Anselm Karl Albert Kiefer (born March 8, 1945 in Donaueschingen ) is a German and, since 2018, Austrian painter and sculptor . He is one of the best known and most successful German artists after the Second World War . His works have been shown at the most important international art exhibitions - documenta 6, 7 and 8, Venice Biennale (German Pavilion 1980); - and exhibited in many museums in Europe, Japan and the United States of America. He has received numerous prizes and honors.
Kiefer completed art studies as a student of Peter Dreher in Freiburg and Horst Antes in Karlsruhe. He began his career with a scandal when he performed the Hitler salute as part of a photographically documented performance at various locations in Europe . His further work was strongly influenced by topics from German history and culture, from the Hermannsschlacht to National Socialism , culminating in the Holocaust and the destruction of Jewish culture in Germany. Kiefer is considered to be a innovator of history painting and a great illustrator of historical catastrophes. In general, traditional myths, books and libraries are among his preferred subjects and sources of inspiration. Literary influences, notably from Paul Celan and Ingeborg Bachmann , were reflected in his middle-aged work. In his later work, he expanded the explored circle of myths to include Judeo-Christian, Egyptian and Oriental cultures as well as cosmogonies . As an artist of the representational, he seeks and finds his sources of world interpretation in them and borrows motifs from them for the representation of the incomprehensible and the non-representable.
Anselm Kiefer was born shortly before the end of the war as the son of the Wehrmacht officer and art teacher Albert Kiefer and his wife Cilly in the air raid shelter of a hospital in Donaueschingen. In 1951 the family moved to Ottersdorf in Baden . In nearby Rastatt he attended high school. As an art teacher, his father, Albert Kiefer, encouraged his son's early artistic attempts and made him familiar with artistic techniques such as linocut, clay work, sand painting, wax crayon and mosaic techniques.
In 1963 he won the “Jean Walter Prize” of the European Organization for Travel Study Grants, the predecessor organization of today's ZIS Foundation for Study Travel in Salem . Kiefer decided to follow in Vincent van Gogh's footsteps through Holland, Belgium and France. On the trip he kept a travel diary with many sketches.
In 1965 he began studying law and Romance languages in Freiburg im Breisgau , which he did not complete. During this time he also devoted himself to the fine arts and studied painting in Freiburg from 1966 to 1968 with Peter Dreher and then as a student of Horst Antes in Karlsruhe .
His thesis in 1969 in Karlsruhe was a photographic documentation of a performance , the jaws occupations called. In it he performed the Hitler salute at various locations in Europe (Switzerland, Holland, France, Italy) , with which he “conceptually simulates identification with the perpetrators”. The work caused a scandal and was rejected by the majority of academy professors. Since 1970 he has had an artistic exchange with Joseph Beuys, who promoted his work and who had no doubts about Kiefer's critical intention in this action. Beuys was less a teacher than an informal mentor , in the words of Kiefer: “I was never in his class, but worked in the Odenwald. From there I drove to Düsseldorf a few times, with my pictures rolled up on the roof of a VW Beetle, to show them to Beuys. ”With Beuys, Kiefer shares a predilection for apparently worthless and despised materials - primarily ash and lead , which he brings to bear in many layers in his monumental pictures, sculptures and installations .
Kiefer initially worked artistically in the Odenwald, where he had moved into a former school in Hornbach in 1971 as a studio. In Michael Werner , he found a well-known gallery owner at an early stage who held the first exhibitions - annually from 1973 to 1977 - on his premises and represented him until 1979. His design of the West German pavilion at the Venice Biennale in 1980 (including the work of Germany's Spiritual Heroes and Ways of World Wisdom ) caused another scandal. He explained the massive criticism of his work in a later interview: "In Germany, the holey ground is simply not seen on which the pathos stands for me."
In 1981, shortly after Kiefer's Biennale premiere, his success in the Anglo-Saxon world began with the London exhibition A New Spirit in Painting . A traveling exhibition between 1987 and 1989 by four of the most prestigious museums in the USA made him world famous; the American art critic Charles Werner Haxthausen spoke of a "triumphal procession". No other German artist of the post-war era sparked such enthusiasm in the USA. An exhibition tour through Japan followed in 1993.
In 1988 he bought a former brickworks in Höpfingen near Walldürn, where he was planning a comprehensive art park project Zweistromland , named after his installation of the same name of a two-winged shelf with lead books (1986–1989). After he could not realize the planned foundation for the art park for personal reasons, he left Germany in 1991. In an interview he confessed: "Leaving a country is a kind of hygiene." In a self-prescribed three-year painting break, he traveled to Nepal and Thailand, China, Australia and Mexico and devoted himself to photography and writing France settled. This turning point, which was also to become one in his production, coincided with the end of his first marriage. Then he set up his studio in Barjac ( Cevennes ) in the south of France on a 35 hectare industrial site of a former silk factory. When he left it in 2008, he left behind some very large buildings on site 52. He then moved into a studio in the Paris suburb of Croissy-Beaubourg in the warehouse of a former Parisian department store, which covers 36,000 square meters, about a tenth of the area of the previous studio.
In the winter of 2010/2011, the Collège de France in Paris invited him to a series of lectures on his understanding of art, which Kiefer gave the title "Art just doesn't go under" (L'art survivra à ses ruines).
In autumn 2011, in an interview with Spiegel , he expressed his intention to take over the decommissioned Mülheim-Kärlich nuclear power plant for artistic purposes, to turn it into a pantheon . To buy the power plant, it would first have to be released from the Atomic Energy Act . The Minister for Economic Affairs of Rhineland-Palatinate rejected the sale.
In addition to his work as a painter and sculptor, Kiefer also worked as a set and costume designer for theater and opera, for example for Oedipus auf Kolonos ( Burgtheater Vienna, 2003) and Elektra ( Teatro di San Carlo , Naples, 2003), both productions by Klaus Michael Grüber . For the reopening of the Paris Opéra Bastille in 2009, the opera director Gerard Mortier , together with the German composer Jörg Widmann , commissioned him with the visual and musical performance Am Anfang.
Kiefer's second marriage to Austrian photographer Renate Graf divorced in 2014; the first marriage has three children, the second two.
He has received prizes, honors and awards. At the Frankfurt Book Fair 2008 he was the first visual artist to be awarded the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade . In 2009 he received the Adenauer de Gaulle Prize in Paris .
In January 2018, he was granted Austrian citizenship by the Salzburg Governor Wilfried Haslauer .
The artist, his subjects and materials
Formally, Kiefer's work is monumental and figurative (“Without an object, I wouldn't take a picture anyway”). His preferred color is gray, the "color of doubt". In terms of content, the works testify to a “continuation of history painting” and an “intensive examination of cultural holdings”. American art critics locate him in the tradition of Caspar David Friedrich's romantic landscape painting .
Kiefer is skeptical about the “classic work process of the painter, with idea, sketchbook, execution”, which he does not have; “Because for that I would have to assume a desired result, and that doesn't interest me”. “I see my pictures like ruins, or like building blocks that can be put together. They are material that can be built with, but they are not perfect. They are closer to nothing than perfection. ”Only rarely are human persons depicted in his works, if then as“ icons, symbols for people anchored in cultural history ”or as self-portrayals. Recurring themes and subjects are traditional myths, books and libraries. He agreed with an interviewer that his work takes place “in the interplay of mythology and reason”. He is an "artist of the underworld" ("I am an artist of the underworld"), is one of his more recent self-characterizations. Armin Zwei sees Kiefer's painting as an interpretation of the world, not as a visualization of subjective perception, but as an interpretation of the world, “appropriation of the incomprehensible”.
|For Paul Celan. Dowser|
|Anselm Kiefer , 2005–2007|
|Mixed media on photography|
|63 × 84 cm|
|Galerie Thomas Modern, Munich|
Few contemporary artists have such a keen sense of art's obligation to deal with the past and ethical issues of the present. In an “Art Talk” at the end of the 1980s, he confessed to the responsibility of art as follows: “I believe that art has to take on responsibility, but it shouldn't stop being art. […] My content may not be contemporary, but it is political. ”As the art historian Werner Spies states, Kiefer, like Gerhard Richter,“ put an end to the suppression of names, terms and topographies ”. In her dissertation on Kiefer and Paul Celan , the Swiss Andrea Lauterwein characterizes a “pictor doctus” (learned painter), a painter who relies on broad philosophical and literary references and whose dialogue with the poet Celan is a leitmotif in his work. By receiving Celan's poetry, he was able to break the circle of fascination and disgust in the face of the National Socialist phantasmagoria and also to process the Jewish view of the Holocaust and Shoah artistically. The London art historian Norman Rosenthal writes about the effect of Kiefer's pictures: "They may cause pain to the Germans, but abroad he is also admired because he created complex works about Hitler's time, including Judaism." This German has a real one Relationship to his own culture, to Beethoven, Heine, Goethe or Wagner, and in his art he brings together "the terrible and the beautiful about his country in a grandiose way". The French art historian Daniel Arasse emphasizes that humor, irony and ridicule are “a constitutive dimension” of his work, which sometimes allows him to “break prohibitions”.
In addition to the poet Paul Celan , Kiefer was also inspired by Ingeborg Bachmann to create important works. The pictures Bohemia lies by the sea (1995 and 1996) bear the title of a poem by Bachmann. Her verse “Everyone who falls has wings” can also be found on one of his later paintings from Barjac.
If Kiefer's early creative period was determined by an almost obsessive examination of German history and culture, then in his later work phases, in addition to gnosis and Jewish mysticism ( Kabbalah ), Egyptian and ancient oriental mythologies as well as cosmogonies appeared as new sources of inspiration, without the old themes completely disappearing.
His works are characterized by archaic material: in addition to the dominant lead, there are ash, straw, sunflowers, strands of hair, sand, clay, burnt wood, scraps of fabric, which are often applied in overlapping layers. Kiefer is a “friend of lead”, as he himself admits: “Lead affects me more than any other metal”. He formulated his credo in the paradox : "I keep the matter secret by undressing it."
In addition to the preference for unconventional materials, the parallels perceived by Kiefer between the roles of alchemist and artist, of which the latter transforms raw material and canvas into symbolic carriers of meaning, are close to Beuys' thinking .
Anyone who tries to survey and organize Kiefer's entire oeuvre to date will repeatedly come across the fact that the artist refers to different works and groups of works created at different times with the same titles, in the words of Jürgen Hohmeyers, former culture editor of Spiegel, for Kiefer " Title recycling […] common practice ”. Examples of this are his numerous works, groups of works and exhibitions, labeled Heavenly Palaces or Towers of the Heavenly Palaces .
