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Parking lot with requirement for vertical parking

Parking or parking ( Swiss high German ; from the English park "to enclose, to park in a park " finally to late Latin parricus "enclosure") describes the process of parking an operational and registered vehicle for an indefinite period of time (in Germany a so-called parking process, in Austria a parking the vehicle ). This is a permissible common use , the vehicle is assigned to stationary traffic .

Parking is like holding all permitted where it not Halt (Austria: holding) or parking restrictions is prohibited. To make better use of the parking space, space-saving parking is essential. Sufficient space must be kept free for getting in and out and for maneuvering .

In addition to other basic driving tasks, parking in the street is part of the practical driving test . A distinction is made between parallel parking in the direction of the road and oblique parking. Parking at an angle to the direction of travel requires less skill. In the USA, diagonal parking was already widely introduced in the late 1920s.

Parked vehicles in an inclined position

Situation by country



In Germany, the parking process must be distinguished from the pure stopping process, the legal basis for this is the Road Traffic Act (StVO). Section 12 (2) of the StVO defines: “Anyone who leaves their vehicle or stops for more than three minutes will park.” One of the two criteria is sufficient to turn the stop into a parking process.


Parking must primarily take place in marked parking areas and you must always park on the right-hand hard shoulder. If this is not available or not sufficiently secured, you must park on the right-hand edge of the lane. Exceptions to this are only in one-way streets and on lanes on which there are rails on the right , so that parking is not possible there - parking is allowed on the left edge of the lane. Furthermore, according to the judgment of the Cologne Higher Regional Court, it is permitted to park on the left in traffic-calmed areas in the direction of travel.

Parking on cycle paths and lanes is prohibited; Parking on sidewalks is prohibited as long as it is not explicitly permitted by signs and / or markings.

In Germany, special rules apply to trucks and their trailers in accordance with Section 12 of the StVO; they are not allowed to park at night or on Sundays in some areas. Motor vehicle trailers without a towing vehicle may be parked for a maximum of two weeks.


Typical parking behavior in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands it is permitted to use the left edge of the lane for parking. As a rule, traffic signs are set up in such a way that they can be easily seen from both directions.


The legal basis for stopping and parking is the Austrian Road Traffic Act (StVO). As a special standard for the behavior of drivers on and near level crossings, the Railway Crossing Ordinance 1961 is also used for stopping and parking .


After § 2 Abs. 1 Z. 28 Highway Code applies as parking any longer the vehicle is parked on for holding defined period of time. Then according to § 2 para 1 no. 27 is holding , if a "not by the traffic situation or other important circumstances forced interruption of movement up to ten minutes or for the duration of performing a loading operation " ( § 62 is made).


Vehicles in general

The vehicles are to be set up "for stopping or parking, taking into account the best possible use of the available space, so that no road user is endangered and no driver of another vehicle is prevented from driving past or driving away" ( Section 23, Paragraph 1).

Unless otherwise indicated by floor markings or road traffic signs, vehicles are to be set up outside of parking lots parallel to the edge of the road. Single-lane vehicles are to be set up to save space, i.e. they can also be set up at an angle to the edge of the road.

In any case, it is not allowed to stop or park anywhere where it is prohibited by stopping or parking bans. In addition, the stopping and parking bans are regulated in § 24 StVO Paragraph 1 (stopping and parking) and 3 (parking). This includes stopping and parking in narrow street spaces, in front of blind bends or hilltops, on bridges and in underpasses as well as on protective paths and bike crossings. Furthermore, from the point of view of incoming traffic, within 5 meters of the protective path or the bike crossing, and within 5 meters of the next intersection of intersecting road edges. In certain cases regulated according to Paragraph 2, absolute stopping and parking bans according to Paragraph 1 or 2 may be overridden by floor markings.

In addition to the other absolute stopping and parking bans, parking on lanes with oncoming traffic, if not at least two lanes, and on the left-hand side of one-way streets, if at least one lane is not left free for flowing traffic, is to prevent obstructions to flowing traffic.

Parking in front of house and property entrances is prohibited (Section 24 Paragraph 3 lit. b)), as well as on the tracks of rail vehicles and on lanes for buses (lit. c)) during operating hours. Stopping is therefore permitted in these cases, but the driver has to remain in the vehicle and "when a vehicle approaches whose driver wants to use the entrance to the house or property, to clear the entrance or exit immediately" (§ 23 Paragraph 3). On tracks, the drive-away requirement applies during the operating hours of the rail vehicles ( Section 28 (2)).

The parking (stopping and parking) of vehicles on sidewalks and sidewalks (Section 2 Paragraph 1 Z. 10 and 11) is prohibited (see Section 8 Paragraph 4), unless it is only provided for by floor markings, but then only up to to a total weight of no more than 3,500 kg (Section 23 Paragraph 2). In residential streets ( Section 76b ), vehicles may only be parked in the areas marked (with floor markings) (Section 23, Paragraph 2a).

