A chess composition (also a chess problem or chess task ) is a conceived task in chess . It usually consists of a chess position (usually shown as a diagram ), a requirement (for example, “White moves and wins”) and the solution to the task. Unless otherwise stated, the requirement is directed to white, who is also on the train ( excluding auxiliary matting tasks). Normally, the usual chess rules apply.
The roots of this form of preoccupation with chess , often referred to as problem chess, go back to the beginnings of the game of chess. Chess composition has largely become independent through specialization over the past 150 years. Art chess is sometimes spoken of in order to underline its aesthetic side. Chess compositions are published in chess columns in daily newspapers and magazines as well as in chess magazines . There is also special literature that deals with chess composition. Publications contain information about the author (called “author” or “composer”) and the source of the first publication (for new works, the note “original”).
Chess composition is very old. As early as the 10th century, the Arabs were familiar with tasks (so-called “ Mansuben ”, e.g. the well-known “Matt der Dilaram”), which were probably not aimed at the game itself, but at the aesthetic pleasure in solving the task. In medieval Europe, chess compositions were popular as a subject of betting. In early chess books of the 15th and 16th centuries, chess compositions, for example in the works of Lucena or Damiano , took up a considerable amount. It was only later that the chess literature dealt with openings and other aspects of the practical game in more detail. In addition, the tradition of chess problems was preserved, it was cultivated in the 18th century by the Syrian Philipp Stamma . From around 1830 a subculture of chess composition emerged from composers and solvers. A wealth of topics and its own technical language have developed in this social network . Important terms and topics are explained below.
In the 20th century the chess problem developed considerably with the demand "mate in n moves". Johannes Kohtz and Carl Kockelkorn formed it into the logical school (or the New German School ). The earlier Bohemian School , which followed more aesthetic criteria and conventions, represented a competing historical direction .
Problem tournaments were often part of the supporting program of larger chess tournaments in the 20th century. Lately the sporting component in chess composition has intensified. Master titles for chess composers, competitions with given tasks and internationally standardized award awards as well as championships in solving chess problems and studies were introduced. Many periodicals have a fixed column for chess compositions. Original prints published there are sometimes “cooked” by experts, that is, examined for unintentional deviations in his solution and for malpractice. In addition to documenting such weaknesses, the solution part usually also serves to discuss the aesthetic advantages and errors of the published pieces. The traditional association of (mainly German) friends of chess composition is Schwalbe with their magazine Die Schwalbe.
The organization ARVES ( A lexander R ueb V ereniging voor Schaak E indspel S tudie) was founded in the Netherlands and Flanders in 1988 , and has meanwhile brought together numerous friends of chess studies from many countries. Similar to the chess problem, the study went through various stages of development. In its essence it is closer to the practical part and places high demands on composers and solvers in terms of chess knowledge and analytical skills. Perhaps that is the reason why some chess composers do not work in this field.
Character of "Art Chess"
A chess composition is already outwardly different from the game of chess. In the head of the diagram of the position to be examined, one does not find the names of the players involved, but the name of the composer. In contrast to the practical game, the result of which is open at the start of the game, a specific and concrete requirement should be met, for example a mate in a fixed number of moves. The idea intended by the composer is presented in pure form in the chess composition. There is only one fictional opponent whose counterplay ultimately cannot prevent this idea, it is chess without a partner. It is important that there are no secondary solutions in addition to the solution intended by the author (deviations from the intention in the first move, which also meet the requirements). Duals (deviations from the intention in the subsequent moves) reduce the artistic value considerably. A composition is also considered devalued if there are duals in the thematic variants that express the idea.
The use of the material should be mentioned . The white and black figures are limited to what is necessary to represent the idea, and each figure fulfills its function in the course of the solution (principle of economy). Unnecessary figures or night watchmen only needed to avoid defects are considered malpractice. In the game of chess, the potential for strength is roughly balanced, while chess problems can have large material inequalities. In the case of the study, there is a greater proximity to the game of chess in terms of the distribution of materials and the task (such as “White draws and wins”).
Aesthetic requirements are placed on the solution of the composition. The extent to which these are met determines the artistic value. For example, the first move of the composition, the so-called key move , should not be obvious in tasks because of the puzzle character . So if an escape square is simply taken from the black king or a black piece is defeated in the key move , this is considered unaesthetic. A chess command at the beginning is also atypical in chess problems. On the other hand, a so-called give and take key, i.e. a key pull , which takes the black man away from an escape area, but provides a new escape area as a replacement , is mostly unobjectionable , while an escape area release is particularly highly valued. Another positive aspect is a long-range key move, in which a piece moves many spaces. In studies, a chess bid is tolerated on the first move. Good studies disguise their actual idea with an introductory game; in the solution it should only become apparent at the end, if possible.
Apart from a few special forms (see below), chess composition is based on the same rules as party chess. A position shown must therefore conform to the rules (legal), i.e. H. at least theoretically emerged from a game of chess. If white has several queens or three knights , these must be explainable by converting pawns. The “proof of a starting position that is not part of the game” devalues the composition. It does not matter whether the moves necessary to bring about the position are “reasonable” in the practical game sense.
