As Bollard vertical fixed in the ground piles are called.
In shipping , a bollard , also known as a holding post, land fortress or ship holder, is a short post made of metal or wood for mooring a ship. On the land side, on the quay , on the pier or in niches in a lock chamber wall, bollards are usually cast mushroom-shaped or hook-shaped (→ picture) metal bodies around which the ship 's mooring line attaches the mooring line . On the board side, bollards are usually designed as a welded construction, provided with a cast or welded thickening at the top and available in pairs. An on-board double bollard is not only used to cover the mooring line (wind it around in a figure of eight), but can also be used as a brake to completely brake the ship with the very first mooring line, for example the fore-ring. For this purpose, it is covered with only a few turns (turns), and the loose end is carefully yielded by hand so that the mooring line slips instead of breaking (tearing). This is referred to as snarling or fiery . The cleats on board are used to moor thinner ropes . There, as there, at least one latching action is required that reliably clamps the loose end of the rope and yet makes it easy to detach. In order to deflect a rope well up or down, bollards on deck are often designed as a double cross with a horizontal main axis and positioned as close as possible to the ship's side, bollards on the pier are more like a hook-shaped extension inland or can, especially on flowing rivers, by 5– At an angle of 10 °, piers made of concrete - at least in the area of bollards - are bordered on their edge with a quarter-round strip of steel and are therefore smooth and gentle on the rope. (See also: rope friction )
In road traffic , bollards or posts are small pillars or similarly designed elements made of metal, wood or concrete. They are installed to prevent wide vehicles from driving on or parking in areas such as sidewalks, cycle paths or pedestrian zones. To enable temporary passage for fire engines, for example , folding bollards or plug-in bollards are used, which can be operated with a special key . In the Westphalian space these bollards are also called Pömpel well or in some regions as a stopper designated in Amsterdam they are Amsterdammertje called. The so-called concrete pigs also take on the function of bollards . These are wide, heavy concrete elements that are not anchored in the ground. Essentially thick-cylindrical concrete bollards that are stuck on a pipe have the disadvantage that they can roll downhill on sloping roads and cause great damage if they are knocked over or as a result of vandalism.
There are automatically retractable bollards to clear a route for buses or authorized vehicles, but to block them for other individual traffic. The bus or an authorized resident sends a radio signal to the system, whereupon the bollard automatically retracts and clears the way. In pedestrian zones , they are also increasingly being used according to the same system to enable delivery traffic to shops and the access of residents to their properties . These automatically retractable bollards are marked with information signs and can have a traffic light .
Flexible bollards (also known as kickback bollards ) allow an angle of inclination that is almost horizontal. They can be made of hard rubber or, like the rigid bollards, also made of stainless steel, but reduce damage when they come into contact with a motor vehicle. Flexible bollards have an ankle that diverts impacting forces. If there is contact with a vehicle or a person, the bollard gives way to the force and then automatically straightens up again. This type of "intelligent" boundary system is used both in road traffic and in industrial halls. See kink bars at the ski slalom .
Hat bollards set up on the roadside not only serve to direct traffic, they can also be used for short periods of time and are intended to give people with walking difficulties opportunities to rest.
In Graz , various heavy, cylindrical, hemispherical ones made of concrete are used, which are anchored by means of a piece of steel pipe with a diameter of about 4 cm to prevent movement in a corresponding hole in the street asphalt. They can be lifted with a gripping device or two suitable rope slings by truck crane; the pipe remains in the bollard. Even if the displacement force is strong enough, the bollard is pushed out of its anchorage by bending the pipe. If such a loose bollard is not carefully put down, it can roll away down a sloping road, surprise road users and furthermore take up dangerously high momentum. Conical and / or non-circular bollards have less of a tendency to roll away.
In 2018, Salzburg reported the interest of other cities in the retractable bollards used here, which technically function almost fault-free. The bollards are surrounded by a lens-shaped floor marking line.
Paths to residential complexes etc., which are to be kept essentially car-free, are often demarcated by lockable folding bollards. The lock can usually be operated on the bollard head with a triangular or square key or with a lock cylinder. The bollard has a diameter of 5–10 cm so that a two-lane vehicle can easily drive over it when lying down. The locking mechanism can wear out and cause the bollard to wobble. Alternatively, there are bollards which, after opening the lock, can be pulled out of the receptacle on the floor and stored elsewhere. This minimizes the risk that folded bollards will be run over and damaged as a result.
Urban design by Poller ( Nantes , F), 1993
Urban design through illuminated bollards ( Nyköbing Mors , DK)
Bollard in the doorway in the Museumsquartier Vienna
- Helmut Höge : Bollard Research. Edited with an afterword by Philipp Goll. Universi, Siegen 2010 (= Kleine Siegener Helmut Höge edition. Volume 1; Series: Mass Media and Communication , Volume 179/180), .
- Moritz Eichhorn: Free passage for terrorists . Anyone can drive into German pedestrian zones. There are no obstacles. That would be inconceivable in neighboring countries. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung . December 4, 2016, p. 4 .
- Country festivals. In. Meyer's large conversation dictionary.
- Berliner Morgenpost , weekend edition for Lichtenberg, from 23./24. July 2011.
- Salzburger Poller als export hit orf.at, August 10, 2018, accessed August 10, 2018.