On highways ( § 46 ) and highways ( § 47 ), stopping and parking is only at service stations and rest stops allowed. At level crossings, stopping and parking (and turning back) is absolute, immediately before or after a level crossing, "if the driver of another vehicle is prevented by the stopping, parking or turning vehicle, the approach of a rail vehicle or devices for displaying or securing To perceive level crossings in good time ”( § 16 Paragraph 2 lit. c) and d) Railway Crossing Ordinance 1961).

Parking of trailers and wagons

According to Section 23, Paragraph 6, trailers without a towing vehicle and unmanned vehicles may only be left standing on the roadway for loading or unloading; parking these vehicles on the roadway is therefore prohibited. There is an exception if the vehicles mentioned cannot be removed immediately after loading, if removal would be an unreasonable economic difficulty or if there are other important reasons for leaving them standing. In addition, the provisions on stopping and parking apply mutatis mutandis to setting up these vehicles.

Parking of bicycles

In addition to compliance with the general provisions for stopping and parking (parking vehicles), the parking of bicycles is regulated in Section 68 (4) of the Road Traffic Act. According to this, bicycles are "to be set up so that they cannot fall over or obstruct traffic".

Bicycles can also be parked on the sidewalk, provided that it is more than 2.5 meters wide; "This does not apply to public transport stops, unless there are bike racks there." In addition, bicycles are to be set up on the pavement "to save space so that pedestrians are not hindered and things are not damaged."


In Sweden, unlike in Germany, the maximum parking time on public roads and parking lots is limited to a maximum of 24 hours on working days, with the exception of working days before Sundays and public holidays. This parking time limit can be shortened or extended by signposting.



"Parking is the parking of the vehicle that is not just used to get people in and out or to handle goods." (Art. 19 Traffic Regulations Ordinance (VRV)) The law does not specify an explicit duration.


According to a study by the insurers' accident research from 2020, parking cars is one of the greatest risks for cyclists because parked cars restrict the view or the driver's door is suddenly opened and dooring accidents can occur. The latter is especially the case when cycle lanes are not marked with a sufficient safety lane for cars to be parked. According to the study, every fifth accident with a cyclist is caused by parking a car.

Mathematical considerations

The movement for backing up a vehicle is modeled as a movement on two turning circles that touch each other. The circles each have a radius (effective turning circle) and the car first moves through an angle on one circle, then through the same angle on the other circle. In the following, it is assumed that the vertical distance to the vehicle in front is equal to zero before parking.

Angle for the circular arc:

Required parking space:

  • r is the effective turning radius
  • w the width of the car
  • f is the distance between the rear axle and the front
  • b the distance between the rear axle and the rear

For example, the values ​​for and (in brackets in meters) for some vehicles are: VW Golf 4 42 degrees (5.50 m), VW Passat 41 degrees (6.08 m), Mercedes C-Class 43 degrees (5.88 m), A-Class 40 degrees (5.27 m), Opel Astra 43 degrees (5.42 m), Mercedes Smart 42 degrees (4.00 m).

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: park  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: park  - explanations of meanings, word origins , synonyms, translations

References and comments

  1. Auto-Magazin , Dr. Eysler & Co. Berlin, first edition January 1928, p. 11
  2. OLG Cologne, decision of May 30, 1997 - Ss 136/97, online
  3. ^ Trafikförordning (1998: 1276). 49 a §. In: Retrieved April 4, 2018 (Swedish).
  4. Study: Parking cars are a great danger for cyclists. Retrieved July 14, 2020 .
  5. Norbert Herrmann : A mathematical model for parallel parking. July 1, 2020, accessed July 1, 2020 . . Also in Hermann, Mathematik ist everywhere, 4th edition, Oldenbourg 2012
  6. Norbert Herrmann : A mathematical model for parallel parking. July 1, 2020, accessed July 1, 2020 .


  1. a b § 2. Definitions.
  2. a b c § 23. Stopping and parking.
  3. Compare: Up until the 19th amendment to the StVO, single-lane vehicles had to be positioned at an angle on the edge of the road. With the aforementioned amendment, the word "diagonally" has been omitted, which means that parking can also be carried out parallel to the edge of the road, but it is not forbidden to position it at an angle. (Source: Commentary on StVO, Martin Hoffer: StVO-Straßenverkehrsordnung. Verkehrsrecht Volume I, ÖAMTC specialist book series, 28th edition. Vienna 2002.)
  4. a b § 24. Stopping and parking bans.
  5. The width of a lane is not defined in the StVO, but according to established case law it is to be assumed to be 2.50 meters wide, two lanes therefore 5.0 meters wide. See comment on StVO, Martin Hoffer: StVO-Straßenverkehrsordnung.
  6. a b § 68. Behavior of cyclists.