Types of chess composition
Dubuque Chess Journal 1889, 1st prize
There are three main groups to be distinguished. The direct mate tasks are called orthodox (from the Greek ορθός “correct, straightforward”), problems with changed conditions or demands such as self- mate , auxiliary mate , etc. are considered heterodox. The so-called studies, in turn, are not counted among the problems , so chess composition as a generic term is more precise than problem chess .
This is the classic "orthodox" main direction of chess composition. In direct Matt the demand for the given position is: ". Matt in n moves" White has to bring about a mate even with the best defense of Black later than the nth train, the tasks are therefore also called n-Züger, so two Züger, Three Züger etc., designated. Unless otherwise stated below the diagram, white always begins.
In the example White moves 1. Rh2 – h1. As a result, Black is forced to move : There is no immediate threat of mate, but each of the 19 possible moves is answered with a mating move. The assembly of black towers and runners on the upper edge of the board enables a particularly large number of adjustments and is named after a task by Samuel Loyd Loyds organ pipes .
|Article with examples of chess problems requiring a direct checkmate:|
The typical requirement of studies is the question of the way to the by no means obvious game result (win or draw) from the position shown in the best game on both sides. The chess study is thus a natural link between the game of chess and chess composition. It is often very close to the chess ending , less often to the middlegame . In a study, a given positional problem is solved in a single, unambiguous way and in an aesthetically pleasing form. The leading magazine for studies (2013) is currently EC , after ebur set in of 2006. The term study was first used in 1851 by Josef Kling and Bernhard Horwitz .
When self- mating, white forces the opponent to mate white, even if black tries to prevent this: White forces its own mate. The normal rules of chess apply, but the objective is different.
Here, too, there are double and multiple moves, for example “self-mate in five moves”. It's always white's turn. Examples of a self-matting task can be found in the articles
The reflex mat is a variant of the self-mat. Here, too, white forces its own mate against the resistance of black. However, the additional rule applies: If one of the two sides has the opportunity to checkmate the other side in one move, then it must also make use of this possibility.
So it is sufficient that white provides black with a mate move, because the additional rule forces Black to also make this move. On the other hand, there are new possibilities of defense, because Black can offer mating moves to White, which he must execute according to the additional rule.
With the auxiliary mate , black helps the white man to mate. The two parties together help in the attempt to checkmate Black (cooperative checkmate), but are still not allowed to make illegal moves.
There are auxiliary matting tasks again as multi-turners, for example "auxiliary matting in four moves". Unless otherwise stated, Black makes the first move. If there are any set games, the suit naturally changes to white.
Correctly constructed auxiliary matting exercises have no secondary variants; their thematic idea is therefore particularly clearly expressed.
Examples of an auxiliary mat can be found in the articles
The so-called fool's mat is in a certain sense also an auxiliary mat; In the starting position, White makes the first move and, through his bad moves, helps Black to checkmate on the second move.
The retrograde analysis (or retrospective for short) refers to the (fictitious) "history" of a chess position. Usually the following conventions apply:
The starting point of a problem must theoretically be reached in a game that complies with the rules (regardless of whether the moves appear nonsensical or not). If this is not the case (for example, if white pawns would theoretically have to have captured three times to reach the position, but only two pieces are missing in the case of Black), then the position is illegal, which can only be demonstrated by tracing back (retro-analysis). Illegality usually devalues a problem.
As for castling in chess composition , it is assumed that it is possible as long as retro-analysis cannot prove that the king or rook has already moved.
With the en-passant stroke, on the other hand, the rule applies that it is only permissible if it can be proven that Black last made the double step of the pawn.
If it can be proven that Black could not have moved last (but White did), it is assumed that it is now Black's turn.
If one of these considerations, which can only be verified by “tracing back”, is essential for the solution, the task is called retro-analytical. However, there are also “real” retro tasks, for example with problems such as: Reconstruct the last ten half-moves!
Noam Elkies composed another task with an instructive solution using retroanalysis.
One of the most demanding retrospective tasks comes from the Russian Nikita Plaksin and shows a key move according to which white can be mated at first glance. However, through retrospective considerations, the author shows that in the last 50 moves neither a piece was captured nor a pawn moved. Because of the 50-move rule , the game is therefore drawn.
A construction task is given without a diagram; rather, the aim is to construct a game or position with certain characteristics. For example, Samuel Loyd designed the problem: “Construct a game that ends with Black's checkmate on move four” (published in Le Sphinx, 1866; the solution is 1. f2 – f3 e7 – e5 2. Ke1 – f2 h7 -H5 3rd Kf2-g3 h5-h4 + 4th Kg3-g4 d7-d5 #); although all white features are unique (see note on aesthetics ), black features are not. A completely clear problem is: "Construct a game in which the black b-pawn mates on the 4th move" (from Shortest Construction Tasks card under web links; the clear solution is 1. d2 – d4 c7 – c6 2. Ke1 – d2 Qd8-a5 + 3rd Kd2-d3 Qa5-a3 + 4th Kd3-c4 b7-b5 #). Some construction tasks ask for a maximum or minimum number of something to be arranged, such as a game with the maximum possible number of consecutive deduction chess, or a position in which all sixteen stones threaten a minimum number of squares. A special construction task class are games that are clearly determined by your last move, such as “3. … Rxe5 + ”or“ 4. … B5 # “from above (from Moves that determine all the previous moves under Weblinks ).