Dealing with German history
During his time in Düsseldorf, Kiefer began to expand his range of colors and materials. He worked on thick layers of paint with fire or axes and combined them with glass, wood and parts of plants. In the 1970s he was particularly interested in German mythology . The works created during this time not only triggered "fascination and horror", they caused some critics to move him into the vicinity of neo-fascist ideology.
Kiefer's early work is extremely strongly determined by German history, its great intellectuals and its myths. “My biography is the biography of Germany,” is a frequently quoted saying from him. In all of his oeuvre he deals with the past, especially with the German history of the 19th century. National Socialism is an element in the midst of a much broader structure. He is considered a history-loving man who was the first German artist to venture into the delicate field of Nazi symbolism after the Second World War and thus touched on taboo and irritating topics of recent history. In particular, he asked about the ideological origin of National Socialism and the preparatory function of German national myths such as Nibelungen and Hermann the Cheruscan. The memory grid on which Kiefer weaves "relates to the entirety of that original Germanness and that culture which National Socialism claimed to be actualizing in history". This resulted in decades of controversial discussions in the media about the value of his artistic work.
In general, the works of his “German phase” are characterized by a dull, almost depressing, destructive style . In many of his works, Kiefer uses a photograph as a starting point in order to then process it with earth and other natural materials (straw, sand, lead or earth); He also integrates hair and burnt, charred wood into his historical landscapes. It is also characteristic that in almost all of Kiefer's paintings one can find writings or names of people, legendary figures or places steeped in history. All of these are encrypted sigla with which Kiefer tries to come to terms with the past. Therefore it is often associated with a style called New Symbolism .
His first solo exhibition Occupations, which was shown in Karlsruhe in 1969 as a series of black and white photographs of his Karlsruhe thesis, caused public disputes. The photos showed Kiefer performing the Hitler salute at various sites in Europe (in front of ancient graves, in the amphitheater, in front of the surf and monumental mountain landscapes of formerly occupied countries) . He was dressed in the uniform parts of his father (breeches, riding boots and military coat), which he had worn as an officer at the front in the war. The photos that were then converted into images were only shown in the Berlin gallery Heiner Bastian in 2008 (no one wanted to exhibit them before). Kiefer's performance was perceived by the critics as an “exorcism by means of affirmation”.
Kiefer later explained the motif of his performance: “I wanted to find out for myself whether art after fascism was still possible. I wanted to recognize behind the phenomenon of fascism, behind its surface, what the abyss of fascism means for myself [...], I wanted to depict the unimaginable in myself. "In another interview he said:" In these first pictures I wanted myself ask: am I fascist? It is a very serious question. You can't answer that quickly. That would be easy. Authority, competitive spirit, feelings of superiority [...] all of this belongs to my personality, as to every human being. ”The art historian Werner Spies saw as a driving force in Kiefer's art that he merged the historical debate with the dangerous reflection of the delusion that led to this fatal one Past.
"Germany's spiritual heroes", "Siegfried" and "Märkische Heide"
After the 1969 exhibition, Kiefer did not return to the public until 1973 with a series of works with biblical and Germanic-mythological themes called "attic pictures" by commentary literature. The first group includes: Faith, Hope, Love and Father, Son, Holy Spirit, to the last group: Parzifal, Notung, the suffering of the Nibelungs and Germany's spiritual heroes. The coloring of these works is determined by warm brown tones with an economical use of white, black and gray. As it should be characteristic of his entire work, the paintings are inscribed with descriptions, names and quotations. The attic has sparked iconographic reflections on many commentators . As a storeroom and storage place for obsolete objects, it is a repository of heritage and historical memory, and Kiefer's loft paintings are about this heritage. The works were shown in 1973 in Cologne and Amsterdam in two solo exhibitions - under the titles Notung and Der Nibelungen Leid .
|Germany's spiritual heroes|
|Anselm Kiefer , 1973|
|Oil and coal on pluck|
|307 × 682 cm|
|Barbara and Eugene Schwartz Collection, New York|
The largest-format picture and at the same time the highlight of this series is the painting Germany's Spiritual Heroes, also made in 1973 . On it you can see a hall-like attic made of raw wood, which tapers in perspective towards the rear and creates a spatial effect of extraordinary suggestive power. Honor fires flicker in bowls on the walls and the names of the heroes are written in charcoal in children's script on the floor. The list of heroes created in “autobiographical arbitrariness” (Jürgen Harten) includes: Richard Wagner , Richard Dehmel , Josef Weinheber , Joseph Beuys , Adalbert Stifter , Caspar David Friedrich , Arnold Böcklin , the Prussian King Friedrich II , the medieval mystic Mechthild von Magdeburg , Robert Musil , Nikolaus Lenau , Hans Thoma , Theodor Storm . The painting is characterized by a strong ambiguity . It is not only expressed in the seemingly arbitrary list of names, which contains Hitler supporters such as Weinheber, as well as Hitler opponents such as Musil. According to Kiefer, the title is to be understood ironically. Commentators also regard the representation itself as an ironic allusion to the Regensburg Walhalla . Sabine Schütz creates a direct reference to the photography of a National Socialist party room for the youth and refers to the fundamental ambivalence of Kiefer's attic works, which criticize National Socialism through "apparent affirmation ".
Kiefer's early landscapes are also charged with history. They are contaminated with the "German vision" propagated by National Socialism. His first large landscape painting: Märkische Heide was created in 1971. In the years that followed, he frequently changed its subject in different formats. The Märkische Heide is the heathland between the Spreewald and the southeast of Berlin in the Mark Brandenburg . Here she symbolizes a place steeped in history with the roots of Prussia .
|Anselm Kiefer , 1974|
|Oil, acrylic and shellac on burlap|
|118 × 254 cm|
|Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven|
The painting from 1974 ( Van Abbemuseum , Eindhoven) shows a polluted path in a heather landscape that begins broadly in the middle of the lower edge of the picture and vertically with a tapering perspective runs seemingly endlessly towards the high horizon line, where land and sky merge seamlessly. On the right side of the path, three slender birch trunks protrude. The white tones of the path and the birch trees contrast with the dark yellow and brown tones of the deserted heathland, over which there is a gloomy atmosphere. The words “Markische Heide” are written across the middle of the lower path. Corresponding to the Heide pictures, he produced several pictures in the 1980s, which he gave the title (or part of the title) märkischer Sand (e.g. ways: märkischer Sand, 1980; Ikarus - märkischer Sand, 1981; Märkischer Sand, 1982 ) and in which he partially mixed sand with paint. The appropriation of the Brandenburg homeland song Märkische Heide, Märkischer Sand by the Nazis should not have played an insignificant role in the title .
The painting Maikäfer flieg (Marx collection), also made in 1974 and held in dominant black oil paint on pluck, shows a gloomy landscape with devastated, scorched earth. The beginning of the nursery rhyme “Maikäfer flies, the father is at war, the mother is in Pommerland, Pommerland is burned down” is entered in scrawly letters at the top. This image also evokes associations with recent German history, war (scorched earth), flight and displacement.
|Siegfried forgets Brünhilde|
|Anselm Kiefer , 1975|
|Oil on canvas|
|646 × 566 cm|
The painting Siegfried Forgets Brünhilde (1975), with its ambivalent connection between two mythological characters, inspired some commentators to consider far-reaching. It shows a winter landscape with furrows converging towards the horizon, in which the title of the painting is inscribed in the longitudinal course of a furrow towards the high horizon, with the snow lying on the furrows symbolizing oblivion. Daniel Arasse relates it to later edited photographs in Kiefer's book Siegfried's Difficult Way to Brünhilde (1977). They show disused railway lines that lead to a horizon in flames, which are less reminiscent of the circle of fire around the sleeping Brünhilde than of the incinerators of the extermination camps. Andrea Lauterwein also interprets the Siegfried picture in the context of the edited photos with the overgrown rails, which symbolize the Holocaust. And “Siegfried's Difficulty” uses it as a metaphor for the task of remembering instead of forgetting.
|Anselm Kiefer , 1982|
|Oil, sand on canvas|
|330 × 556 cm|
|Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam|
“Märkischer Sand” from 1982 is a large, elongated picture with an empty one, as Petra Kipphoff puts it, “like a vortex towards the horizon, in which history and life seem plowed under”. Signs with place names such as Küstrin, Oranienburg, Neuruppin, Rheinsberg or Buckow evoke associations with Prussian history and Theodor Fontane's hikes through the Mark Brandenburg as well as with the Nazi past with its concentration camps ( Oranienburg , Sachsenhausen ) and death marches . Werner Spies says that the painter sows the seeds of his historical and mythological memory in his work. “The technical virtuosity really increases to the Wagnerian tutti: sand, tar, shellac, sawdust, lead foil, speaking materials such as the straw of the arsonists, barbed wire and pieces of clothing contribute to the depressive mood, speak of this 'waste land', the TS Eliot has proclaimed the metaphor of the desolate, chaotic modernity. "
"Ways of World Wisdom" and "Hermann Battle"
|Ways of world wisdom - the Hermann Battle|
|Anselm Kiefer , 1980|
|Woodcut, acrylic, shellac on canvas|
|400 × 700 cm|
|Hamburger Bahnhof, Museum of Contemporary Art (Collection Erich Marx), Berlin|
The cycle of pictures, Ways of World Wisdom - The Hermann Battle , created between 1976 and 1980, is one of the “most impressive, but also most controversial, of his early work”. The group of works consists of a monumental painting (up to seven meters wide, depending on the variant), a number of woodcut collages and two book objects consisting of woodcut portraits in which well-known people from German cultural history are printed. One of them, entitled “Ways of World Wisdom”, brings together personalities from the bourgeois-republican Gottfried-Keller-Kreis, the second under the heading “The Hermannsschlacht”, portrait heads that were taken from a Nazi publication in which poets like Hölderlin and Eichendorf as well as philosophers like Kant and Heidegger were appropriated. In the collage, Kiefer brought together people from the left and right-wing bourgeois spectrum, apparently arbitrarily, as in his work Germany's spiritual heroes before . The unifying subject of the ensemble is the Hermannsschlacht, whereby Kiefer is primarily concerned with the national history of reception and the “tendency towards nationalism and chauvinism in the German intellectual tradition”, which Arminus, known as Hermann, the Cheruscan made into the German national hero and founder of identity. The picture title Ways of World Wisdom quotes a philosophical work by the Jesuit father Bernhard Jansen from 1924 and refers to the context of the Enlightenment, which opposes the idea of the all-ruling deity with a secular counterpart, comparable to Hegel's "Weltgeist". Kiefer recalls the epoch marked by "idealism, romanticism and the wars of freedom by inviting contemporaries from culture and politics by means of portraits", among them the pedagogue Friedrich Schleiermacher , the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte , the generals Blücher and Clausewitz , the poets Klopstock and Grabbe , but also the modern poets Rainer Maria Rilke and Stefan George and the philosopher Martin Heidegger, who was controversial because of his attitude in the Third Reich . Most of the heads are arranged towards the center of the image. There are more than half a dozen versions of the monumental collage with different variations on the same theme. Some of the works were exhibited to a larger audience in Eindhoven in 1979 and in Venice a year later.
