Riedenburg is the district of Salzburg that extends around the Rainberg (once called "Hohe Riedenburg") with what is probably the most important pre-Roman settlement in Salzburg. "Riedenburg" used to be the name of the part of the Leopoldskron moor close to the city, which was originally covered with reeds (reeds, large sedge).
The district is located between Nonntal , Leopoldskroner Moos , Maxglan , Gneis and the old town . The Reichenhallerstraße forms the border towards Mülln , the Müllner Almkanalarm towards Neu-Maxglan and the Bräuhausstraße towards Maxglan-Riedenburg. Towards the south, the built-up part of the Riedenburg ends with the landscape area "Leopoldskroner Weiher" (meadows around the St.-Peter-Weiher). In the east, the Mönchsberg forms the border of the district. In the green area of Riedenburg ("Leopoldskroner Weiher") is the old Prince Archbishop's Castle Leopoldskron with the associated pond. The Riedenburg district has a size of 210 hectares and around 7,000 people live here today.
The name "Riedenburg" was originally the name of the protective mountain surrounded by Ried ("castle" = fortified height, linguistically closely related to "mountain"), ie the Rainberg (" a rupe que Ritinburc appelatur ", 1139). The Rainberg itself was between about 4500 BC. BC (oldest Neolithic ) to 15 BC Continuously settled (invasion of the Romans under Emperor Augustus ), a large, well-fortified settlement resembling a city was located here in the Celtic La Tène period .
Riedenburg is traversed by two arms of the Almkanal . The Müllner Arm is older than the Stiftsarm (built after 1137) and originally supplied the mills of Mülln as the "Riedenburger Bach" in the earliest Middle Ages, fed by the overwater of the Riedenburger Moor and the adjacent Leopoldskron Moor. In 1335 the municipal arm (Bürgerspitalarm) was dug through the Mönchsberg , which branches off from the Müllner Arm and crosses the Inner Riedenburg from south to north.
In the 17th century, the Riedmoor (Niedermoor) of Riedenburg, a northern branch of the large Untersberger Moor ("The horses sank up to their stomach and lost their horseshoes in the mud"), were gradually drained and the area was used increasingly intensively for agriculture.
In 1670 Michael Spingrueber acquired a larger part of the Riedenburg valley basin and built a farm here that was called "Neureit" and was later used as the "Ofenlochwirtshaus" (Fürstenbrunnstraße 4). Riedenburg was opened up from the old town in 1764–1767 with the construction of the Sigmundstor (Neutor). Apart from a few stately gardens and courtyards (Späthhof, Mölkhof, Lebitschhof etc.), the once widely famous Wolfegg Garden and the Ofenloch inn, as well as the semicircular fortifications to secure the Sigmundstor, the Riedenburg was largely undeveloped until the middle of the 18th century. In 1915/16 the tram was extended through the Sigmundstor into the Riedenburg.
An important prerequisite for the development of the Riedenburg of the Wilhelminian era was the parceling of the Baron-Löwensternschen grounds in the years before 1880. The precise guidelines for the design of the planned streets were laid down in the regulatory plan of 1886. Shortly afterwards, the first residential buildings were built in many places. The opening up of these residential buildings by streets lagged significantly behind, for a long time these streets and paths were unpaved and neglected and at times hardly passable. The first canalization of the street water did not take place until after many petitions from the citizens in 1905. When the old Riedenburgerstraße with the Ofenloch inn was closed, the inn lost its function as a communication center in the course of the redesign of the street systems.
For a long time, a landmark of Riedenburg was the 54 meter high chimney of the Sternbrauerei , which was blown up in 1972.
Riedenburg and its parts
The settlement area of the Riedenburg today consists of three parts, the oldest part, the Inner Riedenburg , and the younger parts, the Äußere Riedenburg and Riedenburg St. Paul .
Between 1850 and 1900, Riedenburg was mainly understood to mean that part of the city bordered by the Rainberg (formerly known as the Ofenlochberg or Hohe Rittenburg ) in the south and the Mönchsberg in the east and north, i.e. the area of the Leopoldskron moor closest to the city. This area is known today as "Inner Riedenburg". The following are noteworthy individual buildings:
- The villas on Bucklreuthstrasse : These were all built around 1890. The villa of the sculptor Johann Piger (Bucklreuthstrasse 14), which was built for him and his wife by the well-known master builder Jakob Ceconi , is particularly important .