The fairy tale chess (also fairy chess ) generalizes the rules of the game (gait of the pieces, board shapes , demands and other conditions) of the game of chess. Originally (probably by Thomas Rayner Dawson ) new chess pieces ( grasshopper , night rider) were defined with their own rules of movement in order to be able to represent clusters in chess compositions in the particularly popular intersection theme. The lines, rows and diagonals of the traditional line figures (queen, rook, bishop) were no longer sufficient for this. Nowadays the invention of ever newer paces and conditions often happens with some composers only for the joy of the new invention and no longer represents an objective necessity.
Examples of condition are the so-called longitudinal Züger (Engl. Maximummer, Black leads in each case only one of the geometrically longest trains from), the Double longitudinal Züger (both Black and White lead only one of the geometrically longest trains from) Circe (whipped figures reappear on their original square of the game's starting position, provided the square is free) and Andernachschach (capturing pieces change color). In the case of a series self-mate in n moves, Black only moves after White has drawn n times (and gives the forced mate).
Finally, the demand can be changed ( e.g. stalemate instead of mate).
- The white rook fell off the board. Put it back in so that White can checkmate in two moves.
- Create a position with five white and four black pieces (and other conditions) in such a way that an auxiliary mate is possible in three moves.
- How many different legal final moves in a game of chess are possible?
Other tasks are closer to mathematics , for example, with the queens problem, the requirement: “Please place eight queens of one color so that none cover another.” This type of task is therefore also known as chess mathematics .
Course of a composition tournament
A composition tournament begins with an announcement. This is traditionally published in chess magazines or chess columns in daily newspapers, and recently also on the Internet. All important details of the tournament are set out in the announcement. The type of tournament ( formal or informal tournament ), the type of permitted compositions (e.g. double or peasant compositions), if necessary additional information (whether fairy tale characters and which twin formations are allowed and whether there are any restrictions on the number of compositions submitted), the address are specified of the tournament director, the judge or judges, the prize fund (if any) and the deadline for entries. The judge and tournament director can be the same person.
After the submission deadline, the tournament director hands over the submitted compositions to the judges, in the case of formal tournaments in a neutralized form: the names of the authors remain unknown to the judges. The judges assess these and award awards. Awards are usually prizes, honorable mentions, and praise; Sometimes there are also special prizes, special honorable mentions and special praise. The award of special awards is at the discretion of the judge, the reason for which can be motivated very differently. If, for example, contributions cannot be rated according to conventional criteria because they show a specific task, this can lead to a compromise of a special award. The judges publish a price report in which they communicate their judgment.
After the price report has been published, there is a period (usually three months) in which objections by others to the correctness, subject matter, predecessor and other deficiencies can be raised. This is usually not extended if, for example, a new piece that has been found to be incorrect has been improved. After the deadline, the judges will decide whether to change the price report based on objections. If this is the case, a final price report appears. Otherwise the original report becomes final.
An independent vocabulary has developed here, which is constantly being expanded with new ideas. In this and in particular in the following section , only a selection of the technical terms can therefore be reproduced.
- Play: In chess composition generally an analogous expression for a → variant or more often in the narrower sense for a part (or a sequence of moves within) a variant.
- Anti-critical trait, also anti-critical: The crossing of a field by a figure in order to avoid a later → disguise. The more detailed designation of the respective anti-criticism is determined by the type of adjustment.
- Aristocrat: Originally, an aristocrat was a pawnless task with the remaining 16 pieces in the basic position of the game, later the word was used for every pawnless chess composition.
- Selection key : Select the → key move from seemingly equivalent moves in order to take precautions for the later course of the solution or to avoid self-harm.
- Basic plan: The basic plan is the clearly outlined intention to attack a chess composition in the style of the New German School, ending with matte, and was introduced in 1981 by Herbert Grasemann . Its execution requires the prior or simultaneous removal (preparation or selection combination) of one or more opposing → obstacles .
- Document seduction: A → seduction that repeats free → sentence games with (essentially) the same damaging effects.
- Proof game: A proof game (abbreviation: BP) is a sequence of moves with which a given position (sentence position) can be reached (won) from the starting position of the game. Of course, only legal, i.e. H. allowed moves according to the usual rules of chess .
- Block, short for blocking: A piece (usually the black king ) cannot enter a field because it is occupied ("blocked") by another piece of your own (with the pawn also the opposing side). Example: Task from Antonin Nowotny .
- Block point: A field on which two (or more) stones of the same color (can) block each other effectively.
- Blocking: See under → Block.