His pictures and sculptures by Georg Baselitz caused a stir at the Venice Biennale in 1980. The viewer had to decide whether the apparently National Socialist motifs were meant ironically or whether they were meant to convey fascist ideas. On huge canvases he created epic images that recalled the history of German culture with the help of a “Compendium of German History” (Klaus Gallwitz). With this "Genealogy of German nationalism" (Robert Hughes), Kiefer continued the tradition of historical painting as a means of addressing the world. Kiefer's orientation towards the iconographic repertoire of National Socialist painting prompted Werner Spies to write in his Biennale report: "You must be warned about the sowing!"
"Margarete" and "Sulamith"
|Your golden hair, Margarete|
|Anselm Kiefer , 1980|
|Watercolor, gouache and acrylic on paper|
|29.8 x 40 cm|
|Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York|
Between 1980 and 1983 Kiefer created a series of works that were inspired by Paul Celan's poem Death Fugue . This work was the result of his analysis of the question of the extent to which German identity can still be maintained with the suppression of the National Socialist extermination of the Jews. Sabine Schütz sees this as the “most delicate point of his project at the time”. Your golden hair, Margarete, belongs to the group of works . (1980) and Sulamith. (1983). Both names are in the fugue of death. called rhythmically and, as it were, contrapuntal, as if in a prayer. Andrea Lauterwein understands them as toponyms , which iconographically stand for Margaret in Goethe's Faust and the Sulamith in Solomon's Song of Songs, as personifications of the New (Maria) and Old Testament (Sulamith), further for Judaism and Christianity, for Ecclesia and the synagogue . Nothing could be more obvious that with Celan as with Kiefer Margarete gives the name for the German and Shulamith for the Jewish. The pair of names is only shown in separate paintings, although Sulamith is sometimes present as a shadow in Margaret's pictures. Both were first depicted in landscape pictures composed in an analogue manner, which show churned-up furrows tapering towards a high horizon (see figure opposite).
|Anselm Kiefer , 1983|
|Oil, emulsion, woodcut, shellac, acrylic and straw on canvas|
|541 x 368.3 cm|
|Doris and Donald Fisher Collection|
While Kiefer depicts Margarete in the various variants as a landscape with curved bundles of straw, substituting for Margaret's body, for the depiction of Sulamith he draws on very different subjects: starting with a suffering landscape, changing to personifications with long strands of black hair hanging down or a leaden book with strands of hair glued in, ending with a grave hall, which is modeled on the soldiers hall designed by the architect Wilhelm Kreis for the Army High Command . This shows the reinterpretation of traditional symbolism that is characteristic of Kiefer's art: The grave hall designed for the burial of war heroes becomes a "charred memorial for the victims of the Holocaust" for the art critic Charles Werner Haxthausen. Andrea Lauterwein is reminiscent of the crematoria of the concentration camps (see picture opposite).
Commentators emphasize the inseparability of the blond German Margarete and the dark Jew Sulamith expressed in Celan's poem and in Kiefer's picture cycle, which manifests a grief over the loss of the Jewish in German culture.
"The women of the revolution"
|The women of the revolution|
|Anselm Kiefer , around 1984|
|Installation with 13 lead beds of different sizes|
His first installation , Die Frauen der Revolution , was created around 1984 . There are 13 lead beds of different sizes (between 140 × 70 and 200 × 110 cm). All beds are covered with a leaden, wrinkled sheet, in the middle of which there is a dent filled with water. For the Swiss art theorist Janine Schmutz, the beds allow associations with reception camps and concentration camp barracks, but also with deserted landscapes with bomb craters. On small paper signs assigned to the individual beds are the names of 22 famous French women who played an important role during the French Revolution , including Madame Récamier , Olympe de Gouges , Madame de Staël , Théroigne de Méricourt and Charlotte Corday . Some of the women later fell victim to the guillotine . A separate bed is not reserved for all women.
From the 1980s onwards, the number of topics that are neither German nor Germanic increased. German culture and history are embedded in a larger whole, in Greek and Babylonian mythology, the Egyptian religion and Jewish mysticism ( Kabbalah ). The art critic Wieland Schmied stated: "If Kiefer's criticism earlier chalked up an 'excess of German', it is now an excess of Kabbalah that disturbs it." Mythical stories about the creation of the world fascinate him both in the Judeo-Christian and in the Jewish also the oriental cultures. On extensive trips through Europe, the USA and the Middle East, he was confronted with influences, under which impressive works of art were created. In addition to paintings, Kiefer created watercolors , woodcuts , overpainted photos and books, as well as sculptures in which Kiefer often uses lead, "the metal of Saturn and melancholy". Are known, among other things its planes and missiles of lead, and a library of over-sized cast of lead folios (factory Title: 60 million peas ).
Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism
Kiefer's interest in Kabbalistic writings goes back to his first visit to Israel in 1983. Kiefer owes his knowledge of Jewish mysticism to the instructive writings of Gershom Scholem , which contain the most important interpretations of the Kabbalah in German. The teachings of the Kabbalist Isaak Luria on the origin of evil and his thoughts on exile and redemption were particularly important for Kiefer's work. The first exhibition with a Kabbalistic title ( Chevirat Ha-Kelim / Bruch der Gefäß ) is the Paris exhibition in the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière in 2000. The exhibition shown in the Fondation Beyeler the following year also had a Kabbalistic title: Anselm Kiefer. The Seven Heavenly Palaces 1973–2001. In the fall of 2002, an exhibition with a Kabbalistic title ( Merkaba ) was also held in the Gagosian Gallery in New York .
Harriet Häußler sees the kabbalistic idea of the “representation of the unrepresentable”, which applies to Kiefer's entire oeuvre, as an essential explanation of his preoccupation with Jewish mysticism. In the religiously motivated ban on images , she discovers an analogy to the art theoretical conception of romantic irony .
"The Heavenly Palaces" and "The Towers of the Heavenly Palaces"
Even before he moved from Höpflingen to Barjac in France, a work cycle was created in the late 1980s with the title The Heavenly Palaces. The term is taken from Kabbalah and denotes that heavenly paradise that the seeker reaches as a stopover on his way to the highest divine vision.
The fragile and poetic-looking 28 sculptures are among the first sculptures that Anselm Kiefer made. You are in one of the rooms of the brickworks in Höpfingen, which had served the artist as a studio for several years. There are 26 of the works in glass showcases, two are free-standing rod sculptures. Their size varies from one or two centimeters to over two meters. The sculptures deal with themes that are borrowed from Kabbalah, the ancient myth of the Argonauts , Gnosis , Christian mysticism and alchemy ; Harriet Häußler assigns half of the works thematically to Jewish mysticism. Kabbalah and the Argonaut myth are linked by the motif of the search - the search for the vision of the divine on the one hand and the search for the golden fleece on the other.
The detachment from the German coming to terms with the past that was already becoming apparent with this cycle manifested itself clearly with his move to France around 1993. After he had not painted for two or three years, as he confessed in a later interview, he wanted to expose himself to painting again. “Nobody always wants to continue on the same track. I didn't want to become a specialist in the Holocaust. ”His palette became lighter, his topics broadened into the cosmic, he used new materials and new tools such as“ construction machinery as well as pickaxes, ax and flame throwers ”.
|The Towers of the Seven Heavenly Palaces (I sette palazzi celesti)|
|Anselm Kiefer , 2004|
|Installation made of lead, concrete and iron|
|Hangar Bicocca, Milan|
In Barjac he set up the monumental installation The Towers of the Seven Heavenly Palaces. The seven to 27 meter high, crooked towers are open to the sky. Books made of lead are their foundation. According to Kiefer, they say: “This is not a tower, this is a tower of towers. […] The foundation of the towers is the knowledge of millennia ”. The mezzanine floors are also separated by book lead sheets that are perforated in the middle, above which each floor walls made of precast concrete elements rise. On the occasion of the permanent installation created as a replication ( I sette palazzi celesti ) in the “ Hangar Bicocca ” in Milan , Peter Iden describes it as “the most powerful installation in its dimensions that contemporary art has produced to date, much more powerful than Richard Serras at the borders of the Giant steel plates erected by gravity ”. The 13 to 16 meter high towers radiate an unearthly grandeur and an all-pervading mood of sadness and decay. Their names are: "Shooting Stars ", "Star Camp", "The Sefiroth ", " Tzim-Tzum ", " Shevirat Ha-Kelim ", " Tiqqun " and "The Seven Heavenly Palaces".
"Star Camp" - "Star Fall"
|Star Camp IV|
|Anselm Kiefer , 1998|
|Mixed media on canvas|
|600 × 800 cm|
|Museum Küppersmühle, Duisburg|
Daniel Arasse also states that Kiefer has been reorienting itself since 1995, which, among other things, manifests itself in the handling of cosmic topics. At the same time, there was a subliminal continuity that was expressed in the monumental pictures of the groups of works Sternenlager and Sternenfall . In the picture Sternen-Lager IV from 1998 ( Museum Küppersmühle , Duisburg) Arasse discovers a direct reference to Auschwitz. In yellowish earth colors, a cellar vault is suggested, on the walls of which boxes are stacked with inscriptions with numbers (NASA codes for stars). In addition, names of constellations are attached. Both point to the basement as a warehouse for stars. Some opened boxes appear to contain dead bodies. Overall, the painting has a suction-like effect that reminds the viewer of the atmosphere of a concentration camp, in which people were branded with numbers and had to wear stars.
|Anselm Kiefer , 1998|
|Mixed media on canvas|
|460 × 407 cm|
|Blanton Museum of Modern Art, Austin, Texas|
The group of works, Sternenfall, originated in the late 1990s, thematizes the formation and decay of stars in the universe and relates them to the birth and death of human beings. Whether informed by Arasse or not, even sensitive museum visitors should equate the numbered stars with Jews. In 2007, Kiefer also chose the title Falling Stars for his exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris . With this exhibition he started the art project Monumenta des Grand Palais, according to which a selected artist is allowed to perform in the house every year. But in contrast to the painting with the same title in the Texas Blanton Museum of Modern Art , he presented the sculpture of a collapsed tower in the Grand Palais under this title.
"The Secret Life of Plants for Robert Fludd"
A 14-part cycle of works from 2001/02 relates thematically to the analogy of micro- and macrocosms assumed by the British doctor, physicist, astrologer and philosopher of the early modern era, Robert Fludd (1574–1637), according to which every plant on earth is included Star in the sky would correspond. Kiefer creates this analogy by connecting life on earth with plastered branches, shirts made of lead or a prepared goose with the starry sky on a lead base.
