The Linons were an Elbe Slavic tribe who settled in the area of today's Westprignitz in the north-west of Brandenburg from the 9th to the 11th centuries . Their suburb was Lunkini (also Lunzini ), today Lenzen . The Linons maintained close relationships with the neighboring Abodrites , into whose tribal association they may have merged.
It is unclear whether the name is an internal or external name. In addition to Linones, there are phonetically similar spellings in the written sources such as Hilinones , Linai , Lini , Linaa , Lingones or Linguones , their settlement area is called Linagga . The name could be derived from Glina , which is used to designate rivers, streams and floodplains.
In the 9th century, the Linonen settlement area stretched along the Elbe from Wehningen north of Dömitz to Lenzen. Here the castle, built in the 10th century, dominated an important Elbe crossing. In the north, the Elde bordered the settlement area, with the exception of the area around Parchim and Lübz to the southern end of the Plauer See . The tribes of the Smeldingen and Bethenzers sat there . In the east, a wooded area between Ture and Pritzwalk separated the Linonen from the Dossanen around Wittstock / Dosse , in the south an extensive wooded area called Rodahn separated from the Briezanen / Nieletzi around Havelberg . A traveler needed two days to cross the Rodahn . According to the archaeological findings, the Linones' main settlement was in the area between Grabow and Putlitz . Early Slavic castles are in Frehne , Pinnow , Mankmuß , Stavenow , Dallmin , Dambeck , Brunow , Wulfsahl , Marnitz and Muchow . It is unclear whether the Linons also settled on the left bank of the Elbe, i.e. in today's Lüchow-Dannenberg district .
The first news about the Linones comes from an entry in the imperial annals for the year 808. The Linones, like two thirds of the Abodrites and the Smelding tribe, fell away from the Abodritic ruler and Frankish ally Drasco and defected to the Danish King Göttrik . To protect the imperial border, Charlemagne sent his son, Karl the Younger , to the Elbe with an army. However, since the Danes made no move to advance from the Baltic Sea into the interior of the country, Charles the Younger built a bridge over the Elbe and led his army against the Linonen and Smeldingen, devastated their territory and then returned with his troops across the river to Saxony back. This punitive expedition against the renegade Linon seems to have been of dubious success. Because while the Reichsannals separately emphasize that there were no Franconian losses to complain about, the Chronicon Moissiacense reports of fallen Franks. The attempt by Drascos in the following year to force the Linons back under his sovereignty by military means also failed. After the Franks even had to accept the loss of the fort on the Höhbeck in 810 due to an attack by the Wilzen , allied with the Linons , Charlemagne once again set out a whole army against the Linons in 811 in order to pacify the apron on the other side of the imperial border . This campaign also seems to have had only limited success, because in the following year, with the participation of the Abodrites, three army detachments were sent to the Priegnitz to fight the Wilzen, who were allied with the Linonen.
In the news for the years 839 and 858, the Linons meet again in the written sources on the side of the Abodrites. First, Ludwig the Pious sent a Saxon army against Abodrites and Linons, then Ludwig the German, without an alliance between Linones and Abodrites being handed down, even if such an alliance is close. In any case, the Linonen were perceived as an independent association. The Bavarian Geographer then called mid-9th century as "populus". The last time the Linons are mentioned in the Franconian sources for the year 877, when they refused to pay the tribute due to the East Franconian ruler. From this passage of text it has recently been deduced from research that the Linons could not have been a tribe with their own organizational and rulership structure, but rather the tributary residents of an Elbe region, in whose area the Franks had a rudimentary administrative structure to collect the tribute had created.
- Friedrich Kurz (Ed.): Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separately in editi 6: Annales regni Francorum inde from a. 741 usque ad a. 829, qui dicuntur Annales Laurissenses maiores et Einhardi. Hanover 1895 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Matthias Hardt: Prignitz and Hannoversches Wendland. The principality of the Slavic Linons in the early and high Middle Ages. in: In the service of historical regional studies. Contributions to archeology, medieval research, onomatology and museum work, mainly in Saxony. Festive offer for Gerhard Billig on the occasion of his 75th birthday, offered by students and colleagues. Edited by Rainer Aurig, Reinhardt Butz, Ingolf Gräßler and André Thieme, Beucha 2002, pp. 95-103.