- Bonus Socius: The name for a Latin treatise from the second half of the 13th century with a collection of almost 200 → mansubs that was published in Florence by an unknown author , which was used by traveling chess players in bars and at royal courts to present the audience with surprising problems amaze and induce bets.
- Foci: Two or more (Matt) fields that are not on the same line of action of a langschrittigen figure lying. Example with Walther Freiherr von Holzhausen .
- Civis Bononiae: A medieval collection of → mansubs by an unknown author from Bologna from the 14th or 15th century, which even more clearly than the → Bonus Socius the weakness of the heel (later the lady) and the elephant (also Alfil, later the runner ) shows, due to their limited movement, that almost all possible combinations were exhausted.
- Differentiation: There is a threat of several mates or mating leads at the same time ; opposing moves cause each of the → threats to be implemented at least once.
- Threat: A checkmate or checkmate that would occur if the opposing party did not move in response to a move . → Variants are those opposing moves that parry the threat.
- Threat growth steering: The → steering of opposing stones in the → security plan in order to increase the number of → threats (compared to the → audition ).
- Dual: partial → secondary solution, the composer unintentional deviation in his solution in the second or in a later move due to white (with auxiliary matt also due to black). A dual devalues a chess composition if it occurs in a relevant → variant (main variant) (otherwise dual minor, which is not regarded as devaluing). A → sub-transformation of a pawn into a rook or bishop instead of a queen does not count as a dual. A deviation in a study that delays the same maneuver is not considered dual.
- Duel task: A chess composition in which two stones of different colors fight each other in a certain way.
- Duet: twin task with thematically related content, but positionally considerable deviations.
- Duplex: A form of formation of → twins, in which the problem requirement has to be met both as usual and by reversing the roles of white and black.
- Echomatts : A matte image appears several times on other fields; Ifthe mated king arriveson fields of different colors, one speaks of a color change echo.
- Echo turn : A turn (combination, maneuver, sequence of moves) that is repeated by mirroring, shifting or rotating a group of figures. With the axial echo , the positions are rotated around an axis of symmetry, with the row echo they are arranged next to each other in orthogonal or diagonal rows.
- Initial presentation: A chess composition in which a certain → topic or a certain idea has demonstrably been implemented for the first time.
- First move: Describes the first move of the attracting person in a certain phase of the overall solution of a chess composition; in the phase of the solution (→ real game ) to be equated with the → key move.
- Distance block, also advance block : A distance block is a stone that is only used as a → block after → steering a topic stone (usually the black king) to this stone . Examples from Michail Marandjuk , Wilhelm Maßmann and Rudolf Teschner .
- Shackle mate: A mate in the area of effect of a shackled opposing stone, which could defend without the → shackle .
- FIDE album : The FIDE album is an anthology of the best chess compositions published by the Yugoslav chess composer Nenad Petrović under the auspices of the WorldChessFederationsince 1956 . The number of compositions represented in the FIDE albums also determines the awarding of international titles, such as B. the " International Grand Master for Chess Composition ".
- Escape square : A square uncontrolled by the opposing party through which a piece (usually the king ) can escape an attack (such as the chess bid ).
- Flurmatt: The special name for a → basic row matt in the narrower sense.
- Continuation problem: A chess composition in which a new demand arises after the → key move has been performed .
- Leadership: The voluntary change of position of a stone, whereby voluntary is to be understood in the sense that the movement of this stone proves or should prove useful for his side.
- Give-and-take key: A → key move that gives the opposing king one (or more) → escape fields at the same time ( escape-field key) and takes (escape-field key).
- Good Companion, short for Good Companion Chess Problem Club: A famous problem association founded by the American chess composer James F. Magee in Philadelphia in 1913 , which quickly expanded into a worldwide association with over 600 members and one in the course of its 11 years of existence published his own magazine devoted to the chess problem.
- Basic row mate: In general, every mating of the king on the first or eighth row or, in the narrower sense, a mate on the first or eighth row by the queen or rook , especially if the castled king has no air hole.
- Cumulative task: A chess composition in which a motif of the mating lead or a certain → topic occurs several times. If a motif or theme occurs two or three times, one speaks of double or triple definition.
- Main plan : The term used by the New German School for the → basic plan of a preparatory combination.
- Obstacle: In the new German sense, a circumstance which in the → audition prevents the → basic plan from being successful and whose effect can be eliminated by a → safety plan . An obstacle is given by the existence or lack of mass or strength of a figure .
- Ideal matt : A → pattern matt, in which all chess pieces (including the black ones) actively participate. Example with Alexander Galitski .
- Irreparable threat: A → threat that cannot be refuted or parried.
- Code: The code is the summary of the general guidelines of chess composition. Among other things, it contains information on when a chess composition is incorrect and how composition tournaments should be organized.
- Combination: The coordination of the effects of at least two trains of a color. A distinction is made between direct and indirect combinations in attack and defense, with white or black maneuvering with the effects of white or black moves.
