Conventional incandescent and discharge lamps have a short service life. Therefore, the luminous bodies can be screwed or screwed and pulled out of a socket without any effort. In addition, socket-less luminaries with free wire ends are also used in special applications. These are either connected directly by soldering or clamps, or made pluggable using an additional mechanical element, such as with fairy lights .
The bulb socket shape E14 and E27 has been adopted for LED lamps and compact fluorescent lamps , so that a compatible replacement is possible. Occasionally, a compatible exchange of discharge lamps with LED lamps is also possible. However, gas discharge lamps with E27 and E40 sockets must not be screwed into normal luminaires intended for incandescent lamps because they do not have a ballast or ignitor. Even commercially available 12-volt compact fluorescent lamps with an E27 base are destroyed when operated on 230 V.
The criterion for comparison when replacing the lamps is the luminous flux (unit lumen , lm) of the lamp for spherical or cylindrical radially radiating types or the illuminance (unit lux , lx = lm / m 2 ) for types only axially radiating on one side as a measure of the illumination of a surface .
Adapters are also available for different base shapes (see below) , in this way, for example, lamps with an Edison base can be used in lamps with bayonet sockets. E14 / E27 thread adapters were also used earlier. Previously widespread adapters from E27 (picture below) to two-pole plug contacts (socket distributors without protective contact) are no longer permitted today because the protective contact, contact security (missing protective collar) and current carrying capacity are not given.
The shape and designation of the Edison thread commonly used in Europe as a base for light bulbs goes back to Thomas Alva Edison , who developed coarse threads with round flanks that can be pressed into the sheet metal base of light bulbs and fuses with the simplest of means.
The Edison thread is now also known as an electrical thread or a light bulb thread . The dimensions are standardized in accordance with IEC 60061: 2014 and in DIN 40400. The electrical and mechanical test criteria are listed in IEC 60238: 1998. Usual Edison threads according to DIN 40400 are given in the table below.
|Core hole Ø
|E5 ( E5.5 )||Lilliput Edison Screw
(LES), Midget Screw
|5.23-5.33||4.83-4.93||1.00||Small signal lamps and lights in model making (low voltage)|
|E10||Miniature Edison Screw
|9.27-9.53||8.57-8.76||1,814||Flashlights and signal lamps (low voltage), bicycle lamps (rear light) , scale lamps in tube receivers and glow lamps (230 V)|
|EP10||9.36-9.53||8.59-8.76||E10 with reference plane; Bicycle headlights (front light, 2.4 watts, can be focussed moderately), flashing lights (breakdown protection for trucks, §53a), motorcycle parking lights|
|EY10||9.27-9.53||8.57-8.76||Screwable halogen bicycle light bulb (front light, 2.4 watt)|
|EZ10||9.27-9.53||8.57-8.76||Halogen lamps with temperature-resistant ceramic insulator (low voltage, up to 6.5 amps, up to 75 watts)|
|E12||Candelabra Edison Screw
(CES), Chandelier Socket
|11.56-11.81||10.67-10.82||2.54||110 to 130 volt lamps, chandeliers , night lights|
|E14||13.6-13.89||12.37-12.56||2.822||also Mignon socket; 230 V incandescent lamps up to 40 (rarely 60) W, also with a candle-shaped, elongated glass bulb e.g. B. for flat lights, chandeliers , refrigerator, oven, microwave, sewing machine. Screw- D01 (Neozed, 2 to 16 A)|
|E16||16.0||14.7||2.50||Screw fuses : NDz (D
|E17||Intermediate Edison Screw
|16.28-16.64||15.32-15.49||2.822||For 110 to 130 volts operating voltage; Lamps|
|E18||Small Edison Screw
|18.0||3.00||Screw fuses D02 (Neozed, 20 to 63 A)|
|E26||(Medium) Edison Screw
|26.05-26.41||24.80-25.07||3,629||For 110 - 130, in some cases also for 250 volt operating voltage. Some modern LED lamps accept any voltage between 90 and 240 volts. Lamps with an E26 base can usually be screwed into E27 sockets, but the base is a bit shorter with a length of almost 20 mm instead of 22 mm and the insulating body between the foot contact and the thread attachment is only 3.5 mm high instead of 5 mm.|
|E26D||Three Contact Medium Screw||up to 250 V nominal voltage. Base with three connections for two independent light generators in so-called "3-way" lamps with three brightness levels. The filament or LED groups can be switched on individually or together using switches with four switching positions.|
|E27||(Medium) Edison Screw
|26.05-26.45||24.36-24.66||So far the most common socket for standard incandescent lamps and gas discharge lamps for outdoor lighting; Made of Duroplast up to 60 W, ceramic up to 200 W. E27 lamps usually fit in E26 sockets.