"Next Year in Jerusalem"
The ensemble exhibited in the Gagosian Gallery in 2010 under the title Next Year in Jerusalem comprises 13 monumental pictures and 23 sculptural constructions housed in gigantic glass and steel showcases. The works shown make reference to the Kabbalah, the Bible, Nordic mythology and the German war destruction. For the art critic for the New York Times. Roberta Smith, demonstrate the inevitable progress in Wagner's overbearing tradition of the Gesamtkunstwerk . Other influential American art critics were also impressed and at the same time overwhelmed by the material presence of the works of art on display.
At the end of October 2007, Kiefer unveiled a work he had commissioned in the Louvre in Paris . The 14 × 4 meter painting shows himself as a naked man lying on the floor who - according to Kiefer - is connected to the universe. This was the museum's first commissioned work since 1953. In 2008, works by Kiefer from the Großhaus collection were exhibited in the Kreuzstall at Gottorf Castle , in particular his book “for Robert Fludd - the secret life of plants”, with 18 lead double pages, covered with acrylic Photography designed in mixed media. In 2011, the Frieder Burda Museum in Baden-Baden showed two dozen large-format works from the Grothe Collection.
He attracted attention and criticism in the media when he compared the pictures of Jean Genet with the media pictures of the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 , and described them as “the most perfect picture [...] that we have seen since the steps of the first man seen the moon, ”denoted that they would meet all the parameters of art.
Planned Anselm Kiefer Museum
The building contractor and art patron Hans Grothe, who owns the largest private collection of Kiefer's work, including key works from three decades, expressed his intention years ago to allocate 30 to 50 works by the artist to a still-to-be-built Anselm Kiefer Museum near Berlin's Kurfürstendamm present. In this context he succeeded in winning the Bundeskunsthalle for an exhibition of his collection in 2012. In July 2014, Grothe signed a differentiated loan agreement for 38 major works with the Kunsthalle Mannheim . Accordingly, they are to be shown in changing presentations from 2017 in a planned new art hall building in a separate gallery cube on 240 square meters.
Question: What do you find so fascinating about lead? Kiefer: “It's like the aura of names. The lead affects me more than any other metal. If you investigate such a feeling, you will find out that lead has always been a material for ideas. In alchemy, this metal was at the lowest level of the gold extraction process. On the one hand, lead was dull, heavy and connected to Saturn, the ugly man - on the other hand, it contains silver and was also an indication of another, more spiritual level. "
"I admire him, you can't escape his work," says von Schirach. “He told me that Cologne Cathedral used to be covered with lead sheets that have been replaced. Kiefer bought all of the lead from Cologne Cathedral. 40 trucks drove from Cologne to Barjac in France. Kiefer owns a huge area there. So I say to him: 'That's great, then you'll have lead until the end of your life.' His answer: 'No, after three years everything was gone.'
According to the art critic Jürgen Hohmeyer, “no other contemporary artist […] experienced such a reversal of total verdict and adulation” like Kiefer.
In the early 1980s, a considerable part of the German art criticism was “extremely negative, yes disparaging”; his "apparently affirmative empathy for fascist gestures and symbols" made him extremely unpopular. Kiefer's ambiguous handling of the German past made the critics overlook the "ironic, provocative, subversive aspects of his work". Werner Spies chalked him in 1980 in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung that he was "overdosing on German". Petra Kipphoff reprimanded his “playing with irrationalism and brutality” in ZEIT .
A scientific discussion of pine did not begin until the second half of the 1980s. The increasing recognition of his work abroad contributed to this. The 1984 retrospective organized for the Düsseldorf Kunsthalle went to Paris and Israel in the same year. It received a positive response from the Israeli public. But it was not until the traveling exhibition 1987–1989 in the USA and the emphatic reviews from overseas, which, according to the Spiegel commentary, were “sensationally disproportionate to the reservations at home”, that his work also found due recognition in Germany. The influential Anglo-Saxon art critic Robert Hughes called him "the best painter of his generation on both sides of the Atlantic". Even then, Werner Spies suspected the American-Jewish audience of an "unadmitted masochistic attraction through the dangerous and through the beauty of the dark and scorched so concretely presented in the pictures". After Kiefer was awarded the prestigious Wolf Prize in the summer of 1990 and confirmed the political correctness of his art by the descendants of the victims, represented by the Jerusalem Knesset , such accusations fell silent. Less than twenty years later (2008), one of his formerly harshest critics, Werner Spies, gave the laudation at the awarding of the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade to Kiefer. On the occasion of the retrospective dedicated to Kiefer in the Paris Center Pompidou 2015–2016, its form of “artistic mourning work”, which is particularly valued in France, was again critically questioned.
Awarded numerous prizes and honors, Kiefer is one of the world's most important contemporary artists. For years he has been among the top ten on the art compass of the 100 most sought-after contemporary artists worldwide; In 2015 he was ranked 6th.
Prizes and awards
- 1983: Hans Thoma Prize , State Prize of the State of Baden-Württemberg
- 1985: Carnegie Prize, Carnegie Museum of Art , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- 1990: Wolf Prize for Art, Jerusalem
- 1990: Goslarer Kaiserring
- 1990: Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
- 1990: Chevalier de l ' Ordre des Arts et des Lettres , Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Paris
- 1996: Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Arts
- 1999: Praemium Imperiale, Tokyo
- 2002: Officier de l ' Ordre des Arts et des Lettres , Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Paris
- 2004: Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- 2005: Cross of Merit, 1st class
- 2005: Austrian Decoration of Honor for Science and Art
- 2008: Peace Prize of the German Book Trade
- 2008: Adenauer de Gaulle Prize , Paris
- 2011: Commandeur de l ' Ordre des Arts et des Lettres , Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, Paris
- 2011: Berlin Bear (BZ Culture Prize)
- 2011: Leo Baeck Medal 2012
- 2014: Honorary Doctorate in Philosophy from the University of Turin
- 2015: Honorary Doctorate from the University of St. Andrews , Scotland
- 2015: Honorary Doctorate in General Merit from the University of Antwerp
- 2017: Honorary doctorate from the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg
- 2017: J. Paul Getty Medal (together with Mario Vargas Llosa), J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles
- 2019: Prize for Understanding and Tolerance , Jewish Museum Berlin
- 2020: Honorary doctorate in communication and didactics of art, Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera , Milan
Solo and group exhibitions (selection)
- 1970: Anselm Kiefer, pictures and books , Galerie am Kaiserplatz, Karlsruhe, (February 3rd - 27th)
- 1973: 14 x 14, Staatliche Kunsthalle, Baden-Baden (March 16 - April 22)
- 1973: Ansellm Kiefer, notation. Michael Werner Gallery , Cologne: April / May 1973
- 1973: Anselm Kiefer , Der Nibelungen Suffering. Gallery in the Goethe-Institut , Amsterdam, (September 24th - October 23rd)
- 1974: Anselm Kiefer, Heliogabal. Galerie t'Venster, Rotterdam, in cooperation with: Rotterdamse Kunststichting and Goethe Institut (October 26th - November 21st)
- 1974: Anselm Kiefer, painting of the scorched earth. Galerie Michael Werner, Cologne (April 1st - 29th)
- 1975: Anselm Kiefer, Seelöwe company. Michael Werner Gallery, Cologne
- 1976: Anselm Kiefer, Siegfried forgets Brünhilde. Galerie Michael Werner, Cologne (March 15 - April 15)
- 1977: Anselm Kiefer , Bonner Kunstverein, Bonn (March 17th - April 24th)
- 1977: Documenta 6, Museum Fridericianum , Kassel, (June 24th - October 2nd)
- 1977: Anselm Kiefer, ride on the Vistula. Galerie Michael Werner, Cologne (October 25th - November 19th)
- 1978: Ways of world wisdom - Hermannsschlacht. Galerie Maier-Hahn, Düsseldorf (May 12th - June 16th)
- 1978: pictures and books. Kunsthalle Bern , Bern (October 7th - November 19th)
- 1979: Anselm Kiefer. Books, Helen van der Meij Gallery , Amsterdam, (March 7th - April 3rd)
- 1979: Anselm Kiefer, schilderijen en aquarellen. Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum , Eindhoven, Netherlands (September 11th - December 10th)
- 1980: Anselm Kiefer, Pictures and Books Mannheimer Kunstverein , Mannheim (May 4th - June 1st)
- 1980: Anselm Kiefer, burning, lumbering, sinking, sanding up. German Pavilion at the 39th Venice Biennale , Venice (June 1 - September 28)
- 1980: Anselm Kiefer . Württembergischer Kunstverein , Stuttgart (September 18 - October 26)
- 1980: pictures and drawings. Gallery and Edition Six Friedrich / Galerie Sabine Knust , Munich (September 25th - November 8th)
- 1980: Anselm Kiefer . Galerie Helen van der Meij, Amsterdam (November 25th - December 23rd)
- 1980: Pictures, woodcuts and books (Schilderijen, Houtsneden en Boeken). Groninger Museum , Groningen (November 28, 1980 - January 11, 1981)
- 1981: A New Spirit in Painting. Royal Academy of Arts , London (January 15 - March 18)
- 1981: Art Allemagne aujourd'hui, ARC / Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris , Paris (January 17th - March 8th)
- 1981: Anselm Kiefer , Urd, Werdandi, Skuld. Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne (January 9th - February 7th)
- 1981: Anselm Kiefer. Marian Goodman Gallery , New York (March 21 - April 11)
- 1981: Anselm Kiefer. Books , Galerie Six Friedrich + Sabine Knust, Munich, (May 14th - June 27th)
- 1981: Anselm Kiefer. Watercolors 1970–1980. Kunstverein Freiburg , Freiburg (September 18 - October 18)
- 1981: Anselm Kiefer. Margarete-Sulamith, Museum Folkwang , Essen (October 30th - December 6th)