- Construction task : A chess composition with the requirement to construct a position that meets certain conditions. Of particular interest here are top performances (record-breaking constructions).
- Critical move, also criticism: the crossing of a field by a figure in order to enable a later → disguise, as in the Indian problem . The more detailed description of the respective criticism is determined by the type of adjustment.
- Master plan : Concept of the New German School for the → basic plan of a selection combination.
- Steering: Forcing an opposing figure to make damaging moves.
- Ultimate form: The form (position) of a chess composition in which a problem or study chess idea is represented in a (presumably) artistically unsurpassable way.
- Solution kink: The move in a defense problem that causes White's initiative again after Black's strong counterplay and is not included in the threat game .
- Mansube : Altarabic endgame-like chess composition, forerunner of modern chess composition. Its essential feature is that mating is the only way to win.
- Matt Task: A chess problem in which with the best possible defense of catching the other party at the latest after the required number of trains checkmate needs.
- Multi-move: A chess composition that requires more than three moves to solve .
- Meredith: A chess composition with a total of 8 to 12 pieces. This designation was given by the → Good Companion Chess Problem Club for the number of two-move pieces that fill stones in honor of the American chess composer William Meredith; however nowadays it is occasionally used for corresponding three-moves.
- Miniature: A chess composition with a maximum of seven pieces. The term was introduced by Oscar Blumenthal in 1902 .
- Minimal: A chess problem, in White in the starting position (set position) next to his king only one character has. The term was introduced by Ado Kraemer in 1924 . On the other hand, if White sacrifices all pieces except two, it is a sacrifice minimum.
- Model matt : Analogue expression for → pattern matt .
- Pattern matt : A matt image in which the matt is at the same time → pure and → economical . (Existing bondage and double chess are allowed.) The pattern matt plays a special role in compositions of the Bohemian School , in which at least three pattern mattes are to be expected. A pattern mat is generally considered to be very aesthetic .
- Secondary solution: Another unintended solution by the author (author) in the form of additional → key moves or other moves that do not correspond to the course of the solution, i.e. In other words , in contrast to the → dual , the deviation of the solution begins with the key pull. As a result, the chess composition is devalued and it is called “cooked”.
- Economic Matt: A matte screen in which all figures of the matt-setting party (except King and farmers) on Matt involved.
- Sacrifice minimal: See under → Minimal.
- Sacrifice Key : A → key move that directly or indirectly sacrifices one or more stones .
- Parade: In general, the response from the other side (counter-move) or, more strictly speaking, the defensive move of the opposing party with the aim of warding off a → threat, ideally through a counter-attack.
- Paracriticus: The critical → guidance of a stone behind an adjustment point so that the guided stone can no longer be struck after the adjustment.
- Plagiarism: The form of unauthorized claiming of authorship that occurs in chess composition , which, if found in composition tournaments , leads to the loss of the award for the composition concerned. See also → predecessor.
- Plan: The forward-looking and goal-oriented consideration of the strategic and tactical means with which goals can be achieved in fulfilling the requirements of a chess composition, whereby a precise assessment of the position (analysis) must always be assumed.
- Position: Another expression for a position on the chessboard or in the diagram, i. H. the white and black piece constellation or pawn formation that results after each move .
- Audition: Audition is the name of the thought experiment in a logically new German chess problem, the → basic plan unsecured, i.e. H. without a → backup plan. This concept, which is of fundamental importance in the New German School is was in 1928 by Walther von Holzhausen introduced and should have little appropriate designation "idea contemporary seduction" replace.
- Pseudo-two-move: Three- and multi-move chess problems in which the set game results in a mate in two moves.
- Frame matt : Analogue expression for → mirror matt .
- Real game: In contrast to the → virtual game, this is the name given to the actual solution game of a chess problem , which is composed of the → key move and the individual branches of the solution (→ variants, lines ).
- Pure mate: A mate picture in which the mating field and the → escape fields of the checkmated king may only not be entered for one reason each.
- Rex solus: A chess problem where one side (usually Black) only has the king .
- Structure plan: Outdated term of the New German School for the → safety plan of a selection combination.
- Set game: The resulting → variants, if in the starting position (sentence position, "sentence" = "as set") one lets the other party (usually Black) move rather than the party in motion. i.e. if one assumes that the party actually attracting has already moved (without → key move ). If the requirement of chess composition can be satisfied, one speaks of a complete set (game). If the requirement of chess composition cannot be met, but there are still a few mate guides that meet this requirement, these variants are called free set games.
- Chess key : A → key move that offers chess to the opposing king .
- Bump key : A → key move that hits an opponent's stone.
- Key move : First move intended by the writer (author) of the chess composition in the course of the solution. Depending on the nature of this move, a distinction is made between different keys, such as: B. Give-and-take keys, → sacrificial keys , → chess keys or → bump keys . In a broader sense, however, it is also the decisive move towards solving a problematic position and consequently not necessarily the first move of the attractive party .
- Intersection: A field on which a long-stepped figure can be moved by another stone; If the latter is also a long-stepped figure, reciprocal adjustments are also possible, otherwise only a simple one.