Screw fuses D
|E33||33.0||30.8||4.23||Screw fuses D
|E39||Giant Edison Screw
(GES), Mogul Screw (MS)
|39.04-39.56||37.12-37.52||6.350||For 110 to 130 volts operating voltage; Lamps with this base do not necessarily fit into E40 sockets.|
|E39D||Three Contact Mogul Screw||up to 250 V nominal voltage. Three connections for two independent light emitters in so-called "3-way" lamps; The filament could be switched on individually or together via a 4-position switch in the base or wired externally.|
|E40||Giant Edison Screw
|39.05-39.50||36.00-36.45||Incandescent and gas discharge lamps with a power consumption of more than 200 W, for example in street lights and (older) theater and film spotlights; Also referred to as "Goliath" thread,
screw fuses D
The external contact of the lamp socket can be touched very easily, so this should be connected to the neutral conductor with permanently installed lamp sockets . The deeper foot contact is connected to the outer conductor or phase . Since this polarity is not always maintained, you cannot rely on the external contact not being live. In the case of transportable lights that are connected via the Euro or standard Schuko plugs in Germany and Austria , no precise statement can be made about the polarity of the lamp socket, as the plug is not reverse polarity protected due to its design . The Swiss SEV 1011 plug system , on the other hand, is protected against polarity reversal (if plugs with a protective conductor are used), with this it must be ensured that the outer conductor is located at the hard-to-touch foot contact of the lamp socket (e.g. pedestal lamps according to protection class I ). Touching the base contact when the lamp is screwed in is usually prevented by an insulating material collar that extends beyond the end of the socket.
The Edison base was also used for the previously common holders for screw fuses in the mains voltage distribution (E14, E16, E18, E21 (Switzerland), E27, E33, E40 and E57).
Lamp socket E27 with plug contacts, so-called "Stromdieb" (may no longer be sold in most countries today)
Sleeve bases of types S14s or S14d are used for line lamps . Compatible replacement types with LEDs are available for the previously used incandescent lamps.
Base for fluorescent lamps
Fluorescent lamps must be connected to the mains voltage via a current limiter. The ballasts used for this supply the ignition voltage, preheat the cathode filaments and then limit the current of the ignited lamp.
Compact fluorescent tubes
Compact fluorescent lamps with electronic or (previously) conventional ballasts built into the base usually have an Edison screw base (E14 and E27), like incandescent lamps. They can be operated directly on the mains voltage (120 or 230 V alternating voltage). However, there are also types for 12 V DC with an E27 thread, which under no circumstances should be screwed into lights carrying mains voltage.
Bayonet sockets (B15d and B22d) are also used in Great Britain, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, India, Sri Lanka, the USA, and in some cases in France, China, the Middle East and Africa .
In order to ensure the use of energy-saving light sources , the California Energy Commission - Title 24 has prescribed GU24 bases instead of Edison bases for new buildings and renovations in California since 2008 . The lamps with GU24 base are also subject to limit values for light flicker . Advantages of using GU24 bases are the contact safety of the contacts when changing lamps and the shorter design due to the elimination of the threaded part. A disadvantage is the somewhat more difficult insertion, depending on the version
Plug-in base (G) and sleeve base (S)
The socket types, the designation of which begins with "G", were originally developed for compact fluorescent lamps with a starter integrated into the lamp. In the meantime, however, there are also LED light sources with this type of socket. The power supply for these socket types is via two pins protruding from the lamp. Between the two contacts on the base there is an elongated, rectangular block made of plastic that contains the starter (glow starter with interference suppression capacitor) for compact fluorescent lamps . The starter is replaced with every change. In the case of compact fluorescent lamps, the luminaire into which this lamp is plugged requires a conventional ballast for operation (a 50 Hz choke coil); this is not required for LED lamps. Unsuitable electronic ballasts (EVG) can lead to starting problems with these lamps.
