The closed settlement area of Maxglan is bounded in the north by the western railway line, in the east by the line Aiglhofstraße - Müllner Almkanalarm - Neutorstraße - Bräuhausstraße - Glan. In the south, the meadows of Salzburg Airport form the border, in the west towards Taxham the Rosa-Hofmann-Strasse and the intended extension of the Favoritagasse up to the railway. The border between Maxglan-Riedenburg and the actual district of Riedenburg , the Bräuhausstraße, is sometimes drawn differently. 14,000 people live in Maxglan today. This makes Maxglan the third largest district in Salzburg after Liefering and Lehen.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Maxglan was (in terms of population) the second largest municipality in the state of Salzburg after the state capital .
Finds in the area of the former municipality of Maxglan have been found from the Stone Age , the Bronze Age ( remains of settlements) and the Hallstatt Age (burial mounds with ceramics, jewelry and weapons). Grave finds and stone reliefs are known from Roman times. In the early Middle Ages the place was named after the stream Glan (1222: "huebe in glan"). The name Glan was then a name for a village and at the same time for a stream. Since the 15th century the place was called St. Maximilian after the church patron. According to legend, the bones of St. Maximilian von Celeia , whose figure is not historically documented, were buried in the first Maxglan church near the Glan stream. The name St. Maximilian an der Glan, later also called Maxlan or and since the late 18th century Maxglan. Thanks to its fertile arable land, the place was a comparatively prosperous farming village for a long time, in which, however, many washermen and craftsmen also lived.
On June 7, 1935, the Salzburg state parliament decided to expand the area of the state capital Salzburg. With effect from July 1, 1935, most of the previously independent municipality of Maxglan came to the city of Salzburg. Some peripheral areas were ceded to the surrounding communities of Wals, Siezenheim and Leopoldskron, while some smaller areas, separated from these localities and also incorporated into Salzburg, have since been regarded as belonging to the Maxglan district.
Culture and sights
Parish Church of St. Maximilian and Parish Center of St. Benedict
The church has been mentioned in documents since 1323, which was only a branch of the cathedral parish. 1516–1519 the first larger church was built under Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach . During the baroque period, the church was redesigned several times and received four baroque altars. The church has been a parish church since 1906. The disagreement as to whether Neumaxglan should get its own church or whether the old church should be expanded prevented a structural expansion for several decades. It was not until 1952–1956 that the extension, which still exists today, could be carried out, making the church with its two aisles into a double church. An old Roman gravestone can also be admired at the old cemetery entrance.
The parish center St. Benedikt was built on the site of the old Loiplgut, although after 1960 the old farm was first used for church work, especially youth work, despite its poor state of construction. In 1980 the new parish center was inaugurated. The large ballroom, called Emmaussaal, serves a wide variety of purposes. The Emmaussaal for 100 people, the six rooms for youth work, for senior citizens' meetings, but also the singing group and meeting rooms are located here.
The Maxglaner Friedhof
The cemetery probably dates from the 14th century. It was consecrated in 1519 together with the then new church. In 1883 and 1901, in the course of the strong growth of the community, the first enlargements of the previously small village cemetery were made. When the church was rebuilt, a number of graves had to be reburied; the graves were rebuilt in 1945–1949 in an adjacent property acquired from the Stiegl brewery. In 1958, a war memorial was erected on the site of the Karlbauerngut, which was destroyed by aerial bombs in World War II, and was consecrated in 1960. By then the cemetery had long since become too small again and the population quickly asked the municipality to remedy the situation. But it was not until 1969 that a further enlargement took place on a property that had previously belonged to the Austrian Post. In 1975 the architect Erich Flir planned the construction of the new funeral hall in the cemetery. The last cemetery expansion took place after 1990.
On December 29, 1920, the Salzburger Kunstfilm-Industrie-AG was founded, the first film production company in the province of Salzburg. The main operators were the film director Rudolf Oppelt (1893–1971) and the Maxglaner brewery owner Heinrich Kiener, who, as a co-founder, provided, among other things, the premises in the empty, agricultural buildings of the Stiegl brewery in Salzburg . With over 700 m² of usable space, including cloakrooms, laboratory, development and copying facility, technical office and 5000 m² outdoor area, it was the largest film studio in Austria. The studio, which has remained unchanged to this day, is one of the oldest film studios in the world.
The first production was the documentary Die Festspiele 1921 with historically valuable recordings from the Salzburg Festival of that year. The first feature film, The Tragedy of Carlo Prinetti , was made in the summer of 1921 and premiered on January 29, 1924 in Vienna. The turbulent drama about the life of a Hallein salt works worker , for which Rudolf Oppelt wrote the script, showed the emerging silent film star Alphons Fryland (1889–1953) as the main actor. It was also the last production by Salzburger Kunstfilm, which, along with its branches in Vienna - including a film distributor - had to close due to the film crisis in 1925.
