from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Light sources are all electrical equipment and electrical consumers that are used to generate light , as well as all objects that generate light through chemical or physical processes. They form a source of light . Instead of today commonly used (especially in hardware stores and electronics stores in the online mail order) term lamps the term in standardization lamp used.

Definition of terms

The terms light , lamp and luminaire are defined in DIN 5039 . According to this, a lamp, quote: "a technical implementation of an artificial light source, which is primarily intended to generate light, that is, to shine or illuminate." The luminaire is defined as a, quotation: "A device that is used to distribute, filter or transform the light from lamps, including the components necessary for fastening, protecting or operating the lamps." Are defined. The term illuminant is not used in this, as in other German-language standards on the topic (DIN EN 12665, DIN EN 13032-1, DIN EN 60969, DIN IEC 60810, etc.). In sheet 1 of VDI 4700 lamp is outlined as, quotation: "the light source in a lamp". This definition is based on a reference to the withdrawn BGR 131-1. In the VDI guideline mentioned, the colloquial equation of the terms lamp and luminaire , as a designation of the entire lighting device (cf. e.g. kerosene lamp , desk lamp, etc.), is described as incorrect .

The lamp is specified in DIN 5039, as is colloquial, with additions to compound terms. In the case of electric lamps such as: incandescent lamp , halogen incandescent lamp, gas discharge lamp , high-pressure discharge lamp , fluorescent lamp , this is usually how light is created. In the case of chemico-physical lamps, the lamp cannot usually be technically separated from the luminaire, so that the lamp is the dominant part of the luminaire and thus defines the term. Examples are: the oil lamp , the lantern (which contains a candle), the kerosene lamp, and the carbide lamp . The term replacement lamp or retrofit is increasingly used (for example in terms such as LED replacement lamp or LED retrofit) for new types of electrical light sources that can be used directly in exchange for incandescent lamps, as they fit into existing sockets and are offered in similar luminous intensities . Such lamps are also often referred to as energy-saving lamps after the objective of replacement.

While lamps were colloquially referred to as both light sources and, in some cases, luminaires, the term light source appears more precise in this regard. According to the definition in Wikipedia, it only ever designates the light-generating component (s) of lights.


Lamp types

Electric bulbs

Most traditional electrical light sources require a gas-tight, sealed envelope. In the case of incandescent and gas discharge lamps, it consists of glass (glass bulbs or glass tubes). Modern light sources such as light-emitting diodes and capacitor light-emitting foils are solidly encased in plastic .

Light sources are usually housed in a luminaire that may contain additional equipment to operate the light source ( switch , ballast , ignitor, dimmer , starter ) and the electrical connection devices.

The electrical connection is often made using special sockets that accommodate the base or connecting pins of the light source. Sockets and bases are usually designed so that the light sources can be changed without tools. This is necessary because most light sources have a significantly shorter lifespan than the lights in which they are operated. Typical base shapes are screw, bayonet and plug-in bases.

Socketless lamps can also be designed to be exchangeable by means of wires lying on the glass body, but they are usually soldered in .

Important data of a light source are:

For applications in traffic, on machines or with special comfort requirements, the ripple (time-dependent periodic fluctuations) of the luminous flux or the light color is important. Flickering at twice the mains frequency is typical for gas discharge lamps with conventional ballasts. LED and electronic compact fluorescent lamps often have higher-frequency modulations (a few 100 Hz to a few 10 kHz). To avoid stroboscopic effects, low-flicker lamps (previously only incandescent lamps) must be used on machines.

Light sources can be roughly differentiated as follows, the special features of operation and handling are given in brackets:

  • lightbulbs
    • General service lamps (without protective glass, no protective glass required)
    • Halogen lamps (with and without protective glass, protective glass required)
    • Projection lamps (without protective glass, protection required)
  • Gas discharge lamps
    • Low pressure gas discharge lamps (no protective glass required)
    • High pressure gas discharge lamps (ballast always required)
      • High pressure mercury vapor lamps (no protective glass required)
      • High-pressure mercury vapor lamps (protection during handling, transport and operation required! Prescribed operating position! Ignitor required)
      • High pressure sodium vapor lamps (ignitor required)
      • Metal halide lamps (as before, protective glass required, prescribed operating position, ignition device required)
      • Xenon arc lamps (high and extremely high pressure lamps, control gear required, protection during handling and operation required, ignition device required)
    • Induction lamps No further protective measures are required with low-frequency induction lamps. With the latest generation of high-frequency induction lamps, this is no longer necessary (no protective glass, but shielding against leakage of high-frequency electromagnetic vibrations required; electronic ballast)
  • LEDs (no protective glass, but current limitation required)

Lamps that reach high bulb temperatures during operation (halogen lamps and high-pressure / ultra-high pressure gas discharge lamps without protective glass bulbs) must not be touched with the bare hand, even when they are cold, as fingerprints will burn in and lead to lamp failure.

Due to their sometimes very high base temperatures, lamps may only be operated in sockets specified for them. The specification of the socket can differ from that of the luminaire, but the lamp must always match the specification of the luminaire: in the case of incandescent lamps, it may also have a lower electrical power consumption than the specified output of the luminaire, but never a greater one.

For some time now, there have been LED lamps that can be used directly as a replacement for incandescent lamps with the appropriate base. These contain the components required for current limitation in the base so that they can be operated directly on common voltages (12 V and 24 V direct and alternating voltage, 230 V alternating voltage).

The lamps which, although they have a bulb base , cannot be operated directly on 230 V, include high-pressure gas discharge lamps with Edison screw bases E27 and E40 (or E39).