- 1982: Anselm Kiefer. Paintings and Books , Whitechapel Art Gallery, London (March 3rd - May 2nd)
- 1982: Anselm Kiefer , Marian Goodman Gallery, New York (April 13th - May 7th)
- 1982: Anselm Kiefer, Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne (June 4th - July 17th)
- 1982: Documenta 7 , Museum Fridericianum , Kassel (single room) (June 19 - September 28)
- 1982: Anselm Kiefer , Galerie Helen van der Meij, Amsterdam (October 5th - 30th)
- 1983: Anselm Kiefer , Henie-Onstad Kunstsenter, Høvikodden, Oslo (May 19 - June 19)
- 1983: Anselm Kiefer. Paintings and Watercolors , Anthony d'Offay Gallery, London (May 25th - July 9th)
- 1983: Anselm Kiefer. Books and gouaches, Hans Thoma Museum, Bernau (on the occasion of the award of the Hans Thoma Prize) (September 18 - November 1)
- 1984: Anselm Kiefer , Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne (January 14th - February 11th)
- 1984: Anselm Kiefer, Kunsthalle Düsseldorf (March 24th - May 5th) (1st station)
- 1984: The Fifth Biennale of Sydney: Private Symbol, Social Metaphor , Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sidney, Australia (April 11th - June 17th)
- 1984: Anselm Kiefer , Musée d'art moderne de la Ville de Paris , Paris (May 11th - June 21st) (2nd station)
- 1984: Anselm Kiefer. Peintures 1983-1984 , CAPC Musée d'Art Contemporain de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (May 19 - September 9)
- 1984: Anselm Kiefer , The Israel Museum, Jerusalem (July 31 - September 30) (3rd station)
- 1985: Anselm Kiefer. Excerpt from Egypt / Departure of Egypt, Marian Goodman Gallery, New York (April 12 - May 11)
- 1985: 1945-1985: Art from the Federal Republic of Germany, Nationalgalerie Berlin (September 27, 1985 - January 21, 1986)
- 1986: Anselm Kiefer , Galerie Paul Maenz, Cologne (March 11th - April 19th)
- 1986: Bilder / Schilderijen 1986–> 1980. Stedelijk Museum , Amsterdam (December 20, 1986 - February 8, 1987)
- 1987: break and unity. Marian Goodman Gallery, New York
- 1987: XIX. São Paulo Biennial
- 1987–1989: Exhibitions at The Art Institute of Chicago (December 5, 1987 - January 31, 1988), Philadelphia Museum of Art (March 6 - May 1, 1988), Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (June 14 - September 11, 1988) and at the Museum of Modern Art , New York (October 17, 1988 - January 3, 1989)
- 1988: Eroticism in the Far East - A Book by Anselm Kiefer. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston , Massachusetts
- 1989: Mesopotamia - The High Priestess. Anthony d'Offay Gallery, London
- 1989: Poppy seeds and memory. Galeria Foksal, Warsaw
- 1989: The Angel of History. Paul Maenz Gallery, Cologne
- 1990: Jason. Douglas Hyde Gallery, Dublin
- 1990: Lilith. Marian Goodman Gallery, New York
- 1990–1991: Anselm Kiefer: Books 1969–1990. Kunsthalle Tübingen : September 29 - November 18, 1990; Kunstverein Munich: January 11th - February 17th 1991; Kunsthaus Zurich : March 1 - April 7, 1991
- 1991: Anselm Kiefer. Neue Nationalgalerie Berlin : March 10th - May 20th 1991
- 1992: Women of the Revolution. Gallery d'Offay, London
- 1993: Melancholia. Traveling exhibition in Japan: Sezon Museum of Art, Tokyo: June 3 - July 19, 1993; The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto: August 3 - September 5, 1993; Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art: September 18 - October 24, 1993
- 1993: 20 Years of Solitude / Twenty Years of Solitude. Marian Goodman Gallery, New York
- 1996: Cette obscure clarté qui tombe des étoiles. Yvonne Lambert Gallery, Paris
- 1996: Astrup Fearnley Museet for Modern Art, Oslo
- 1997: Heaven - Earth. Museo Correr , Venice: June 15 - November 9, 1997
- 1998: Your age and mine and the age of the world. / Your and my age and the age of the world. Gagosian Gallery, New York: January 24 - February 28, 1998
- 1998-1999: Works on Paper 1969-1993. Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York: December 15, 1998 - March 21, 1999
- 1999: The women of antiquity. / Les femmes de l'antiquité. Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris: November 6th - December 23rd, 1999
- 2000: Chevirat Ha-Kelim. / Rupture of the vessels. Hôpital de la Salpêtrière , Chapelle, Paris
- 2000: Recente werken, 1996–1999. Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst , Ghent
- 2001–2002: Anselm Kiefer: The Seven HimmelsPaläste 1973–2001. Beyeler Foundation , Riehen b. Basel: October 28, 2001 - February 17, 2002
- 2002: La vie secrète des plantes. Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris: October / November 2002.
- 2003: At the beginning. Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac , Salzburg: July 25th - September 13th 2003
- 2004: I sette palazzi celesti. Permanent installation of 7 towers, Hangar Bicocca , Milan
- 2004–2005: Let a thousand flowers bloom. Kunsthalle Würth , Schwäbisch Hall: October 15, 2004 - May 1, 2005
- 2005: Anselm Kiefer for Paul Celan. Thaddaeus Ropac Gallery, Salzburg
- 2005: The women. Académie de France à Rome, Villa Medici , Rome: January 27 - March 20, 2005
- 2006: Heaven and Earth. Musée d'Art Contemporain de Montréal; Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden , Washington DC; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art , San Francisco, California
- 2006: Anselm Kiefer, Velimir Chlebnikov. Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Ridgefield, Connecticut
- 2006: For Paul Celan. Galerie Yvon Lambert, Paris: October 21 - December 2, 2006
- 2007: Anselm Kiefer. Guggenheim Museum , Bilbao: March 28 - September 9, 2007
- 2007: Anselm Kiefer. Starfall / Chute d'étoiles. Monumenta, Grand Palais , Paris May 30th - July 8th
- 2007: Aperiatur Terra. White Cube , London: January 26th - March 17th, 2007; Art Gallery of New South Wales , Sydney: May 19 - July 29
- 2007-2008: Anselm Kiefer. Museum der Moderne Mönchsberg , Salzburg (December 1, 2007 - August 17, 2008)
- 2007: Sculpture and Paintings from the Hall Collection. Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art, North Adams, Massachusetts
- 2007–2008: Ways of World Wisdom / The Women of the Revolution. Arp Museum Bahnhof Rolandseck , Remagen: September 29, 2007 - September 28, 2008
- 2008: Heroic Symbols. Galerie Céline and Heiner Bastian, Berlin: May 2 - September 13, 2008
- 2008: Maria went through a thorn forest. Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg: July 24th - August 27th, 2008
- 2008–2009: Anselm Kiefer. From the Großhaus collection. Gottorf Castle , Schleswig
- 2009: Anselm Kiefer. Works from the Grothe Collection. Es Baluard , Palma de Mallorca
- 2009: Karfunkelfee and The Fertile Crescent. White Cube, London: October 16 - November 14, 2009
- 2010: Next year in Jerusalem. Gagosian Gallery, New York: November 8 - December 18, 2010
- 2010–2011: Louisiana Museum of Modern Art , Humlebæk: September 10, 2010 - January 9, 2011
- 2010–2011: Europe. Villa Schöningen , Potsdam: October 2010 - January 2011
- 2011: Il sale della terra / Salt on Earth. Fondazione Emilio e Annabianca Vedova, Venice: June 1st - November 30th 2011
- 2011: Anselm Kiefer in the Würth Collection. Museé Würth France, Erstein , Bas Rhin , Alsace: January 28th - September 25th 2011
- 2011: Anselm Kiefer. Alkahest. Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg: July 28th - September 24th 2011
- 2011: Anselm Kiefer. Selected works from the Grothe Collection. Museum Frieder Burda , Baden-Baden: October 7, 2011 - February 5, 2012
- 2011: Anselm Kiefer. Shevirat ha-Kelim (Breaking of the Vessels). Tel Aviv Museum of Art , since November 2, 2011
- 2012: Anselm Kiefer. Works from the Essl Collection . February 3 - May 29, 2012
- 2012: Anselm Kiefer. At the beginning. Works from the private collection of Hans Grothe. Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany , Bonn: June 20 - September 16, 2012
- 2012: Joseph Beuys - Anselm Kiefer. Drawings, gouaches, books. Museum Küppersmühle for Modern Art , Duisburg: June 29 - September 30, 2012
- 2013: Anselm Kiefer - The Rhine. Galerie Bastian, Berlin: April 13 - September 14, 2013.
- 2013: Morgenthau Plan. Gagosian Gallery , New York: May 3 - June 8, 2013
- 2014: Midsummer Night . Permanent installation in the reopened Mönchehaus Museum Goslar
- 2014: Anselm Kiefer. Royal Academy of Arts , London: September 27th - December 14th, 2014
- 2015–2016: L'Alchimie du livre. Bibliothèque nationale de France , Paris: October 20, 2015 to February 7, 2016
- 2015–2016: Anselm Kiefer. Center Pompidou , Paris: December 16, 2015 to April 18, 2016.
- 2016: Anselm Kiefer. The woodcuts. Albertina , Vienna: March 18 to June 19, 2016.
- 2020-2021: "Anselm Kiefer, works among others from the Hans Grothe collection", Kunsthalle Mannheim
- 1970: winter landscape. Watercolor on paper, 42.9 × 35.6 cm, The Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York (ill.)
- 1973: Father, Son, Holy Spirit. Oil and coal on burlap, 290 × 281 cm, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
- 1973: Notung (Nothung). Charcoal, oil paint, charcoal drawing on cardboard (sword) collaged on burlap, 300 × 432, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen , Rotterdam (ill.)
- 1973: Parzifal II. Oil paint on woodchip wallpaper, on nettle, 300 × 533 cm, Kunsthaus Zürich
- 1973: Parzifal III / I / IV. Triptych, oil on paper and canvas, 324 × 219 cm, Tate Gallery London
- 1973: Germany's spiritual heroes. Oil and coal on burlap, 307 × 682 cm, Barbara and Eugene Schwartz Collection, New York (ill.)
- 1974: Märkische Heide. Oil, acrylic and shellac on burlap, 118 × 254 cm, Stedelijk Van Abbemuseum , Eindhoven
- 1974: cockchafer fly. Oil on burlap, 220 × 300 cm. Inscription: cockchafer fly, the father is at war, the mother is in Pommerland. Pommerland burned down. Marx Collection , since 1996 in Hamburger Bahnhof (Berlin)
- 1975: Siegfried forgets Brünhilde. Oil on canvas, 646 × 566 cm
- 1977: Iconoclasm. Oil on canvas, 209 × 307 cm, Museum Folkwang , Essen (fig.)
- 1978: Ways of world wisdom: The Hermann Battle. Städel Museum , Frankfurt am Main ( (Fig.) ( Memento from January 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ))
- 1980: Paths: Markish sand. Oil, emulsion, shellac, sand, photography on linen, 284.5 × 440.7 cm, Saatchi Collection London
- 1980: Paths: Brandenburg sand. Acrylic and sand on photography on jute, 255 × 360 cm, Fondation Beyeler
- 1980: Ways of world wisdom: The Hermann battle. Marx Collection
- 1980: Iconoclasm. Oil, emulsion, shellac, sand, woodcut, photography on document paper on canvas, 290 × 400 cm, Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam (Fig.)