The 1927 by Franz Wolf opened Lichtspielhaus Maxglan in his time was the second largest cinema in Austria outside the capital Vienna after Annenhofkino in Graz. The entrance fee was between 70 groschen and 2 shillings for the box seat. In the halls equipped with modern folding armchairs from the Viennese company Thonet , the population of Maxglan and the neighboring city of Salzburg could consume the current cinema highlights on Wednesdays, Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays.
Maxglan and its parts
Maxglan consists of the following parts: Altmaxglan with the central church settlement and the Mühldorfstrasse settlement on the edge, Burgfried, Neumaxglan with the Aiglhof settlement, Maxglan-Riedenburg with the Torschauer settlement and Glanhofen .
Maxglan was a farming village in the early Middle Ages that developed around the church of St. Maximilian. A wheel stone found here and built into the south wall , part of a lost ancient Roman relief, attests to ancient history. In the immediate vicinity there are also Bronze Age and Iron Age finds.
- Church district
- It is bounded in the west by the streets Karlbauernweg, Michael-Filz- Strasse and Trautmannstrasse and in the east by the streets of Klessheimer-Allee, Münchner Bundesstrasse and Neutorstrasse. In the church district, next to the church, there is also the elementary school and the inner part of the cemetery. Buildings preserved before 1830 are
- * in the north the Leimtaschengut, the Zenzengut and the "Mesnergütl" (the sacristan's house right by the church) and the Aberergütl.
- * in the south the Walcherjodlgut and the Lebitzgut.
- Rehrlsiedlung (Dr.-Franz-Rehrl-Siedlung)
- This settlement is named after the deserving Salzburg governor (from 1922 to 1938) Franz Rehrl . It was built around 1935 with significant support from the then governor. Many of the houses were built according to similar plans. This can still be seen in some houses that have not been modernized. The streets are named after places in today's Bavarian Rupertigau , which belonged to Salzburg until 1803 (Mühldorf, Ampfing bei Mühldorf). The Chiemgaustraße is reminiscent of earlier Salzburg possessions in this area and of the former prince-archbishop's diocese of Chiemsee.
- The Rehrl-Siedlung is together with the Ullreich-Siedlung ( Sam ), the Dollfuss-Siedlung ( Kendlersiedlung ) and the Neustädter-Stürmer-Siedlung ( Gneis-Moos ) one of the larger housing projects at the time.
About the name: The castle keep was probably an ancient, fortified refuge of Maxglan. "Burgfried" (burccride) was the name of the protected area of a princely court, a city or a market. Perhaps the oldest fortified settlement center of Maxglan was protected by the Glan immediately to the west of today's keep on the small terrace edge there. In today's location between Glan and Mühlbach, such a fortified place is hardly imaginable.
The castle keep is a Maxglan district that is located between the long, largely unspoilt areas between Neumaxglan and Altmaxglan, in the direction of Aiglhof. In terms of space, the castle keep lies like an island between the Glan and the Maxglaner Mühlbach, which branches off as a works canal and flows back into the Glan. In historical times, various washers and craftsmen lived here, elevated on the Glan. The following historical laundry houses (as of 1830) should be mentioned here: Wäscherlenz (Burgfriedgasse 3, preserved), Wäscher-Münzer-Haus, Wäscher-Brandhofer-Haus, Wäscher-Marx-Haus, Wäscher-Eglhamer-Haus, Putzwäscherhaus and the Wäscher-Gartner -House. The keep area itself was a wet, often flooded pasture until around 1800. Today the Stölzlpark borders on this section. It is named after the Maxglan mayor, deputy governor and lawyer Arthur Stölzl, who lived in the spacious Villa Arthur, to whose park today's Stölzlpark belonged. In this park are now also the traffic garden of the city of Salzburg, a kindergarten and the Maxglaner Heimathaus.
Neumaxglan is a part of the city that was largely created in the Maxglan community during the monarchy between 1860 and 1914. It lies between Maxglaner Mühlbach and the Müllner arm of the Almkanales . This is where the Maxglan special school and secondary school are located. The large Stiegl brewery also settled here in 1863.
Before 1850 there was only one farm next to the Rochusmeierhof on the Glan, the Zillnergut. In keeping with the times, this construction was carried out according to plan and in a grid-like manner as a largely three-storey single house. Due to the upswing in Neumaxglan, the Maxglan population rose from 1890 (3465 inhabitants) to 7204 inhabitants in 1910. The up-and-coming Neumaxglan and the sedate Altmaxglan were quite opposed for a long time. For example, both parties had separate fire departments . The Stieglbahn , which opened in 1919 , is a connecting railway exclusively used for freight traffic, and subsequently attracted further operations.
The Aiglhofsiedlung was built on the edge of the Mülln district on the Aiglhof fields, which essentially belong to Maxglan and, together with the adjacent, densely built-up areas of Mülln and Lehen, is already perceived as a separate, small district. The name is derived from the Aiglhof - also called Lindhof - which is already located in Mülln. The Lehen district begins to the west of the Aiglhof, Mülln to the north and Riedenburg to the east . Within Maxglan the area borders on Burgfried and Neumaxglan.
