University of St Andrews
|University of St Andrews|
|motto||ΑΙΕΝ ΑΡΙΣΤΕΥΕΙΝ (AIEN ARISTEUEIN) (Ever to Excel)|
|founding||August 28, 1413|
|place||St Andrews , United Kingdom|
|Principal and Vice-Chancellor||Sally Mapstone FRSE|
The University of St Andrews ( English University of St Andrews ; Latin Universitas Sancti Andreae ) is one of the oldest and most renowned universities in Great Britain. It is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest university in the English-speaking world after Oxford and Cambridge . It is ranked third best university in the UK. In the subjects of International Relations and Geography and Sustainable Development , she regularly tops the rankings, ahead of Oxbridge . Because of the high proportion of foreign students from upper classes from all over the world, it is considered an elite university.
The individual departments are divided into three so-called colleges - United College (consisting of St Salvator's and St Leonard's College), St Mary's College and St Leonard's College. The university is divided into four faculties (Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Divinity, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Science) and resides in historical and modern buildings throughout the small town - around a third of the population are either students or employees of the university . The student body is made up of over 145 nationalities, around 45% of whom are from outside the UK - 15% from North America alone.
By papal bull by antipope Benedict XIII. the university was founded in 1413 in the town of St Andrews and with a comparatively small number of around 9,000 students is one of the leading research institutions in the UK with traditionally strong ties to the USA. A quarter of all students come from outside of Europe, mostly from the USA (15%) and Canada .
The actual beginning of teaching translated Augustinian monks of Andrew's Cathedral in 1450; after it was founded in 1453, St Salvator's College - with St Salvator's Chapel - (in 1450), St Leonard's College (in 1511), and St Mary's College (in 1537) were gradually opened for teaching within the university . At that time the university was still strongly clerical.
In the 19th century many new universities were founded in Great Britain and the number of students at St Andrews fell below 150 in some cases. The University College (later Queen's College) founded in Dundee in 1897 and its successful medical faculty strengthened the reputation of the University of St Andrews. In 1967 they separated in the independent University of Dundee and the St Andrews Bute Medical School has since worked closely with the University of Manchester . Over the past few decades, St Andrews has built strong overseas university collaborations (including with the University of California, Berkeley and Emory University in Atlanta ), thereby consolidating the quality of its education.
The university's own museum houses over 112,000 artifacts and an overview of the university's 600-year history.
In 2019, the Guardian University Guide placed St Andrews University second in the UK behind Cambridge University and relegated Oxford University to third place. The rivalry between the three universities has always existed and is reflected in the changing ranking positions. In the subjects of International Relations and Geography and Sustainable Development , the university regularly tops the rankings among all British universities.
History of Photography
Due to the role of the Scottish physicist and professor at St Andrews University David Brewster (1781–1868) in the diffusion of photography in its earliest years and the world renowned photographic collection of the university library, St Andrews offers a stand-alone Masters in the history of photography. This course bears the title Master of Letters ( MLitt for short ) in History of Photography .
Business and Management Studies
In the area of business and management studies , too , St Andrews is often at the top of the ranking. Apply in Business and Management Studies , the difficult access conditions across the UK.
The international relations department is well known not only in Europe but also in North America. The University of St Andrews, along with a few North American universities such as Georgetown University and Harvard University, is at the forefront of terrorism, security and conflict research. In particular, the link between international relations and the field of sustainable development, including a postgraduate program ( Master of Science ), is unique worldwide. Over the past 15 years, the University of St Andrews has provided space for some leading scholars such as Bruce Hoffman, Louise Richardson, Oliver P. Richmond, Roger Mac Ginty, Alex P. Schmid, Karin Fierke, Nick Rengger in international relations. The University of St Andrews was part of Group 94, a small network of research-intensive universities, but left it in October 2012.
The university has produced a number of Nobel Prize winners , including several Nobel Prize winners in chemistry, medicine, literature and a Nobel Peace Prize winner.
The reputation of elitistism at the university is often the subject of criticism. The university has a high proportion of students from the upper classes. The proportion of former private school students is 40%, well above the UK average. Of any UK university, the University of St Andrews has the fewest students from lower income groups (around 13% of the student body). The average cost of student accommodation is highest in St Andrews when compared to other universities in the UK.
Tuition fee increase
An increase in tuition fees in 2011 led to public criticism that the university would become one of the most expensive universities in Great Britain , along with the University of Edinburgh , for non-Scottish Britons . Studying would then be more expensive than Oxford or Cambridge.