- Sébastien Rossignol: The rise and fall of the Linonians. Unsuccessful ethnogenesis on the lower Middle Elbe. in: Karl-Heinz Willroth, Jens Schneewiess (Ed.): Slavs on the Elbe. (= Göttingen research on prehistory and early history ., Vol. 1), Wachholtz, Göttingen 2011, pp. 15–38. PDF
- Doubtful Sébastien Rossignol: Rise and Fall of the Linons. Unsuccessful ethnogenesis on the lower Middle Elbe. in: Karl-Heinz Willroth, Jens Schneeweiß (ed.): Slavs on the Elbe. (= Göttingen research on prehistory and early history ., Vol. 1), Wachholtz, Göttingen 2011, pp. 15–38, here pp. 32–33, who wants to apply the term tribe to the 9th century at best.
- Friedrich Wigger : Mecklenburgische Annalen up to the year 1066. A chronologically arranged collection of sources with notes and treatises. Hildebrand, Schwerin 1860, p. 109.
- Fred Ruchhöft: From the Slavic tribal area to the German bailiwick. The development of the territories in Ostholstein, Lauenburg, Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania in the Middle Ages. (= Archeology and history in the Baltic Sea region. Vol. 4). Leidorf, Rahden (Westphalia) 2008, ISBN 978-3-89646-464-4 , pp. 93-95.
- Annales regni Francorum 808: Linones
- Chronicon Moissiacense 808: sed et aliqui ex nostra parte ibidem ceciderunt. weblink
- Annales regni Francorum 809: Omnes, qui ab eo defecerant, ad suam societatem reverti coegit. ; Wolfgang Herrmann Fritze: Problems of the abodritic tribal and imperial constitution and its development from a tribal state to a ruling state. in: H. Ludat, (Ed.) Settlement and constitution of the Slavs between the Elbe, Saale and Oder. , W.Schmitz, Gießen 1960, pp. 141-219, here p. 208; differently Volker Helten: Between cooperation and confrontation: Denmark and the Franconian Empire in the 9th century. Kölner Wissenschaftsverlag, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-394-27201-0-6 , p. 53, according to the interpretation of which the source has re-submitted all strains including the linons.
- Christian Hanewinkel: The political importance of the Elbe Slavs with regard to the changes in rule in the East Franconian Empire and in Saxony from 887–936. Political sketches of the eastern neighbors in the 9th and 10th centuries. Münster 2004, p. 57 f. online (PDF; 5 MB)
- Annales regni Francorum 810
- Annales regni Francorum 811: exercitus misit, unum trans Albiam in Linones.
- Chronicon Moissiacense 812: Misit Karolus imperator tres scaras ad illos Sclavos, qui dicuntur Wilti. Unus exercitus eius venit cum eis super Abodritos, et duo venerunt obviam ei ad illa marchia.
- Annales Bertiniani 839
- Annales Fuldenses 858
- Wolfgang Herrmann Fritze: Problems of the abodritic tribal and imperial constitution and its development from a tribal state to a ruling state. in: H. Ludat, (Ed.) Settlement and constitution of the Slavs between the Elbe, Saale and Oder. , W.Schmitz, Gießen 1960, pp. 141–219, here p. 208: “Political Action Community”.
- Annales Fuldenses 877
- Sébastien Rossignol: Rise and Fall of the Linons. Failed ethnogenesis on the lower Middle Elbe. in: Karl-Heinz Willroth, Jens Schneeweiß (ed.): Slavs on the Elbe. (= Göttingen research on prehistory and early history ., Vol. 1), Wachholtz, Göttingen 2011, pp. 15–38, passim.