The different designs and power forms are mostly characterized by the ILCOS lamp designation system and are thus comparable or interchangeable and described in more detail there.

You choose the color temperature of the light sources according to the intended use:

  • Warm white (2000 to 3250 K) is used for living spaces (2300 to 2700 K), sales rooms such as bakeries (2500 K) and restaurants and hotels (3000 K).
  • Neutral white (3250 to 4500 K) is used for offices (4000 K), bathrooms and kitchens (4500 K), lecture halls, classrooms and hospitals (5000 K).
  • Daylight white (5000 to 6500 K) is used in industry and trade, work rooms and workshops as well as in operating rooms, laboratories and libraries.

Comparison table of different electrical illuminants

The following table gives an overview of the power consumption of different types of light sources with the same brightness (physically: luminous flux in lumens ) as a 60 W incandescent lamp.

Lamp type Typical
in watts
Light output
in lumens per watt
Savings compared to an incandescent lamp Energy
efficiency class
Production costs Lifespan dimmable
Color rendering index
Lightbulb 40-60 about 12 - D-G low low Yes until 100
Halogen lamp 7-60 15-27 up to 30% B-F low medium Yes until 100
Compact fluorescent lamp 5-15 40-65 up to 80% FROM high high Rare 70 ... 84
Metal halide lamp 20–400 (household) 50-117 over 85% - high medium   60… 95
LED bulbs 3-20 typical: 27-80 to more than 150 over 90% A. high very high frequently 80… 95
Sodium vapor lamp 35-1000 100-200 over 95% - medium high partially 18… 30

Chemical-physical light sources

These include:

Safety and health when disposing of lamps containing mercury

Lamps containing mercury are collected in companies, for example in trade and craft, as well as in municipal collection points, mobile hazardous substances and service vehicles. Manual dismantling can release mercury , which can pose an inhalation hazard to employees . The employer must therefore carry out a risk assessment . The risk assessment recommendations of the accident insurance institutions (EGU) provide practical information on risk assessment so that the limit values ​​for mercury are complied with. These include the workplace limit value (AGW), the short-term value according to TRGS 900 and the biological limit value (BGW) according to TRGS 903. If the process parameters and the protective measures described are complied with, it can be assumed that the minimization requirement according to Section 7 (4) of the GefStoffV will be met .

Other hazards such as B. Cuts caused by lamp breakage are to be considered separately in the risk assessment. Oral, dermal, fire and explosion hazards do not arise with the collection of discarded mercury-containing lamps.

See also


  • Günter Springer: Expertise in electrical engineering. 18th edition, Verlag - Europa - Lehrmittel, Wuppertal 1989, ISBN 3-8085-3018-9
  • Winfrid Hauke, Rolf Thaele, Günter Reck: RWE Energie Bau-Handbuch. 12th edition, Energie-Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg 1998, ISBN 3-87200-700-9

Web links

Wiktionary: illuminants  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. DIN 5039 - light, lamps, lights; Terms, classification . Beuth, September 1995, p. 2 .
  2. DIN 5039 - light, lamps, lights; Terms, classification . Beuth, September 1995, p. 3 .
  3. DIN EN 12665 ​​- Light and lighting; Basic terms and criteria for defining lighting requirements . Beuth, August 2018.
  4. DIN EN 13032-1 - Light and lighting Measurement and display of photometric data from lamps and luminaires; Part 1 . Beuth, June 2012.
  5. DIN EN 60969 - lamps with built-in ballast for general lighting . Beuth, June 2001.
  6. DIN IEC 60810 - lamps, light sources & LED packages for road vehicles . Beuth, March 2017.
  7. ^ Association of German Engineers eV (Ed.): VDI 4700 sheet 1 - Terms of construction and building technology . Beuth, Düsseldorf October 2015, p. 94 .
  8. FB VW - SG lighting. DGUV, May 2019, accessed on February 8, 2020 .
  9. Wikipedia: Lampe, accessed on January 18, 2016
  10. Examples can be found in the technical report on IEC 1231 ( Memento of the original of February 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. of the ZVEI @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.zvei.org
  11. Martin Schäfer: Life after the light bulb: Warm and diffuse light , Stuttgarter Zeitung, September 2, 2009
  12. Osram family data sheet HALOSTAR ECO
  13. a b In principle, only a few fluorescent lamps (~ 15%) but many LED lamps (~ 45%) can be dimmed using phase control . Whether this is possible with a given lamp depends on its internal ballast .
  14. ^ Lighting Basics. In: Energy.gov. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, accessed January 30, 2016 .
  15. Medium to poor quality lamps, cf. Calderon et al., LED bulbs technical specification and testing procedure for solar home systems . In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 41, (2015), 506-520, doi: 10.1016 / j.rser.2014.08.057 .
  16. Vincenzo Balzani , Giacomo Bergamini and Paola Ceroni, Light: A Very Peculiar Reactant and Product . In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition 54, Issue 39, (2015), 11320–11337, doi: 10.1002 / anie.201502325 .
  17. ErP - the second stage of the legal regulation for the way to a more efficient future is just around the corner! Archived from the original on June 30, 2015 ; accessed on January 14, 2017 (changes from 2010).
  18. Guide to LED lamps and LED spots. In: topten.ch. July 12, 2012, accessed May 5, 2019 .
  19. a b German Statutory Accident Insurance e. V. (DGUV): DGUV Information 213-732 - Recommendations for hazard identification by the accident insurance institutions (EGU) according to the Hazardous Substances Ordinance - Mercury exposures when collecting lamps. Retrieved November 8, 2019 .