Connections to the United States of America
The university has historical ties to the USA. Three signatories of the United States Declaration of Independence were studying or receiving degrees at St Andrews: James Wilson , John Witherspoon and Benjamin Franklin .
Some prominent Scottish immigrants are associated with St Andrews, notably Andrew Carnegie , who was elected rector of the university and after whom the Carnegie Scholarship was named. The University of St Andrews has the highest rate of American students among UK universities.
The university in America has a strong alumni presence and contacts to American universities, so that graduates often become members of institutions and associations such as the Princeton Club of New York.
“Nos ingenui adolescentes, nomina subscribentes, sancte pollicemur nos preceptoribus obsequium debitum exhibituros in omnibus rebus ad disciplinam et bonos mores pertinentibus, Senatus Academici autoritati obtemperaturos, et hujus Academiae Andreae emolumentum et commodum adener, quantum inaturcunisque . Item agnoscimus si quis nostrum indecore turbulenterve se gesserit vel si parum diligentem in studiis suis se praebuerit neque admonitus se in melius correxerit eum licere Senatui Academico vel poena congruenti adficere vel etiam ex Universitate expellere. "
Like other old universities, St Andrews has preserved many unbroken traditions that are not only a media event, but also convey the image of a traditional and historical place and its university. One of the less serious events is the annual November “Raisin Weekend,” where senior freshmen adopt as academic parents, a huge foam battle in St Salvator's Quad. The students wear costumes made for them by their academic parents.
One of the more noticeable traditions in St Andrews is the wearing of gowns, academic robes, similar to gowns . These are worn on festive occasions, church services, walks or even retreats. Originally, gowns were introduced in 1672 to gain control over student tavern visits.
- Prince William ( William Mountbatten-Windsor ) ( Duke of Cambridge and Prince of Great Britain and Ireland) (* 1982), Art History and Geography, 2001–2005
- Catherine Mountbatten-Windsor , b. Catherine Elizabeth "Kate" Middleton (Duchess of Cambridge, wife of William Mountbatten-Windsor ) (* 1982), Art History, 2001–2005
- King James II of Scotland (1430-1460)
- Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Son and Advisor to the President of the United Arab Emirates Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
- James Graham , 1st Marquess of Montrose, “The Great Montrose”. General of the Scottish Royalists during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
- John Graham of Claverhouse Scottish nobleman, also known as "Bonnie Dundee". Leader of the first Jacobite revolt against the British crown in 1689
economy and politics
- Olivier Sarkozy French-American investment banker, (half-brother of Nicolas Sarkozy , former French President)
- Sir Robert John Sawers (* 1955) Head of the British Secret Service MI-6 and former British Ambassador to the UN.
- Sir John Rose (Rolls-Royce) , former Chairman of the Board of Directors of Rolls-Royce
- Lord Colonsay (Duncan McNeill), 1st Baron Colonsay, former British Lord Advocate and Lord Justice General
- Lord William Cullen, Baron Cullen of Whitekirk, former Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General
- Alex Salmond , First Minister and Party Leader , Scottish National Party
- James Wilson , founding father of the USA, co-signer of the American Declaration of Independence
- Jean Paul Marat , physician and mouthpiece of the Jacobins during the French Revolution
- James W. Black (1924-2010), Nobel Prize Winner in Medicine (1988)
- Walter Norman Haworth (1883–1950), Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry (1937)
- Alan MacDiarmid (1927-2007), Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry (2000)
- Peter Branscombe (1929–2008), literature, music and theater researcher with a focus on Austria
- GWS Barrow , Eminent British Historian
- John Napier , mathematician, naturalist and inventor of the logarithmic functions
Art and media
- Ian McDiarmid (* 1944), British actor and director (also known as the Imperator / Darth Sidious from the “ Star Wars ” films)
- Robert Fergusson , poet
- Sir Eric Anderson , Provost of Eton College
- Robert Balfour , philosopher
- Herbert James Paton , philosopher
List of Rectors
- 1868–1871 James Anthony Froude
- 1872–1874 Charles Neaves
- 1874–1877 Arthur Penrhyn Stanley
- 1877-1880 Roundell Palmer, 1st Earl of Selborne
- 1880-1883 Sir Theodore Martin
- 1884-1886 Donald Mackay, 11th Lord Reay
- 1886-1889 Arthur Balfour
- 1889-1892 Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava
- 1892–1898 John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute
- 1898-1901 James Stuart
- 1901-1907 Andrew Carnegie
- 1907-1910 John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury
- 1910–1913 Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery
- 1913–1916 John Hamilton-Gordon, 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair
- 1916–1919 Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig
- 1919-1922 Sir JM Barrie
- 1922-1925 Rudyard Kipling
- 1925–1928 Fridtjof Nansen
- 1928–1931 Sir Wilfred Grenfell
- 1931-1934 Field Marshal Jan Smuts
- 1934-1937 Guglielmo Marconi
- 1937-1938 Robert MacGregor Mitchell
- 1938-1946 Sir David Munro
- 1946–1949 Sir George Cunningham
- 1949–1952 David Cecil, Lord Burghley
- 1952–1955 David Lindsay, 28th Earl of Crawford
- 1955-1958 David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Viscount Kilmuir
- 1958–1961 Robert Boothby, Baron Boothby
- 1961–1964 CP Snow
- 1964–1967 Sir John Rothenstein
- 1967–1970 Sir Learie Constantine (from 1969 Baron Constantine)
- 1970–1973 John Cleese
- 1973–1976 Alan Coren
- 1976-1979 Frank Muir
- 1979-1982 Tim Brooke-Taylor
- 1982–1985 Katharine Whitehorn
- 1985-1988 Stanley Adams
- 1988–1991 Nicholas Parsons
- 1991-1993 Nicholas Campbell
- 1993-1999 Donald Findlay
- 1999-2002 Andrew Neil
- 2002-2005 Sir Clement Freud
- 2005-2008 Simon Pepper
- 2008-2011 Kevin Dunion
- 2011–2014 Alistair Moffat
- 2014–2017 Catherine Stihler
- 2017 Srđa Popović
Source: St Andrews University Museum
The university houses 19 institutes, which in turn are divided into four faculties (Science, Arts, Divinity and Medicine) (alphabetically):
- English studies
- Film studies
- Geography and Sustainable Development
- Computer science
- International Relations
- Classical languages
- Art history
- Math and statistics
- Medicine (Bute Medical School)
- Modern languages
- Philosophy and anthropology
- Physics and astronomy
- official website
- yourunion.net (student association)
- thesaint-online.com (university newspaper )
- Princeton Club of New York
- st-andrews.ac.uk ( Memento of the original dated November 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The University today - University of St Andrews. (No longer available online.) June 1, 2007, archived from the original on June 1, 2007 ; accessed on July 24, 2019 .
- University of St Andrews: We proudly do our part to bring the world to Scotland #ScotlandWelcomesTheWorld @ uni_scotpic.twitter.com / PAiDsOche5. In: @univofstandrews. January 24, 2017, accessed July 24, 2019 .
- st-andrews.ac.uk ( Memento of the original from February 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- University league tables 2020. June 8, 2019, accessed June 8, 2019 .
- University league tables 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2019 .
- University league tables 2020. Retrieved June 12, 2019 .
- University of St Andrews website. Retrieved May 3, 2018 .
- List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation in the English language Wikipedia
- Golf and rubber boots. In: Spiegel Online. January 6, 2011, accessed November 30, 2014 .
- lazystudents.co.uk ( Memento of the original from April 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Maximilian Weingartner: Studying like Prince William. In: FAZ.net . April 10, 2012, accessed December 17, 2014 .
- extras.timesonline.co.uk (PDF file)
- Cost of students' rent soars to record levels ( Memento from December 4, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) on theherald.co.uk
- Newspaper article on tuition fees at the University of Edinburgh. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
- thecourier.co.uk ( Memento of the original from July 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- www.princetonclub.com ( Memento of the original from May 13, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Student Conduct. University of St Andrews, accessed April 15, 2011 . “ We students who set down our names hereunder in all good faith make a solemn promise that we shall show due deference to our teachers in all matters relating to order and good conduct; that we shall be subject to the authority of the Senatus Academicus and shall, whatever be the position we attain hereafter, promote, so far as lies in our power, the profit and the interest of our University of St Andrews. Further, we recognize that, if any of us conducts themselves in an unbecoming or disorderly manner or shows insufficient diligence in their studies and, though admonished, does not improve, it is within the power of the Senatus Academicus to inflict on such students a fitting penalty or even expel them from the University. ”
- www.st-andrews.ac.uk ( Memento of the original from June 5, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF file)