Just like traditional fluorescent tubes, plug-in bases for compact fluorescent tubes without a starter integrated in the light source have four pins for the heating wire or cathode connections. The base is therefore relatively short and therefore compact. The luminaires suitable for these lamps are equipped with electronic or conventional ballasts.
|Type||IEC standard||Pin distance
|G23||IEC 60061-1 7004-69||23||2||S.||mostly 5, 7, 9 or 11 watts|
|GX23||IEC 60061-1 7004-86||23||2|
|G24d||24||2||D.||Variants: -1 (13 watts), -2 (18 watts), -3 (26 watts) 1|
|GX24q||24||4th||T / E PLUS|
|2G11||IEC 60061-1 7004-82||11||4th||L.|
|2G7||IEC 60061-1 7004-102||7th||4th||S / E|
|2GX7||IEC 60061-1 7004-103||7th||4th|
|2G10||IEC 60061-1 7004-118||10||4th||F.|
|GR8||IEC 60061-1 7004-68||8th||2|
|GR10q||IEC 60061-1 7004-77||10||4th|
|GRZ10d||IEC 60061-2 7004-131||10||2|
|GRZ10t||IEC 60061-2 7004-132||10|
|GR14q-1||4th||T / E HE|
|GX53||IEC 60061-1 7004-142||53||2||Rotary lock, for can-shaped compact fluorescent lamps without ballast and LED lamps, since the 2000s|
|S14s||IEC 7004-112||44 or 94||2||Sleeve base for line lamps|
|S14d||IEC 7004-112||1||Sleeve base for line lamps|
In the case of circular fluorescent tubes, their base closes the ring, which is inserted into a socket with pins on the side.
The tube diameter of fluorescent lamps is standardized in DIN EN 60061: 2012-07. The number after the letter "T" (for "tube") stands for the diameter in eighths of an inch (⅛⋅25.4 mm = 3.175 mm). A T5 tube has a diameter of ⅝ inch, which corresponds to about 16 mm. The pin spacing of the base at both ends of the straight designs is also standardized. In some cases, identical bases are used for different tube diameters, which means that T8 lamps fit into the sockets of the older T12 lamps and can replace them. The development began with T12 lamps and is moving towards slimmer lamps that require less volume for transport, storage and installation with less material and achieve a higher luminous efficiency per watt. T8 and T5 (each in two versions: high luminous flux or high efficiency ) and T4 in narrow light strips, as is common for shelves, are common today.
The lamps are usually electrically isolated by rotating them axially in any direction. On some bases, small markings are embossed, the position of which opposite the outer slot of the socket signals “lamp free”. In the larger G13 versions, each pair of rotating pins rotates a slotted disk about 90 °. The position can also be found “freely” by hand. Long lamps that are to be removed downwards or to the side should be carried with both hands. The lamps break even with moderate side force on the center of the tube. The smaller version G5 has a "Y" -shaped slot. From a rotation of about 60 °, the pair of pens can be threaded out of the “Y”. Some mounts can also be folded axially away from one tube end against spring force or pulled away from a latching position. In advertising displays, lamps are often held in place by plastic clips or wire spring clips; loosely wired sockets only hold with the spring force of the contacts. All of these sockets have holes for the pins and require some axial movement.
|Pin spacing||4.75 mm||12.7 mm|
|Pin diameter||2.29-2.67 mm||2.35 mm|
|Lamp type||T4||T5||T8, T12|
|diameter||12.1 mm||15.9 mm||25.4 mm, 38.1 mm|
|Power in W||16||20th||24||30th||8th||14th||24||21st||39||28||54||35||49||80||10||15th||18, 20||25, 33||30th||36, 40||58, 65||70|
|length in mm||454||552||641||751||288||549||849||1149||1449||330||437||589.8||740||895||1199.4||1500||1800|
There are types with different lengths that are only offered by a few manufacturers.
