problems within the wall fight cf. Eichhorn (1971).
  29. See Bröcker (1975) pp. 44-45.
  30. His first act since the 9th book, otherwise he is only mentioned indirectly by his companions; see. Seeck (2004) pp. 115-116 u. Latacz (2000) pp. 154-155.
  31. See " Catalogs ".
  32. In Hom, the narrator comments on the violation of Achilles' permission. Il. 16, 684-687.
  33. Seeck (2004) pp. 157–164 gives an overview of Patroklos' death.
  34. On the leitmotif of early death cf. Seeck (2004) p. 120.
  35. Cf. Karl Reinhardt : The shield of Achilles . In: Gift of friend for Ernst Robert Curtius on April 14, 1956 . Bern 1956, p. 67. Walter Marg : Homer on poetry . Munster 1957; see " Ekphrasis ".
  36. See Kullmann (1955) pp. 167-192 (= Kullmann (1992) pp. 11-35).
  37. Apart from the competitions in honor of Patroclus' corpse, Agamemnon does not appear again later.
  38. Cf. Virgil's Aeneid ; on this point cf. Ernst Heitsch : Aphrodite hymn. Aeneas and Homer (Hypomnemata 15), Göttingen 1965. Gerhard Scheibner : The structure of the 20th and 21st book of the Iliad . Leipzig 1939. Heitsch (1968) pp. 28-73, s. a. P. 65 note 43 and Seeck (2004) pp. 148-149; Heitsch (1968) p. 70 states about the episode: “Here we are faced with the rare case that, on the basis of observations on composition and epic narrative technique, a representative of the Unitarian Homer image (meaning Karl Reinhardt ) shares the same opinion with the so-called analysts if […] they are in the fact that the episode within the Iliad is secondary […]. ”; see “ Iliad and Homeric Question ”.
  39. Cf. Gerhard Scheibner : The structure of the 20th and 21st books of the Iliad . Leipzig 1939.
  40. See Bröcker (1975) pp. 49-50.
  41. Especially with regard to Polydamas, cf. 18th book .
  42. Or they walk along it three times, cf. Hasper (1867) p. 28.32.
  43. This is not shown in Greek vase painting ; see. Heitsch (2006) pp. 29-32.
  44. See " Psyche ".
  45. For an overview cf. Seeck (2004) pp. 169-174.
  46. See Michael Gagarin : Early Greek Law . Berkeley 1986. Adolf Primmer : Homeric court scenes . In: Vienna Studies. Journal of Classical Philology . Volume 4, 1970. Gerhard Thür : Oaths and Dispute Settlement in Ancient Greek Law . In: Lin Foxhall , Andrew DE Lewis : Greek Law and its political settings . Oxford 1996, pp. 57-72, u. Seeck (2004) pp. 172-174.
  47. On the so-called Lytra cf. Götz Beck : The position of the 24th book of the Iliad in the old epic tradition . Tübingen 1964. Herbert Kummer: Reading the Iliad. Experiences and desires . In: The old language teaching , Volume 5/1, Hanover 1961.
  48. For an overview of the return of Hector's body cf. Seeck (2004) pp. 175-181.
  49. See Eichhorn (1971) pp. 45–46.