- Serial move: A (heterodox) demand in a chess problem in which the attracting party makes all moves in a row. In the case of an auxiliary and self-mate , the opposing party then has exactly one move in which the mate must take place (mating move ). A → set game only exists in the latter case.
- Security plan: The security plan of a chess composition in the style of the New German School is the maneuver that removes obstacles. Its execution ensures the success of the → baseline plan .
- Mirror mate: A mated image in which all eight neighboring squares of the mated king are unoccupied.
- Root problem: A chess composition in which a certain topic or a certain idea has been presented - not necessarily for the first time - and which is used as a reference.
- Silent move: a move that neither offers check nor captures an opponent's piece.
- Task: A task is a record task, i.e. the realization of an idea with the theoretically maximum possible multiple setting. The "sporty" element ("can I do it correctly?") Is in the foreground. Examples are the Babson , Keym and Valladão tasks. See also → accumulation problem.
- Speed gain: Compared to another procedure, a position is reached in such a way that it is your turn; the means of bringing it about is employment management .
- Loss of tempo: Compared to another approach, a position is reached in such a way that it is the opposing party's turn; It can be brought about by steering an opposing figure.
- Subject: A subject is the content or the idea of the author (author) of a chess composition. Examples are the Allumwandlung , the Berlin theme , the mate or the parade change.
- Total parade : A parade that parries all of them when multiple threats occur.
- Variant : A sequence of moves that results from different answers (parades) of the opposing side to a certain move by the attracting party. A distinction is made between thematic, additional and technical (construction-related) variants.
- Vector: The line connecting a focal point and a long-stepped figure defending it.
- Seduction: With direct mate and self-mate, this is a white initial move that "almost solves" the problem, but is clearly refuted by a defensive move by black.
- Version: A chess composition that is an adaptation of an earlier one, be it to improve its economy (strength, space, time) or to eliminate a possible secondary solution.
- Defense problem: Chess composition in which the black defense is so strong that it becomes an issue, i.e. This means that the idea of composition is expressed in the black counterplay. In any case, the black defense idea must have a strong influence on White's game, be it by delaying the solution (stretching parade) or by necessitating a change of plan or a certain plan choice by White.
- Frequent moves: A chess composition with a (very) high number of moves. This genus was popularized by Ottó T. Bláthy .
- Virtual game: Also known as a sham game or deception game . In contrast to the game that takes place in the solution itself, this is what happens in the sentence game and in the seductions; For the content of the chess problem , this virtual event is often of essential importance.
- Forward block : See → Remote block.
- Predecessor, also anticipated task: This expression describes a chess composition that was anticipated by an earlier publication in terms of content and form of representation and is therefore excluded from tournaments or excluded from tournaments and any award that may be awarded or already received is denied.
- Pre-plan: The term used by the New German School for the → security plan within a preparation combination.
- Waiting move : A move of a waiting or corrective nature that does not destroy the position.
- Wenigsteiner: A chess composition with a maximum of four pieces. The term was introduced by Albert Heinrich Kniest .
- Action field : The field of a line of action from which the → action stone is cut off after the adjustment.
- Effect stone: The figure crossing the → intersection .
- Zero position: In the auxiliary mat , a zero position is a position in which changes have to be made before it can be solved. For example, a different figure could be removed at a time.
- Purpose economy: Purpose economy in its general form occurs when a maneuver fulfills a certain number of purposes, each of which is absolutely necessary to determine the maneuver.
- Force to move : There is no threat, the opposing party is only at a disadvantage because it has to comply with its obligation to move . Variants arise here on every opposing move.
- Couple in pairs: Two solutions are required, both from the starting position (unlike the twin, where there are two starting positions). An example of an auxiliary matt couple can be found in John Niemann .
- Two moves : mating a chess problem with the requirement to checkmate in two moves.
- Zwilling: These are two chess compositions in which the positions are very similar. Often only a single stone (but not the main player) is on another field, or the color of a stone changes, or two stones are swapped, or the board is turned / mirrored, or all stones are offset by a line or row. Despite such a relatively small change, the solutions often differ significantly.
Frequent topics, combinations, maneuvers
- Interception (-Idea): The interception of an opposing piece (or several) with use of the ensuing forced move , by causing the opposing party to make a damaging move that results in mate .
- Albino : accumulation task - all four possible moves of a white pawn from the second row are executed.
- All conversion : Differentiated representation of all four (orthodox) pawn conversions in a chess composition, which may also be distributed among different pawns.
- Anti-albino: accumulation task - all possible moves of a white pawn to reach his square on the fourth row. See → Albino.
- Anti-battery: The attack of a fairytale chess piece on an opponent's piece by pulling a mass into the line between the two pieces . See → Battery.
- Anti-Block: See under → Unblocking.
- Anti-Pickaninny: accumulation task - all possible moves of a black pawn to reach his square on the fifth row. See → Pickaninny.