The bayonet socket is also called Swan socket or Swan socket after Joseph Wilson Swan . It consists of a smooth sheet metal cylinder with two retaining lugs (protuberances or notches). To fix it, it is first pushed in and then fixed by turning ( bayonet lock ). The cylinder can serve as a power connection for low-voltage lamps, if not, two foot contacts and a symmetrical structure are common. Several, but mostly two, incandescent filaments in a housing, each with its own associated foot contact, are common, for example for different powers or radiation geometries. In order to prevent reverse polarity insertion, the retaining lugs are arranged offset accordingly or have different widths.
With some bayonet lamps, one of the bayonet nipples is thinner. If this is also taken into account in the frame, the insertion rotated by 180 degrees is prevented. Other lamps prevent this by using base nipples that do not face each other by 180 degrees. These methods are not standardized, but are becoming more widespread with newer multi-contact lamps and sockets.
The capital letter in the name provides information about the design. The "B" stands for bayonet socket. If an “A” follows, this designation stands for automotive (use of the base in the automotive sector). If this is followed by a “Y”, it stands for the color yellow . If the "Y" is missing, the color is white. The number is the diameter of the base without the bayonet nipple, given in millimeters.
The lower case letter indicates the number of foot contacts next to the common metal contact.
- s single (one)
- d double (two)
- t triple (three)
- q quadruple (four)
- p penta (five)
Finally, after a hyphen, further features for specification can be given.
Example: In the abbreviation B15d, B stands for bayonet socket, 15 for 15 mm diameter of the socket, d for two foot connections. BA15s accordingly for a design with a foot connection (single).
|B15d||IEC 60061-1 (7004-11)||DIN 49721|
|BA15d||IEC 7004-11 A||DIN 49720|
|BA15s||IEC 7004-11 A||DIN 49720|
|BA20d||IEC 7004-12||DIN 49730|
|B22d||IEC 60061-1 (7004-10)|
Bayonet sockets are used in particular on devices, machines as well as vehicles, ships and airplanes in order to reliably avoid loosening due to mechanical vibrations or shocks. The asymmetrical bayonet base BA20d is used for signal lamps, previously also for vehicle headlights. This guarantees that the filament is in the focal point of the signal optics without further adjustment work. In the case of double-thread lamps, it also ensures that the main and secondary threads are switched correctly.
Base designations for automotive light bulbs
- BA7s - interior lighting (backlighting of speedometers )
- BA9s - parking light (also widely used for signal lights)
- BA15s - indicator, stop, reversing, rear fog, tail, daytime running or license plate lamps
- BAU15s - flashing lights (colored bulbs)
- BAY15d - Two connection poles below, two height-offset base pins, for two-filament lamp (brake and tail light)
- BAX15d, BAU15d, BAZ15d - like BA15d, but with height or degree offset socket pins
- Position of the pins: BAU = "9 + 4 o'clock", BA / BAY = "9 + 3 o'clock", BAX = "9 + 2 o'clock"
- More bayonet sockets
- BA20s - vehicle lighting, especially on railway vehicles
- BA20d - signal lamps
- B15 or B22 for 230 V incandescent lamps
The plug-in base P13.5 looks similar to the bayonet base.
B22d-3 base (BC3) on a 230 V infrared lamp , bayonet base with two foot contacts next to the common metal contact
Pin base for halogen lamps (Bipin)
The Bipin foot standardization ( English Two pin, bipin cap of bipin socket ) is standard for lamp bases for halogen lamps and belongs to the IEC standardization. This lamp base was developed by George Westinghouse in 1892 for the World's Columbian Exposition , which took place in Chicago in 1893 , to offer an alternative to the patented Edison base .
Smaller versions with pins that are closer together are also referred to as "Mini-Bipin". The letter "G" stands for glass, the material from which the bases are usually made. The additional letter "U" stands for "U-shape". In this particular design, the lamp base has two transverse grooves in the glass, into which a spring contained in the receptacle engages on both sides in order to give the lamp mechanical support. The number behind the letter indicates the distance between the two pins in millimeters.