- Rainbergkeller ( Ofenlochkeller , Rainbergstrasse 5): This house with its dominant hipped roof is located on the old road above the former low moor of the Riedenburg (main route from outer Mülln via Bucklreith to Nonntal) and is the oldest documented house in the Riedenburg district. It dates from the late 16th century. In 1670 it was bought together with the boggy valley floor by the lordly Hofkastner Michael Spingruber. The building later served as an inn and the cellar was used as an ice cellar (cold room). Today the house is a shop called Im Ofenloch .
- Rainbergwirtshaus (Fürstenbrunnstraße 4) The other part of the structurally very old Rainberg inn was later converted into a villa and used for decades by the then Salzburg Governor Hans Lechner and his family.
- Villa Schmidt (Reichenhallerstr. 24): It was built around 1900. It was designed for the landscape councilor Dr. Schmidt was built by city architect Wagner and is striking today with its richly structured facades in the style of late historicism , which have been preserved in their very original state.
Starting from an old barracks area, which dates back to the time of the prince-archbishop as artillery barracks, the inner core of the settlement grew to the southwest as early as the turn of the 20th century to the Müllner arm of the Alm Canal, which at that time also formed the city limits. Stadtnahe predominates while a multistorey late nineteenth obstruction (mostly barracks), the (constructed in an open design) around the Almkanal in input and Zweifamilienbauten loosens itself.
- Riedenburg barracks : It has existed since 1736, previously with a spacious parade field on the northern slope of the Rainberg. Since 1966 it has been the seat of the Salzburg Military Command. The barracks area is to be built shortly as part of a major new residential construction project.
- Herz-Jesu-Heim (formerly Herz-Jesu-Asyl) (instead of the Wolfegg-Garten , Hübnergasse 5–7): The unplastered stone block building with the slightly protruding central Herz-Jesu-Kirche is built and used as a retirement home . The old Wolfegg Castle (pleasure palace of Canon Anton Willibald von Wolfegg from the late 18th century) has been preserved in parts (built into the newly built asylum in 1872). The consoles of the window sills contain angels' heads, which were created around 1600 from the converted Wolfegg residence and integrated into his castle.
- Herz-Jesu-Asylkirche : The single-nave asylum church, a nave church builtin the neo-Gothic style in1877/78 by the Viennese cathedral builder Friedrich von Schmidt , has a flat wooden ceiling and a choir with a ribbed vault . The wall paintings in the church are by Josef Gold (1891), the glass paintings in the choir by Karl Weiser (1963). The high altar with the figure of the Sacred Heart between Margareta Maria Alacoque and Theresa von Avila , as well as the figures of St. Michael , Franz von Sales and Vincent von Paul come from Johann Piger .
Riedenburg St. Paul
As the city continued to expand, the district also grew into further parts of the Leopoldskron Moor to the south, which received the parish church of St. Paul as the new church center . The adjacent district in the south-west across the Glan in the former municipality of Maxglan is known as Maxglan-Riedenburg . The following settlements also belong to Riedenburg-St.Paul:
- Schliesselbergersiedlung: The Schliesselbergersiedlung was built around 1983 on the Schliesselbergergrund near the Glan. There was a leather tamper mill there in the 19th century, which after 1821 was owned by the Schliesselberger family, who also owned the closest grounds of the same name. From 1904 to 1977 there was a tannery on the site of the leather stamp mill. The settlement lies between Karl-Heinrich-Waggerl-Straße in the north and Tobi-Reiser-Straße in the south, it extends directly to the Glan in the west and includes the buildings on both sides of the Haselbergerweg and Kreuzbrücklweg in the east.