- 1980-1985: Midgard. Oil and acrylic on canvas, 361 × 604 cm, The Carnegie Museum of Art , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- 1981: The Mastersingers. Oil, acrylic and straw on canvas, 185 × 330 cm (ill.)
- 1981: Ikarus - Brandenburg sand. Oil, emulsion, shellac, sand and photography on canvas, 290 × 360 cm, Saatchi Collection, London
- 1981: interior. Stedelijk Museum , Amsterdam
- 1981: Your golden hair, Margarete. Oil, emulsion, straw on canvas, 130 × 170 cm, Collection Sanders, Amsterdam
- 1981: Your ashy hair, Sulamith. Oil on canvas, 130 × 170 cm
- 1981/85: Gilgamesh . Melted lead, acrylic and shellac on photo collage, 111 × 57.5 cm, private collection, Berlin
- 1981–1996: The big cargo. 300 × 840 × 50 cm, oil, emulsion, sunflowers and lead on canvas, Grothe collection
- 1982: Wölundlied (with grand piano). Emulsion and straw on photograph mounted with lead on canvas, 280 × 380 cm, Saatchi Collection, London
- 1982: The Rhine. Woodcut, 700 × 591 cm, Saatchi Collection, London
- 1982: Märkischer Sand. Oil paint, sand on canvas, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
- 1983: The Supreme Being. Musée National d'Art Moderne , Paris
- 1983: Sulamith. Oil, emulsion, woodcut, shellac, acrylic and straw on canvas, 290 × 370 cm, private collection (ill.)
- 1983-1984: Seraphim. Oil, straw, emulsion and shellac on canvas 320.7 × 330.8 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum , New York
- approx. 1984: The women of the revolution. Installation with 13 beds, between 140 × 70 and 200 × 110 cm, private collection
- 1984: Departure from Egypt (excerpt from Egypt). Oil, straw, shellac, and lead on canvas, 149 1/2 × 221 in, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (fig.)
- 1984–1985: The order of the angels. Emulsion, oil, shellac, acrylic on canvas, steel wire, postcards painted over, lead objects, 330 × 535 cm, Fundació Caixa de Pensions, Barcelona
- 1985–1987: The Milky Way. Emulsion, oil, acrylic, shellac on canvas, wire and lead, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, USA
- 1985-1987: Osiris and Isis. Emulsion, oil, acrylic, 381 × 560 × 16.51 cm, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
- 1985–1989: The High Priestess / Mesopotamia. Floor sculpture, almost 200 books made of lead on two steel shelves, copper wire, glass, 370 × 780 × 50 cm, Astrup Fearnley Museum of Modern Art, Oslo (ill.)
- 1986: Jerusalem. Emulsion, acrylic, shellac, gold foils, two steel skis, lead, 380 × 560 cm
- 1986: The women of the revolution. Chalk, lead on wooden planks, with lilies of the valley and roses behind glass with a lead frame, set wood (painted over), 280 × 198 cm
- 1987-1990: Lilith. Oil, emulsion, shellac, lead, ash, poppy seeds, hair and clay on canvas, 380 × 560 cm, Grothe Collection
- 1988–1990: Ways of world wisdom: the Hermann battle. Woodcut and acrylic on paper, 400 × 580 cm, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art , Humlebæk, Denmark
- 1988–1991: Heavenly Palaces. Work cycle of 28 sculptures, 26 in showcases, 2 free-standing.
- 1989: Poppy seeds and memory. Floor sculpture; Plane made of lead with lead books and dried poppies on the wings. Lead, glass, poppy seeds, iron. Height: 230 cm, width: 650 cm, depth: 630 cm. Hamburger Bahnhof (Berlin) , Marx Collection
- 1989: Berenice. Floor sculpture, lead, glass, photographs and hair, 120 × 390 × 320 cm, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
- 1990: Shebirat Ha Kelim. Lead, glass, dress, ashes and women's hair on wood, 380 × 250 × 35 cm, Grothe Collection
- 1990: Midsummer Night. Installation, Mönchehaus Museum Goslar
- 1990: The Argonauts. Acrylic, ash, lead, wire hangers, glass, chalk, plastic figures, clay, oil, porcelain, snakeskin, straw, textiles and teeth on canvas, 280 × 500 cm, Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main (Fig.)
- 1991: Tannhäuser. Floor sculpture, lead books and branches, Würth Collection (Fig.)
- 1991: 60 million peas (census). Floor sculpture, 500 lead books with peas on steel shelves; Height: 415 cm, Width: 570 cm, Depth: 800 cm; Hamburger Bahnhof (Berlin), Marx Collection
- 1992: eco niches. ( Museum Ludwig , Cologne)
- 1994: Battle of England. Oil, emulsion and lead on canvas, 190 × 280 cm, Grothe Collection
- 1995 Les Reines de France. Emulsion, acrylic, sunflower seeds, photographs, woodcut, gold leaf and cardboard on canvas, 3 panels, 560.1 × 737.9 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (Fig.)
- 1995: The Land of the Two Rivers. Emulsion, acrylic, lead, salt, 416 × 710 cm, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (Fig.) ( Memento from April 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- 1995: Bohemia is by the sea. Oil, lead, resin-coated ferns and mixed media on canvas, 190 × 559 cm, Frieder Burda Collection
- 1996: Bohemia is by the sea. 191.1 × 561.3 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York (ill.)
- 1997: Only with wind, with time and with sound. Sand, acrylic and emulsion on canvas, 470 × 940 cm, reception room of the Reichstag building, Berlin
- 1998: Star Camp II, Star Camp III, Star Camp IV. Museum Küppersmühle
- 2001–2002: La vie secrète des plantes. Musée National d'Art Moderne , Paris
- 2002: Voyage au bout de la nuit. Oil, emulsion, mixed media and lead on canvas, 385 × 560 cm, Grothe Collection
- 2002: Le dormeur du val. (d'après le sonnet de Arthur Rimbaud), oil
- 2003: Stage design and costumes for Oedipus in Kolonos by Sophocles at the Vienna Burgtheater (directed by Klaus Michael Grüber )
- 2003: Set design and costumes for Elektra by Richard Strauss at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples (director Grüber)
- 2004–2008: The Freemasons - Lodge picture.
- 2006: Merkaba. Oil and emulsion on canvas, 190 × 280 cm, Grothe Collection
- 2006: For Paul Celan: Aschenblume. 330 × 760 × 40 cm
- 2007: Jacob's ladder. Oil, emulsion, acrylic, shellac, thorns, plaster of paris, resin-coated ferns and clay on canvas under glass, 285 × 140 cm, Grothe Collection
- 2007: Athanor . Louvre , Paris; in the stairwell designed by the architects Percier and Fontaine at the north end of the Colonnade Perrault
- 2007: The order of the angels. Oil, emulsion, acrylic, shellac, resin-coated fern, ashes, clothes, lead, clay on cardboard on wood under glass, 286 × 141 cm
- 2008: Jacob's dream. Oil, emulsion, resin-coated fern, ashes, clothes, clay on cardboard on wood under glass, 191 × 141 cm
- 2009: The fertile crescent. Oil and emulsion on canvas, 460 × 760 cm, Grothe Collection
- 2009: The Aar flew out of dark spruce trees into the blue. Lead, photography, thorns, acrylic, ash, shellac on canvas, in three parts in a steel and glass frame, 332 × 576 × 32 cm, Würth Collection
- 2010: La Berceuse (for Van Gogh). Installation with 3 glass showcases
- 2011: purificatio dissolutio coagulato. 2.8 × 3.8 m, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac , Salzburg, exhibition hall
- 2011: Essence. Oil, emulsion, acrylic, shellac, scales with salt and paint residues on canvas, 280 × 570 cm, Grothe Collection
- 2011: Only with wind, with time and with sound. Oil, emulsion, acrylic, shellac and lead on canvas, 380 × 560 × 30 cm, Essl Collection
- 2012: Morgenthau Plan. Acrylic, emulsion, oil, shellac on photography, attached to canvas, 380 × 380 cm (fig.)
- Hoffmann von Fallersleben on Heligoland. Groninger Museum, Groningen 1980.
- Eroticism in the Far East or: Transition from cool to warm. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1988.
- Mesopotamia. With an essay by Armin Zwei. In collaboration with the Anthony d'Offay Gallery London. DuMont, Cologne 1989, ISBN 3-7701-2319-0 .
- Melancholia. Edited by Mark Rosenthal. Sezon Museum of Art, Tokyo 1993.
- 20 years of loneliness. Regard, Paris 1998, ISBN 2-84105-100-5 .
- Your and my age and the age of the world. Edited by Heiner Bastian. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-88814-691-7 .
- Anselm Kiefer, The Seven Heavenly Palaces 1973–2001. With an essay by Christoph Ransmayr and contributions by Markus Brüderlin, Mark Rosenthal, Katharina Schmidt. Catalog for the exhibition at the Fondation Beyeler. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2001, ISBN 3-7757-1124-4 .
- The Heavenly Palaces: Merkabah. Edited by Peter Nisbet, with essays by Klaus Gallwitz, Lisa Salzmann and Laura Muir. Harvard University Art Museums, Cambridge, Mass. 2003.
- Anselm Kiefer · Let a thousand flowers bloom. Ed. C Sylvia Weber, with a foreword by Werner Spies. Kunsthalle Würth. Swiridoff, Künzelsau 2004, ISBN 3-89929-029-1 .
- Starfall / Chute d'étoiles. (French catalog of the exhibition at the Grand Palais 2007) Editions du Regard, Paris 2007, ISBN 978-2-84105-203-5 .
- Aperiature Terra. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-8296-0371-3 .
- Heroic symbols. Edited by Heiner Bastian. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-8296-0361-4 .
- Heavenly Palaces. Edited by Heiner Bastian. With photographs and a text by Heiner Bastian. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-8296-0459-8 .
- Alkahest. Edited by Arne Ehmann, with a poem by Christoph Ransmayr. Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-901935-45-9 .
- The art just doesn't go under. Anselm Kiefer in conversation with Klaus Dermutz . Suhrkamp, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-518-42187-1 .
- Notebooks. Volume 1: 1998-1999. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2011, ISBN 978-3-518-42195-6 .
- The Argonauts. Edited by Elena Ochoa Foster. Ivorypress, Madrid 2011, ISBN 978-84-938340-0-5 .
- Anselm Kiefer - Next year in Jerusalem. Collaboration: Marina Warner. Prestel, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-7913-4617-5 .
- Let a Thousand Flowers Bloom. Edited by Honey Luard, with a text by Alex Danchev . White Cube, Hong Kong 2013, ISBN 978-1-906072-65-0 .
- Midsummer Night. Edited by Aeneas Bastian and Bettina Ruhrberg. DISTANZ Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-95476-022-0 .