The densely built-up residential area is characterized by the Aiglhofstrasse, including the Aiglhofkreuzung and the Innsbrucker Bundesstrasse, which, after Ignaz-Harrer- Strasse in Lehen, is considered the street with the highest volume of traffic in the state capital. The Aiglhof I special school is located here in public facilities and the elementary school and the Salzburg regional hospital in nearby Mülln .
The construction of the Aiglhoffelder was already planned in 1927 in the then still independent municipality of Maxglan. The award-winning project by the architect Lois Welzenbacher (1889–1955) envisaged the construction of 8,000 apartments, but could not be implemented due to lack of funds.
In addition to the housing shortage in Salzburg after the annexation of Austria to the German Reich, there was also the need for accommodation for the resettlers from South Tyrol and for the officers of the military district General Command XVIII. As part of a new Aiglhof settlement project, three settlements were built by 1941, the South Tyrolean settlement (today Aiglhof I), the Hötzendorfstrasse-Römergasse-Radetzkystrasse settlement (Aiglhof 2) and the actual Aiglhof settlement (Aiglhof 3), which borders directly on Aiglhofstrasse .
The streets in the Aiglhof were mostly named after generals and admirals of the Austrian monarchy, such as Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf , Wilhelm von Tegetthoff , Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli and Viktor Graf Dankl von Krasnik .
The Aiglhofsiedlung is connected to the lines 2 and 4 of the trolleybus Salzburg and the bus - bus lines 20, 24 and 28 reach. With the commissioning of the Salzburg-Aiglhof S-Bahn station in the area of the underpass of Rudolf-Biebl- Strasse, the densely built-up district has been connected to the Salzburg S-Bahn network since 2009 . The S2 and S3 trains stop every 15 minutes and reach the main station in a few minutes.
The southeastern part of Maxglan is called Maxglan-Riedenburg. It forms the link to the now independent district of Riedenburg with its central parish church of St. Paul and was largely built after the Second World War. Previously there were only single farmsteads here along Kendlerstrasse and a few residential buildings along the short cul-de-sacs Höglstrasse-Krailnstrasse and Hagmüllerstrasse-Waldstrasse. The present-day settlement area between Kendlerstrasse and Glan was only buildable as a result of the straightening and canalisation of the Glan.
- The Rochushof and the Stiegl Brewery in Salzburg
The brewery was originally where the Salzburg City Health Department is currently located. The inn and the brewery were initially located on the local Stieglgasse, which in turn is reminiscent of an earlier staircase to the local Almkanal. The brewery was first mentioned in a document in 1482. In 1863 this Stiegl brewery moved to Maxglan-Riedenburg. The name of the Stiegl brewery's farm, the Rochushof, recalls the plague patron, St. Rochus and the plague house there (Lazareth zum St. Rochus) including the plague cemetery that Prince Archbishop Paris Lodron had built here in 1636. Sigismund Graf Schrattenbach converted the plague hospital, which was no longer required, into a workhouse, of which the Latin saying "Abstine aut autine" "Meide (the crime) or suffer (the consequences)" attached to the portal there still reports today.
Surrounded by the remains of meadows on the northern edge of the airport runway, the small settlement area developed from 1953 to its present size, starting with the first settlement center on Torschauerweg, which was built around 1935. The name “Torschauersiedlung” is reminiscent of the former German town of Torschau in Central Batschka (Serbia), from which around 300 “ethnic Germans” who had been displaced found a new home here in 1953. The first six houses were built here by the first Danube Swabian building cooperative in Austria "Neusiedler" and, at the initiative and application of one of the co-founders of this cooperative from Torschau, Peter Henkel, were named as gateways after the office of the Salzburg state government had approved the application for this street name .
Glanhofen , a small group of farmsteads, was a purely rural village in the municipality of Maxglan until 1935. Today the old settlement core with its small residential buildings is right on the edge of the airport runway and right on the busy Innsbruck main road. Glanhofen would be much too small as an independent district, it appears in the urban fabric as the westernmost part of the Maxglan district.
The Salzburg Workers' Sports Club , which has several sections, including football - once founded as the Vorwärts Maxglan sports club - ensures a lively club life . The women's soccer team of ASK Maxglan was runner-up in 2007/2008 in the middle division . The ASK national league team has been playing in Liefering since losing their home ground in 2007. A return to the original part of the city is being sought, but cannot be realized at the moment. The women of ASK Maxglan will play in the neighboring community of Wals-Siezenheim from 2008/09 . Until 2007, the ASK sports facility was also the venue for the American Football Team Salzburg Bulls, which now play their home games on the ASV facility in Itzling.
The TC ASKÖ Maxglan , which emerged from the ASK tennis section, is dedicated to tennis .
The Maxglan gymnastics club has existed since 1902 and was made famous by world championship participants such as Heinrich Ulamec and Andrea Schalk.
- 50101 - Salzburg. Community data, Statistics Austria .
- Maxglan . In: Salzburger Nachrichten : Salzburgwiki .