Stitch and cut

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Engraving and cutting are graphic printing processes in the visual arts as well as in letterpress printing. Both words also designate the work produced , the print .

Cuts with knives cut pulling, or notched knives or chisels pushing razor, the finer editing tools for producing the stitches hot graver when working shoving. In all of these working methods, chips are lifted off (material removed); in the case of pulling, non-cutting working methods, one speaks of a needle . There are also scraping and formative techniques ( embossing , punching ) that are not actually stitches and cuts. There are many transitional forms in artistic printmaking, as well as numerous prints using mixed methods.


Stitches and cuts are mainly named according to the material they are working with, less often according to other criteria. Today, however, other modern materials are also used for these techniques:

While the high-pressure process the surveys, the ink record, the (mostly on the printing paper ) is transmitted by pressing on, take in the gravure printing process , the wells that function.


Historically the oldest is block printing, which dates back to 6th century China and was used for letterpress printing , for illustrations and - according to Western ideas - artistic graphics. He came to Europe in the 14th century. The copper engraving appears for the first time around 1430. Towards the end of the 18th century, the need for printed matter became too great for the relatively complex and expensive copper engraving technique. Therefore, Thomas Bewick developed the woodcut from the woodcut . In 1820, Charles Heath finally developed steel engraving, which enables more detailed illustrations and is still used today, for example, in the production of postage stamps and banknotes . All stitching and cutting processes are still used in art today.

See also

  • Engraving that does not print
  • Chip carving , generally carving in wood, which also includes relief techniques similar to woodcut
  • Niello is a process similar to metal engraving, a jewelry technique for metal surfaces themselves that is not reproduced