- Babson (-Task) : A → accumulation task in which, in four → variants , the four conversion options of a black pawn are consecutively followed by the analogous conversion of a white pawn, whereby each of the two pawns must always perform the same movement in all four variants. If the four conversion pairs instead form a (complete) cycle, one speaks of the cyclic Babson.
- Facilitation: A stone is pulled so far forward on a line (over an → intersection point ) that it no longer plays along, just to be able to pull another stone on the same line. It differs from → line clearance only in that both stones move in the same direction. The theme of advance planning is also known as the Bristol theme (after its leading actor Frank Healey ).
- Battery : two stones aimedat the opposing king's deduction constellation; if the withdrawal of the masking of stone uncovered stone itself chess offers ( discovered check ), it is a direct, this covers only a → flight field of the king, an indirect battery.
- Berlin topic : In (at least) one → audition , the wrong party is checkmated. One or more → security plans do not prevent the wrong mate move, but weaken it to a harmless check , whereupon the opposing partycan no longer preventits own mate .
- Bivalve: See under → Change of lock.
- Blockade : A blockade is the displacement of an opposing pawn with a piece. Theterm for this maneuver, coinedby Aaron Nimzowitsch , is oftendiscussedin chess studies . Example at Paul Heuäcker .
- Women's Cross: A → task, in which the lady on as many ways checkmate . In a double move there are up to twelve possibilities if the positions of the queen and opposing king differ by three rows and one line (or three lines and one row).
- Dombrovskis: Two-move task - In the solution, the thematic mating moves paradoxically follow precisely those black moves on which they fail as → threats of → seduction .
- Dresdner: A switching mechanism in compositions of the New German School , in which, depending on the type in the → security plan, → steering certain defenders are switched on or off. For an example see under Friedrich Palitzsch .
- Dual avoidance: A black → parade causes damage that two white answers could use, which only use this damage. An additional effect of the black parade prevents one of the two mates . As a rule it is expected that in another → variant the other mate is also → differentiated by avoiding duals .
- Unblocking: The → antiform of → block, i.e. H. a direct black maneuver against a threatening block by lifting it in the form of pulling away or hitting the blocking stone, also called anti-block or obsolete blocking .
- Unleashing : The lifting or removal of a → shackle, possible directly by hitting or driving awaythe captivating figure, indirectly by pulling a stone on the fettering line (→ semi-shackling ) and thus interrupting it, or again directly by withdrawing the king from the real or one Figure in the fake bondage from the bondage line.
- Excelsior: The representation of a pawn's march from its starting space to a conversion space, in the narrower sense in only the minimum necessary five moves ; Special case of a mercury farmer ( so called for the first time by Tartakower ) .
- Shackling : A stone is attacked by an opposing piece in such a way that it cannot leave a square or a line or row, i.e. it is prevented from moving because it would directlyexposeits own king to a check or indirectly defeat a material or strategically valuable figure.
- Stain topic : White threatens simultaneously n Matt's on. Each defense averts everythingapart from one → threat , so that the multiple threat isseparatedinto n different mates.
- Function change: Two (or more) stones exchange their functions in the course of a (multi-move) → variant or between two variants of a phase or between two (or more) phases.
- Gamage: two- move task - after the → key move , a black figure is tied up. Through the mating move, she can be released directly from her → bondage (direct release), but the previous defensive parade with self-adjustment as an additional damaging effect neutralized her lateral defenses.
- Goethart: Two- move task - after the → key move , a black figure is tied up. Through the mating move, she can be freed from her restraint through → adjustment (indirect unleashing), but the previous defensive parade with self- adjustment as an additional harmful effect deprived it of its resistance.
- Grimshaw: (Mutual) → Adjustment of two unsteady black figures in their → intersection without a white victim (in contrast to → Nowotny ). This combination is named after Walter Grimshaw . A particularly fine example of a Grimshaw can be found in the article on " The Swallow ".
- Guillotine theme: Another name for → Mousetrap theme.
- Half-battery: two stones of the same color adjust the line of action of your own long-strider. After removing an adjustable stone, a → battery is created.
- Semi-bondage: Between the line of action of a long-strider and the opposing figure there are two more stones of the color of the attacked figure. If one of these stones moves out of the line of action of the long strider, the other stone is tied up.
- Holst conversion: A → security plan forced conversion of a pawn into the insufficient defensive figure; mostly a black → sub-metamorphosis.
- Indian: A white piece crosses a → intersection point for the sole purpose that it can be moved by another white piece (→ critical move ). See Indian problem .
- Java topic: Line combination with → dual avoidance - two fields in the area of the opposing king are each covered by two long-stepped figures ( covering ). In the two thematic → parades , one of the two cover lines is adjusted so that one of the fields is only covered once. Therefore two seemingly possible Matt trains only one to lead Matt , who is not connected to an adjustment of the still left open support line.
- Keym-Task: A → accumulation task with the representation of → Allumwandlung, → Excelsior and → Valladão.
- Contrasting changes: Two white trains run alternately in each case to a reply to Matt and fail on the other; If the → key move then enables the corresponding checkmate both times, there is a contra-change combination. A distinction is made between the selection of three moves of a stone or between three pairs of moves of two stones (contra change with changeover).