- Lanserhofsiedlung: In 1711, the town's Hofurbare land register reported that the "land located on the Wildenmoss at the Riedenburg" was made ready for construction. In 1718 a barn and a small residential house were built here, and in 1733 a larger house with six fireplaces (residential units). The Reiffenstuelhof (also Kleiner Lazaretthof, Atzwangerhof, Würstlhof , most recently Lanserhof ) came into the ownership of Felix Atzwanger in 1772, whose daughter married the city councilor and trade factor Ignaz Franz Würstl in 1799. The widow after Ignaz Würstl married the privateer Georg von Lanser in 1834, who then owned the farm until 1864 and is therefore still called "Lanserhof" today. After 1975, today's Lanserhofsiedlung was built on the associated grounds between Dürlingerstrasse and Moosstrasse.
- Rosittensiedlung: A part of the Wildmoos near the city in the Riedenburg area was called Rositten . The name is derived from a Rossstadel that once stood there. After 1984, the new settlement was built here west of Rosittenweg and east of Moosstraße.
- Gorian settlement: The name of the small settlement next to the church of St. Paul is reminiscent of the Gorianhof , which Mrs. Eleonore Gorian born in 1796. Atzwanger owned.
Leopoldskroner Weiher (part of the landscape)
The landscape is mainly characterized by the former summer residence of Prince Archbishop Leopold Anton Eleuterius Freiherr von Firmian and his heirs. The palace ensemble includes not only the palace park enlarged by Max Reinhardt , but also the Leopoldskroner Weiher, which is owned and accessible by the city . Part of the peripheral palace garden is also the part of Leopoldskroner Strasse near the palace , as the oldest chestnut avenue in the province of Salzburg. The statue of Johannes Nepomuk made of Untersberg marble , which Firmian had erected at the southern end of the pond, is remarkable .
The landscape area Leopoldskroner Weiher also includes the St. Peter-Weiher and the Villa-Berta-Teich (culturally old ponds, which may have arisen from peat ponds) and the green space around the ancient herb watchman's house (incorrectly called "hangman's house").
The St. Peter ponds and their surroundings are currently used as a private zoo. Above all, numerous species of water birds can be seen here. The ponds are accessible from the edge and enhance the local recreational area of the Salzburg residents.
The area is designated as a landscape protection area ( LSG00037 ) to the extent of 81.3 hectares .
The parish of St. Paul
The oldest part of the Riedenburg district is part of the Mülln parish . The south adjoining part belongs to the parish of St. Paul. Many people from Riedenburg who had settled in the young settlement area first came to the fair in the nearby Maxglan cinema after 1966. In 1972 the first provisional church of St. Paul was built on the edge of the Gorian settlement. The two bells came as gifts from the Evangelical Church in Hallein and from the Catholic parish church in Puch . After 1990 the current church of St. Paul was built. The parish church was built by the architects Erio K. Hoffmann and Adalbert Rothenthal, the frescoes are by Hubert Schmalix .
The military parish of the military vicariate in Salzburg was also located in the Riedenburg barracks in earlier years.
- Reinhard Medicus: Historic districts of Salzburg. New suburbs: Andräviertel, Elisabeth-Vorstadt, Riedenburg. on the website of the city of Salzburg
- Riedenburg . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
- ↑ Ofenloch host . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
- ^ Military command Salzburg , F. Schmied (ed.): Chronicle of the Riedenburg barracks . Salzburg 1985.
- ^ Riedenburg barracks . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
- ^ Military Command Salzburg, Command and Supplementary Department , Austria's Armed Forces → Addresses
- ↑ Salzburg Military Command . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .
- ↑ City barracks are sold . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . October 5, 2010, local section Stadt und Land , p. 1 ( article archive ). City wants to fight against speculators . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . October 5, 2010, local section Stadt und Land , p. 2/3 ( article archive ).
- ↑ Herz-Jesu-Heim retirement home
- ↑ Johannes Moy: The Canon Wolfegg and his Tuskulum . In: Barock in Salzburg , Festschrift for Hans Sedlmayr , ed. by Johannes Moy, Pustet, Salzburg 1977, pp. 119-143, ISBN 3-7025-0148-7 .
- ↑ Herz-Jesu-Asylkirche . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki . (with ill.).
- ↑ Leopoldskroner pond in the nature conservation book of the state of Salzburg
- ↑ parish st. paul , homepage
- ↑ parish church , parish st. paul
- ^ Military Vicariate General - Military Parish Salzburg , Military Ordinary of the Republic of Austria
Coordinates: 47 ° 48 ' N , 13 ° 2' E