The pins are parallel pins made of metal, which hardly corrode even at higher temperatures and remain reliable in contact. The pins are rounded or pointed at the end to facilitate insertion into the contact springs of the socket. The pins are melted into the glass base and connected to small metal strips via spot welding, which create gas-tightness and contact the tungsten filament .
|G4||IEC 60061-1 (7004-72)||4.0||0.65-0.75||Low-voltage lamps with 5… 50 W|
|GU4||IEC 60061-1 (7004-108)||4.0||0.95-1.05||12|
|GY4||IEC 60061-1 (7004-72A)||4.0||0.65-0.75||12|
|GZ4||IEC 60061-1 (7004-64)||4.0||0.95-1.05||12|
|G5||IEC 60061-1 (7004-52-5)||5.0|
|G5.3||IEC 60061-1 (7004-73)||5.33||1.47-1.65||12|
|G5.3-4.8||IEC 60061-1 (7004-126-1)|
|GU5.3||IEC 60061-1 (7004-109)||5.33||1.45-1.6||12|
|GX5.3||IEC 60061-1 (7004-73A)||5.33||1.45-1.6||12|
|GY5.3||IEC 60061-1 (7004-73B)||5.33||0.58-0.79 x 1.78-2.29||12||Flat pins ( nominal size 0.7 × 2.0 mm)|
|G6.35||IEC 60061-1 (7004-59)||6.35||0.95-1.05||12|
|GX6.35||IEC 60061-1 (7004-59)||6.35||0.95-1.05||12|
|GY6.35||IEC 60061-1 (7004-59)||6.35||1.2-1.3||12||Low-voltage lamps from 20 W.|
|GZ6.35||IEC 60061-1 (7004-59A)||6.35||0.95-1.05||12|
|G8.5||IEC 60061-1 (7004-122)||8.5||0.95-1.05|
|G9||IEC 60061-1 (7004-129)||9.0||-||115-230||High-voltage lamps without reflector|
|GU10||IEC 60061-1 (7004-121)||10||5 (at the end)||115-230||Twist lock, high-voltage reflector lamps (230 V)|
|GZ10||IEC 60061-1 (7004-120)||10||5 (at the end)||Twist lock|
Glass crimping base
In the case of plug-in lamps with wedge-base lamps, the dimensions of the pinch foot of the luminaire glass body are precisely matched to the corresponding socket, so that additional molded parts made of metal, ceramic or plastic for mechanical connection to the socket can be dispensed with. The electrical contact is ensured by the fact that the metal wires emerging from the pinch foot of the glass body and folded over are clasped by spring contacts in the socket. The spring contacts also secure the lamp against falling out of the socket. Plug-in lamps with glass pinch bases are mostly used as instrument lamps in the automotive sector, with halogen lamps and in fairy lights . Since the 2000s, they have also found their way into motor vehicles as turn signal and brake lights. Such bases are much easier to manufacture. In the case of retrofit LED lamps, this base is reproduced by a molded plastic part with inserted bare connecting wires or a printed circuit board .
Common pinch socket names are here:
- W2 × 4.6d , W2.1 × 9.5d , W3 × 16d or W3 × 16q
- W stands for the English wedge
- the following number for the thickness of the glass crimp base in millimeters
- the next number separated by × for the width of the glass crimp base in millimeters
- the lower case letter for the number of contacts:
- d for duo , two contacts
- t for triple , three contacts
- q for quadruples , four contacts
Flashlights with cup-shaped contacts on both sides for spring clip sockets with the designation R7s and RX7s (117 mm) or RX7s-24 (135 mm) are used for temperature-loaded tubular halogen incandescent and gas discharge lamps with quartz glass bulbs. This is squeezed at each end, where a thin sheet metal strip with welded wires leads the connection hermetically to the outside. A slotted ceramic tube is often cemented to the pinch flange and encloses a contact trough at its end.
The identical frame halves are each fitted with a powerful spring-loaded contact at standardized intervals. In order to be protected in the event of breakage and also to use the lamps without fingerprints, gloves or a cloth should be used. By first indenting the lamp on one side of the lampholder and pressing into its contact spring, the other end of the rod also finds space in the opposite lampholder side. If the lamp can then be easily rotated axially, its troughs are well clamped between the two contact bosses of the socket.