The English film director and producer Sophie Fiennes completed the film Over Your Cities Grass Will Grow in 2010 , which was shot in Kiefer's refuge in the former La Ribaute factory in Barjac , France . The film was shown at the 2010 Cannes International Film Festival in a special out-of-competition screening.
In 2019 3sat broadcast the documentary: Dialogues in Southern France: Ferdinand von Schirach meets Anselm Kiefer . The conversation took place in La Ribaute in autumn 2018 and was recorded by a camera team led by Claudio Armbruster.
- Götz Adriani : Anselm Kiefer, books 1969–1990. Catalog publication with the first catalog raisonné, Kunsthalle Tübingen ; Art Association Munich ; Kunsthaus Zürich , Stuttgart 1990, English-language edition New York 1991.
- Daniel Arasse : Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-8296-0014-3 .
- Andreas Beyer : Exorcism or conjuration? On the work of Anselm Kiefer. In: Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts: Yearbook. 30 (2016). Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2017, pp. 144–157.
- Matthew Biro: Anselm Kiefer. Phaidon Press, London 2013, ISBN 978-0-7148-6143-2 .
- Daniele Cohn: Anselm Kiefer Ateliers. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-8296-0635-6 .
- Klaus Gallwitz (Ed.): Anselm Kiefer. Ways of world wisdom / The women of the revolution. Catalog book. Richter, Düsseldorf 2007, ISBN 978-3-937572-75-8 .
- Harriet Häussler: Anselm Kiefer. The Heavenly Palaces: The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, ISBN 3-89825-843-2 .
- Albert Kiefer : In times of war and peace. Aesthetic education as a life's work. With the first publication of the artistic development in childhood and adolescence of the son Anselm Kiefer. Publishing house Dr. Kovač, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0900-3 .
- Andréa Lauterwein: Anselm Kiefer / Paul Celan. Myth, Mourning and Memory. Thames & Hudson, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-500-23836-3 .
- Cordula Meier: Anselm Kiefer. The return of myth in art. Dissertation. Verlag Die Blaue Eule, Essen 1992, ISBN 3-89206-465-2 .
- Christoph Ransmayr : The unborn or the heavenly areas of Anselm Kiefer. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-10-062925-6 .
- Christoph Ransmayr: Alkahest. Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac , Paris 2011, ISBN 978-3-901935-45-9 .
- Lisa Saltzman: Anselm Kiefer and Art after Auschwitz. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2000, ISBN 0-521-79443-9 .
- Martina Sauer: fascination - horror. On the relevance of aesthetic experience to action based on Anselm Kiefer's images of Germany. Heidelberg 2012, in: Heidelberg University Library: arthistoricum.net ; 2nd Edition. 2018, ISBN 978-3-946653-85-1 .
- Sabine Schütz: History as Material. Work 1969–1983. Dissertation, Aachen 1998. DuMont, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-7701-4707-3 .
- Literature by and about Anselm Kiefer in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Anselm Kiefer in the German Digital Library
- Materials by and about Anselm Kiefer in the documenta archive
- Extensive bibliography ( Memento from December 2, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Works by Kiefer in European and American museums
- Man is evil. Interview in Die Zeit , No. 10, March 3, 2005.
- Praemium Imperiale of the Japan Art Association. ( Memento from June 8, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Anselm Kiefer and literature. At: Kulturtussi.de.
- Anselm Kiefer. At: artnet .de.
- Pine in the slaughterhouse. Interesting information about Anselm Kiefer in the press archive of the Neckar Odenwald art association in connection with the Mosbach vernissage in 2002.
- More exhibitions by Anselm Kiefer at kunstaspekte.de.
- Anselm Kiefer: artist books
- Anselm Kiefer retrospective at the Center Pompidou
- Anselm Kiefer. The woodcuts
- Anselm Kiefer and Anton Zeilinger in the Albertina
- Anselm Kiefer, Austrian citizen. ORF Salzburg from January 23, 2018.
- Adelheid Sievert: Greetings from our alumnus Albert Kiefer. Art education alumni initiative , January 2011.
- Catrin Lorch : Even without lead. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. August 20, 2011, p. 17.
- Albert Kiefer: In times of war and peace. Aesthetic education as a life's work. With the first publication of the artistic development in childhood and adolescence of the son Anselm Kiefer. Publishing house Dr. Kovač, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0900-3 , p. 177.
- The limit to reality - DER SPIEGEL 12/1996. Retrieved April 3, 2020 .
- Anselm Kiefer in the Munzinger archive , accessed on March 5, 2014 ( beginning of the article freely accessible).
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-7701-4707-3 , pp. 115-130.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 24.
- Ulf Poschardt : Anselm Kiefer turns the Hitler salute into art. In: Berliner Morgenpost , May 18, 2008.
- Jörg Hakendahl: Museum Küppersmühle shows works by Beuys and Kiefer: The summit meeting of the art giants. In: BILD.de. June 29, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2015.
- Petra Kipphoff : Scorched earth and fallen drummer. In: Die Zeit , April 13, 1984.
- Mariana Hanstein; Lothar Schmidt-Mühlisch: Anselm Kiefer: The song emerges from the crash. Interview with Anselm Kiefer. In: The world. March 2, 1992.
- John-Paul Stonard: At the RA. In: London Review of Books. November 6, 2014, Vol 36, No. 21. Retrieved April 8, 2015.
- The Art Institute of Chicago (December 5, 1987 to January 31, 1988), Philadelphia Museum of Art (March 6 to May 1, 1988), The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (June 14 to September 11, 1988 ), The Museum of Modern Art , New York (October 17, 1988 to January 3, 1989).
- Charles Werner Haxthausen: Pine in America. Reflections on an Retrospective. In: Art Chronicle. 42nd year (1989), issue 1, pp. 1-2.
- exhibition in Japan: Sezon Museum of Art, Tokyo (June 3 to July 19, 1993); The National Museum of Modern Art, Kyoto (August 3 to September 5, 1993); Hiroshima City Museum of Contemporary Art (September 18 to October 24, 1993).
- In an interview, he blames the pictures that were no longer available to him due to his divorce. See interview with Anselm Kiefer: “I wanted to start all over again.” ( Memento from May 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: art - Das Kunstmagazin . Edition 7/2001. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
- Quoted from Art: Architect of History (s). In: Focus Magazin, No. 44 (2001). Retrieved May 27, 2015.
- Anselm Kiefer: “Art just doesn't go under.” Anselm Kiefer in conversation with Klaus Dermutz. Suhrkamp, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-518-42187-1 , p. 112.
- The mirror. No. 44/2011 of October 31, 2011.
- His taste. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . February 2, 2011, p. N3.
- Thomas Steinfeld: A tomb for the artist. Anselm Kiefer wants to transform the Mülheim-Kärlich nuclear power plant into a pantheon. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. November 3, 2011.
- Gisela Kirschstein: Mülheim-Kärlich nuclear power plant: This is how a nuclear power plant is dismantled. ( Memento from April 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Frankfurter Neue Presse . September 6, 2014.
- Opera Bastille presents Anselm Kiefer / Jörg Widmann: At the beginning (In the beginning). In: art-agenda. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- orf.at: Anselm Kiefer, Austrian citizen . Article from January 23, 2018, accessed on January 23, 2018.
- Anselm Kiefer: Art just doesn't go under. Anselm Kiefer in conversation with Klaus Dermutz. Suhrkamp, Berlin 2010, p. 29.
- Donald Kuspit : The Spirit of Gray. In: artnet. Retrieved May 31, 2015.
- Werner Spies : Anselm Kiefer. In the desert country. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. March 8, 2005, p. 37.
- Thomas Ebers: Bleiernes Ich. Anselm Kiefer's work on cultural memory. In: Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany (Ed.): Anselm Kiefer. At the beginning. Works from the private collection of Hans Grothe. Wienand Verlag, Cologne 2012, p. 120.
- Charles Werner Haxthausen: Pine in America. Reflections on an Retrospective. In: Art Chronicle. 42nd year (1989), issue 1, p. 5.
- "I wanted to start all over again" ( Memento from May 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: art - Das Kunstmagazin . Issue 7/2001 via archive.is (interview).
- Anselm Kiefer: Art just doesn't go under. Anselm Kiefer in conversation with Klaus Dermutz. Suhrkamp, Berlin 2010, p. 139.
- Exhibition catalog Anselm Kiefer. Next Year in Jerusalem. Gagosian Gallery. New York 2010, p. 7.
- Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: The Heavenly Palaces. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, ISBN 3-89825-843-2 , p. 256.
- Quoted from Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 39.
- Werner Spies: Anselm Kiefer. In the desert country. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. March 8, 2005, p. 37.
- Andrea Lauterwein: Anselm Kiefer / Paul Celan. Myth, Mourning and Memory. Thames & Hudson, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-500-23836-3 , pp. 17-21.
- Ulrike Knöfel, Mathias Schreiber: Mythologe des Schreckens. In: Der Spiegel. June 9, 2008, issue 24/2008. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Daniel Arasse : Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-8296-0014-3 , p. 130.
- Anselm Kiefer: Art just doesn't go under. Anselm Kiefer in conversation with Klaus Dermutz. Suhrkamp, Berlin 2010, p. 31.
- Daniel Arasse: Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, pp. 147–152.
- Christoph Ransmayr : The unborn or the sky areas of Anselm Kiefer. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-10-062925-6 , p. 20.
- Quoted from Monika Wagner : Lexicon of artistic material. Beck, Munich 2001, p. 44.
- Anselm Kiefer: Art just doesn't go under. Anselm Kiefer in conversation with Klaus Dermutz. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2010, 10.
- Jürgen Hohmeyer: Anselm Kiefer. In: artist. Critical lexicon of contemporary art. Issue 89, Issue 5, 1st quarter 2010 ( PDF; 7.9 MB ( Memento from May 29, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on May 28, 2015]).
- Martina Sauer: Fascination and horror. Perception process and decision-making process in Anselm Kiefer's plant. In: Journal for Aesthetics and General Art History. 51st year (2006), issue 2, p. 183.
- Jörg von Uthmann: Anselm Kiefer in the Paris Grand Palais: The artist on his house buildings and the fascination with German myths. In: The world. June 2, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Daniel Arasse: Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, p. 117.
- Daniel Arasse: Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, p. 128.
- The cycle of eight paintings based on these photos, created shortly afterwards, was first shown in 2008 by the Heiner Bastian Gallery in Berlin in the exhibition Heroic Symbols . Christina Tilman: Hitler salute to reason: On the abyss of fascism: Anselm Kiefer's “Heroic Symbols” provoke in Heiner Bastian's Berlin gallery. In: Der Tagesspiegel. May 2, 2008. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- Anja Lösel: Eight times Hitler salute. Heroic symbols. In: art. The art magazine. May 22, 2008 ( art-magazin.de ( Memento from May 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on May 28, 2015]).