Halogen bulbs with the socket designation R7s are available in different lengths and, depending on the length, in different power levels. All are to be operated horizontally and behind a protective glass. The 118 mm long version with up to 500 W is classic, plugged into a cast aluminum luminaire with a sheet aluminum reflector for building site or forecourt lighting.
|Power levels a
|(in mm)||(in inches )|
|78||3.07||78.3||74.9||(48), 60, 80, 100, 150, (190), (200)|
|118||4⅝||117.6||114.2||(80), 150, 200, 230, 300, 400, 500|
|189||7th||189.1||185.7||(500), (750), 1000|
|254||10||254.1||250.7 (?)||1000, 1500|
|327||12⅞||327.4||324 (?)||2000 b|
R7s halogen rods are also available in the same lengths for the lower line voltage 110–130 V, in standard length 118 mm also for the low voltages 24–28 V and 42 V.
LED lamps are now also available for the R7s base. As of spring 2018, for example, a maximum of 15 W is available for 118 mm, which should correspond to a halogen lamp with 125 W ( energy efficiency class A ++). Due to the considerably larger diameter of LED lamps, the protective glass usually no longer fits, but this is not necessary due to the low heat generation. Some manufacturers build these lamps so that the contacts on the side are not in the middle, so that they can also be installed if there is little space below the base.
A festoon lamp is a small, cylindrical, low-power light source with frustoconical contacts on both axial ends. The central thin-walled glass tube (no halogen lamp) is tapered and melted at the ends. A contact wire emerges here, which is soldered to the axial hole of the nickel-plated, cemented brass cap. If the conical ends are inserted into grooves, holes or depressions in the resilient contact plates, the lamp can be rotated all around. The blown glass tube provides a seat for the contact sleeves and can be more or less widened in between. Areas of application are, for example, license plate and interior lighting for motor vehicles or toys.
- D6.3 × L30 mm (shape like fine fuses )
- D8, L31 mm
- D11, L39 mm
- SV8,5-8, D10, L36 mm, for tail lights, license plate lights or interior lights in vehicles
Festoon for cars , type SV8.5-8, Ø 10 mm × 36 mm
Headlight lamps for automobiles
The various types of lamps are tied to the lamp originally equipped. A change leads to insufficient light output or thermal overload.
|R2 two-filament lamp||P45t||40/45 W.||Low beam and high beam, "BILUX" lamp, trademarks of Osram|
|Two-filament lamp||BA20d||15-35 W.||Low beam and high beam, two-wheelers from 15/15 W to 35/35 W, old trucks 24 V 40/45 W.|
|H1 halogen lamp||P14.5s||55 W||and for rotating beacons used|
|H2 halogen lamp||X511||55 W||Fog, rally headlights and high beam Hella / Zender|
|H3 halogen lamp||PK22s||55 W||Work lights, often on tractors and construction machinery|
|H7 halogen lamp||PX26d||55 W||Low beam, high beam|
|H8 halogen lamp||PGJ19-1||35 W||Fog lights|
|H9 halogen lamp||PGJ19-5||65 W||Low beam, high beam|
|H11 halogen lamp||PGJ19-2||55 W||Low beam, high beam, fog light|
|H16 halogen lamp||PGJ19-3||19 W||Fog light|
|HB3 halogen lamp||P20d||65 W||High beam|
|HB4 halogen lamp||P22d||55 W||Low beam, fog lights|
|H4 halogen two-filament lamp||P43t||60/55 W||Low beam and high beam|
|HIR2 halogen lamp||PX22d||55 W||Low beam, high beam|
|HS1 halogen two-filament lamp||PX43t||35/35 W||for two-wheelers, quads, snowmobiles etc.|
Due to the large number of different vehicles, manufacturers now offer an online search. These "lamp finders" enable lamps to be assigned to the selected vehicle.
- P13.5 - Prefocus base for flashlights and bicycle headlights: The sheet metal collar on the base has a 90 ° V recess for positioning against rotation. V below means filament horizontal, for prefocus lamps (filament position adjusted), these usually with thin-walled elliptical glass bulbs with a conical tip, often for the form-fitting reception of the end of an angled, extended support wire or halogen lamps with smaller, thick-walled cylindrical quartz glass bulbs. It is inserted into the holder and secured against falling out by the mechanical tension of the negative pole contact spring in the lamp holder.