- Christina Tilmann: Hitler salute to reason: At the abyss of fascism: Anselm Kiefer's “Heroic Symbols” provoke in Heiner Bastian's Berlin gallery. In: Der Tagesspiegel. May 2, 2008. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Interview with Anselm Kiefer by Steven Henry Madoff, In: Art News. Volume 86, No. 8, October 1987.
- Werner Spies: Anselm Kiefer. In the desert country. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. March 8, 2005, p. 37.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 157 f.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, pp. 163–166.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 158.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 185.
- Andrea Lauterwein: Anselm Kiefer / Paul Celan. Myth, Mourning and Memory. Thames & Hudson, London 2007, pp. 40-44.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 192, 196.
- Daniel Arasse: Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, p. 123.
- Märkische Heide 1974
- Uwe Rada: Nazi song as a national anthem - Rise up, you brown eagle. In: The daily newspaper. August 9, 2009.
- Andrea Lauterwein: Anselm Kiefer / Paul Celan. Myth, Mourning and Memory. Thames & Hudson, London 2007, pp. 71-81.
- Werner Spies: Anselm Kiefer. In the desert country. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. March 8, 2005, p. 37.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer's ways of world wisdom - The Hermann battle. A German genealogy. In: Klaus Gallwitz (Hrsg.): Anselm Kiefer: Ways of world wisdom / The women of the revolution. Richter Verlag, Düsseldorf 2007, p. 16.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer's ways of world wisdom - The Hermann Battle. A German genealogy. In: Klaus Gallwitz (Hrsg.): Anselm Kiefer: Ways of world wisdom / The women of the revolution. Richter Verlag, Düsseldorf 2007, p. 17 f.
- Sabine Schütz lists 5 variants. See Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 240, fn. 7.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 255.
- Otto Werckmeister: Anselm Kiefer - The greatest German artist and the war on the Gulf. In: Art Forum. No. 123 (1993), p. 210.
- Sabine Schütz: History as Material. Work 1969–1983. Dissertation Aachen 1998. DuMont, Cologne 1999, pp. 285, 288 f.
- Andréa Lauterwein: Anselm Kiefer / Paul Celan. Myth, Mourning and Memory. Thames & Hudson, London 2007, pp. 91-93.
- Bonnie Roos: Anselm Kiefer and the Art of Allusion: Dialectics of the Early "Margarete" and "Sulamit" Paintings. In: Comparative Literature @ www.academia.edu. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
- Andréa Lauterwein: Anselm Kiefer / Paul Celan. Myth, Mourning and Memory. Thames & Hudson, London 2007, p. 111.
- Charles Werner Haxthausen: Pine in America. Reflections on an Retrospective. In: Art Chronicle. 42nd year (1989), issue 1, p. 11.
- Andréa Lauterwein: Anselm Kiefer / Paul Celan. Myth, Mourning and Memory. Thames & Hudson, London 2007, p. 95.
- Sabine Schütz: History as Material. Work 1969–1983. Dissertation Aachen 1998. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 300.
- Axel Hecht: Lead beds for the women of the revolution. First environment by Anselm Kiefer in London. In: Art. No. 9/1992, p. 10.
- So in the exhibition from 2007/2008 in the Arp Museum Bahnhof Rolandseck. In the first exhibition in the London Gallery d'Offay in 1992, 14 beds were shown. See Janine Schmutz: Leaden Places for the Women of the Revolution. In: Klaus Gallwitz (Ed.): Anselm Kiefer. Ways of world wisdom / The women of the revolution. Richter, Düsseldorf 2007, p. 66.
- Janine Schmutz: Leaden places for the women of the revolution. In: Klaus Gallwitz (Ed.): Anselm Kiefer. Ways of world wisdom / The women of the revolution. Richter, Düsseldorf 2007, p. 66 f.
- Quoted from Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: Die Himmelspaläste. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, p. 14.
- Christoph Ransmayr: The unborn or the heavenly areas of Anselm Kiefer. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2002, p. 21.
- Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: The Heavenly Palaces. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, p. 29.
- Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: The Heavenly Palaces. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, pp. 30-36.
- Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: The Heavenly Palaces. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, p. 102 and 303 f.
- Sylvia Schiechtl: Anselm Kiefer. - I sette palazzi celesti, Milan. In: livekritik.de/kultura-extra. November 2004, accessed June 1, 2019 .
- Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: The Heavenly Palaces. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, pp. 17-19, 23.
- Heiner Bastian speaks of 26 sculptures, but depicts 27 of the sculptures he photographed in the catalog, one of them free-standing ( palette with wings. Lead). See Heavenly Palaces. Edited by Heiner Bastian. With photographs and a text by Heiner Bastian. Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 2010, p. 8, 102–111.
- Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: The Heavenly Palaces. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, pp. 23 and 33.
- Harriet Häußler: Anselm Kiefer: The Heavenly Palaces. The artist as a seeker between myth and mysticism. Dissertation. Bochum 2004, p. 163.
- Christoph Ransmayr: The unborn or the heavenly areas of Anselm Kiefer. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2002, p. 15.
- Anselm Kiefer: Art just doesn't go under. Anselm Kiefer in conversation with Klaus Dermutz. Suhrkamp, Berlin 2010, p. 60.
- Peter Iden: The seven towers of Bicocca. In: Frankfurter Rundschau, October 14, 2004. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Daniel Arasse: Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, pp. 143–152.
- Daniel Arasse: Anselm Kiefer. Schirmer / Mosel Verlag, Munich 2001, p. 150.
- Brilliant: Kiefer's Starfall. In: Let's explore art. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Informationon the Grand Palais website. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015 ; accessed on May 26, 2015 (English).
- Starfall in the City of Lights. In: Stern. July 9, 2007 ( accessed on July 26, 2007 from stern.de ).
- Catalog book Anselm Kiefer. Selected works from the Grothe Collection. Museum Frieda Burda, Baden-Baden 2012, p. 165.
- Elisabeth Kley: Brobdingnagian Bijoux. In: artnet. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Roberta Smith : A Spetacle with a message. In: The New York Times. November 18, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- See Lance Esplund: Netherworld Chic, Surreal Impressions. In: The Wall Street Journal. November 13, 2010. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Lena Bopp: Anselm Kiefer at the Collège de France - Bin Ladin - an art performance? In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. February 3, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Brigitte Schmiemann: Anselm Kiefer Museum is now being built. In: Welt online. October 21, 2005. Retrieved May 25, 2015.
- Swantje Karich: From low to low. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , June 24, 2012.
- Christiane Fricke: After tough loan negotiations to Mannheim. In: Handelsblatt . July 11, 2014, updated July 14, 2014, accessed March 4, 2019.
- Christian Kämmerling, Peter Pursche: At night I cycle from picture to picture. A workshop talk with Anselm Kiefer about his work and his worldview. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. Magazine No. 46 from November 16, 1990.
- The writer Ferdinand von Schirach speaks about his work and his family. Interview with Christoph Amend . In: ZEITmagazin. No. 10, February 28, 2019, pp. 18–29.
- Sabine Schütz: Anselm Kiefer - history as material. Work 1969–1983. DuMont, Cologne 1999, p. 64 and Sabine Schütz: The litmus test. On art criticism using the example of Kiefer. Cologne 1996 (International Art Critics Association, Section Germany)
- Werner Spies: Overdose of Teutschem. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. June 2, 1980.
- Petra Kipphoff : The pleasure of fear - the German wrong way. In: Die ZEIT. No. 24, July 6, 1980, p. 42.
- Quoted from Charles Werner Haxthausen: Kiefer in America. Reflections on an Retrospective. In: Art Chronicle. 42nd year (1989), issue 1, p. 3.
- Robert Hughes: Germany's Master in the Making. In: Time. December 21, 1987. Quoted from Jürgen Hohmeyer: Anselm Kiefer. In: artist. Critical lexicon of contemporary art. Issue 89, Issue 5, 1st quarter 2010 ( PDF; 7.9 MB ( Memento from May 29, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on May 28, 2015]).
- Werner Spies: Broken Magic. The Kiefer case, a painter's problem and its ambiguous effect. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. January 28, 1989.
- Andreas Beyer: "Even the brushes bear grief"
- Honorary Members - American Academy of Arts and Letters. Retrieved March 20, 2020 (American English).
- Peace Prize of the German Book Trade. Anselm Kiefer 2008. PDF. On: friedenspreis-des-deutschen-buchhandels.de.
- Anselm Kiefer receives the Leo Baeck Medal. In: Saarbrücker Zeitung. (Culture) December 12, 2011, p. B4.
- Rudolf-Werner Dreier: Anselm Kiefer receives an honorary doctorate. Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau, press release from December 19, 2017 at the Informationsdienst Wissenschaft (idw-online.de), accessed on December 20, 2017.
- This year the prize for understanding and tolerance goes to Federal Foreign Minister Heiko Maas and the artist Anselm Kiefer. Retrieved April 1, 2020 .
- ANSELM KIEFER | Accademia di Brera | Sito ufficiale dell'Accademia delle Belle Arti di Brera Milano. Retrieved April 1, 2020 .
- Anselm Kiefer - Museum der Moderne, Salzburg (1.12.07 - 17.2.08) - Salzburg. Accessed March 30, 2020 (German).
- Informationon the White Cube website. Retrieved May 25, 2015 .
- Informationon the website of the Thaddaeus Ropac gallery. Retrieved May 25, 2015 .
- Anselm Kiefer: Sherivat ha-Kelim.
- Informationon the website of the Essl Museum. Archived from the original on May 25, 2015 ; Retrieved May 25, 2015 .
- exhibitions. Archive 2012. In: museum-kueppersmuehle.de. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014 ; accessed on March 4, 2019 (with link to the press release of June 28, 2012; PDF; 90 kB).
- Informationabout the exhibition on the Royal Academy website. Retrieved September 30, 2014 .
- Anselm Kiefer: The woodcuts. The retrospective in the Albertina. Article in cosmopolis.ch
- There are four variants from 1976/77, 1977 (Essen), 1978, 1980 (Rotterdam).
- Photo archive photo Marburg / Photo index of art and architecture: Poppy and memory.
- Photo archive Photo Marburg / Photo index of art and architecture: population census.
- Over Your Cities Grass Will Grow. A film by Sophie Finnes about the work of Anselm Kiefer, Mindjazz pictures Cologne, 2012, EAN 4042564055498.
- Festival de Cannes: The Official Selection 2010: Over Your Cities Grass Will Grow. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- Dossier. Dialogues in the south of France: Ferdinand von Schirach meets Anselm Kiefer , accessed on March 7, 2019
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Kiefer, Anselm Karl Albert (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German-Austrian painter and sculptor|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 8, 1945|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Donaueschingen|