- P13.5S (focusable, larger manufacturing tolerances) - Xenon and Krypton lamps for flashlights; Halogen bicycle headlights, halogen motorcycle lights
- PX13,5S (better focusable)
- HS2: motorcycle headlights (halogen lamp, 15W: HS2 according to DIN 49848-3: Jun2001 Form F and ECE R37)
- HS3: Bicycle headlights, motorcycle flashing lights, motorcycle parking lights (halogen lamp, 6V, 2.4W: HS3 according to DIN 49848-2: Jan1990 and ECE R37 (1) -Germany)
- HS4: motorcycle lighting (halogen lamp, 5W: HS4 according to DIN 49848-3: Jun2001 Form G and ECE R37)
- MG5,7S / 9: miniature lamps, e.g. for model making
- G17q: Especially for projection lamps
- Bakelite socket according to DIN 49601: telecommunication lamp, colloquially also called telephone socket lamp or telephone lamp
Telecommunication lamp made in Russia, base made of Bakelite similar to DIN 49601
- Drawings with dimensions for many lamp bases
- Comparison list of over 150 lamp bases / sockets with drawings and dimensions (contains mainly American versions; English)
References and comments
- Further information under: Products entering into the scope of the enec agreement. European Electrical Products Certification Association, October 28, 2008, archived from the original on June 23, 2012 ; accessed on November 4, 2008 .
- Ёшкин Кот: ГОСТ IEC 60061-1: 2014 . In: Скачать ГОСТ . May 5, 2017, p. 7004-6-1, 7004–7-1, 7004–21–10 to 7004–30–2 (Russian, stroyinf.ru [PDF; 27.9 MB ; accessed on November 1, 2019] Russian harmonized IEC standard for lamp sockets).
- Ёшкин Кот: ГОСТ IEC 60061-2: 2017 . In: Скачать ГОСТ . January 1, 2019, p. 7005-6-1, 7005–7-1, 7005–21A-1 to 7005–30–2, 7005–116-1 (Russian, stroyinf.ru [PDF; 24.0 MB ; accessed on November 2, 2019] Russian harmonized IEC standard for lamp sockets).
- Trifa Lamps Germany (Ed.): Vehicle lamps 2011 . (Catalog). October 2010 ( com.tr [PDF; 8.1 MB ; accessed on November 5, 2019]).
- E26 vs E27 Bulbs - Interchangeable? Not Necessarily! ( English ) In: waveformlighting.com . Waveform lighting. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
- E26 sockets for light bulbs are also manufactured in a temperature-resistant version for 250 volts, because light bulbs from 150 to 250 watts are operated between the outer conductors in a single-phase three-wire network with 240 V.
- California specifies the mechanical and electrical values of the new base type GU24 and correspondingly capped lamps (compact fluorescent lamps and LED lamps). See Evan Dick: GU24: New Pin-Base for CFLs, LEDs. In: Environmental Building News. BuildingGreen.com, October 5, 2011, archived from the original on February 5, 2014 ; accessed on February 26, 2018 (English). Energy-efficient lamps are only considered lighting with a high luminous efficacy when installed in a luminaire with a GU24 base. Equipped with an Edison base and built into a suitable luminaire, it is only viewed as lighting with a low light output. Adapters for using light bulbs on GU24 sockets are prohibited.
- Jon McHugh: Measuring Flickr: California's JA10 Test Method and Its Uses. (PDF; 1.16 MB) (Slides, EnergyStar Webinar, June 30 2016), in: McHugh Energy (Ed.), Energystar.gov, USA, 2016, (English), accessed on March 28, 2017.
- Patent US543280 : Incandescent electric lamp. Registered August 29, 1892 , published June 23, 1895 , inventor: George Westinghouse.
- HQI®-TS metal halide lamps 70 and 150 W
- Olaf Schultz: Effect of the radiation of light bulbs on the headlights . In: Enhydralutris.De . Olaf Schultzi. October 2, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
- Olaf Schultz: Electrical characteristics of incandescent lamps . In: Enhydralutris.De . Olaf Schultzi. October 2, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
- Narva special lamps (ed.): Catalog car lamps . 1st edition. Self-published, Plauen 2006, p. 36, 37 .