- Kraemer theme: White loses a tempo by inserting the victim of another, originally imprisoned, figure between the pendulum movements of one figure . This task with → change of move is named after two themed tournaments advertised by Ado Kraemer .
- Cross bondage : The two → bondage of a figure .
- Cross flight: A figure (for example the black king ) flees in the various → plays to the four horizontally or vertically adjacent squares.
- Cross Chess: A from an langschrittigen FIG given bay is crossed, covered so by interposing a stone while it simultaneously provides even chess (counter chess). This requires battery play in the two-move game. Alain Campbell White examined the topic more closely and introduced it as a term.
- Larsen-Task: A → accumulation task in which a two-move is to be constructed in such a way that a maximum of mating moves is achieved on the same mating field.
- Lewman: White threatens to open a masked white line in the mating move, but at the same time to obscure another white line that aims at the topic field. Black defends himself by moving the masked white line.
- Line clearance: A stone is withdrawn on a line (whereby it crosses an → intersection point ) so that it no longer plays along, just to be able to bring another stone forward on this line. This idea comes from Samuel Loyd . It differs from → Turton in that the clearing stone is no longer needed; from the → pavement in that the two stones pull in different directions.
- Mari theme: Two-move task - a white piece is released by the → key move, which at the same time ties another white stone. In order to refute a mate threat resulting from this, Black for his part has to tie up this unleashed white piece, but the white stone, which was chained by the key pull, is unleashed again and can now checkmate.
- Change of checkmate : Change of mating moves in the → set game or in → seduction on the mating moves in the solution game. Variants are the reciprocal mating change, in which the mating moves are exchanged in their order, and the multi-phase mating change, in which the mating moves change both in the set game and in one (or more) seduction (s) against the same black saves in the solution game .
- Mousetrap theme: Combination of intersection points where a white barrier stone leaves the critical field and re-enters it, thereby damaging an opposing figure.
- Moscow theme: after the key move, a white battery threatens double checkmate. The parade blocks one mating line and attacks the other mating line.
- Nowotny: Adjustment of the congruence lines of two unsteady black figures by damaging their → intersection with a white sacrificial stone. This intersection combination is named after Antonin Nowotny , for an example see there.
- Parade change: When the same mate moves in the → set game or in → seduction and those in the solution game, black changes his defensive moves (parades).
- Stalemate: The attempted combinatorial way to achieve a draw from a worse or lost position by stalemate - often thematic content in chess studies .
- Patt hike: The King constantly gives way to chess commandments of an opposing figure , since while beating the same opponent the king stalemate is and therefore inviolable is.
- Pendulum: A maneuver that involves moving a figure or positional unit back and forth .
- Pickanniny : All four possible moves of a black pawn from the seventh row are carried out.
- Plachutta: adjustment of the cover lines of two gleichschrittiger black figures (mainly towers) by occupation of their intersection with a white sacrificial stone. This intersection combination is named after Josef Plachutta , for an example see there.
- Change of plan: Obsolete term often used by Erich Brunner for → change of train.
- Radical change: Between two (or more) phases - that is → set game, → seduction (s) and solution game - (almost) all topics (mate and save change) and the topic change in the theme variants.
- Draw Swing: The achievement of a position, one in which one side draw by perpetual check or repetition of moves can force without which they would be lost due to the opposing material or positional advantage and can be seen as a last resort from the threat of defeat often.
- Repertoire topics: A collective or generic term for composition topics that deal with the representation of all possible moves of different chess pieces . These include As the → Springerrad, the → Star escape of the king and the rotor star, the → Cross flight of the king and the tower cross and the three peasant issues Albino , pickaninny and allumwandlung .
- Return: Return of a figure to a space already occupied by it.
- Circular run: The drawing lines of a certain figure result in any geometric shape, such as B. a triangle, square or rectangle.
- Chess provocation: A move that allows chess bids from the opposing side.
- Seeberger: The critical → steering of a figure in order to restrict its freedom of movement through the subsequent adjustment.
- Self-block: The harmful occupation (disguise) of a → escape field of one 's own king .
- Self- bondage : The → bondage is brought about by one's own stone - directly by the king or the tied one, indirectly by another.
- Blocking change: At the parade, a stone opens the line of action of a figure of the same color , but at the same time damagingly blocks another line of action of this figure (valve) or the line of action of another figure of the same color (bivalve).
- Knight's wheel: A white or black knight in the center moves in the various → play onto all eight directly accessible fields.
- Star flight: A figure (for example the black king ) flees in the various → plays to the four diagonally adjacent squares.
- Stocchi block: A → escape field is blocked in three different ways, which is used differently when mating. A completely neutral mass as a → block should allow all three mates .
- Trial avoidance: After a black move, White apparently has three mates or continuations, two of which are eliminated by an additional effect of defense.
- Turton: To achieve a doubling of two long-stepped figures on a line in the correct order, one of them on this line crosses the → intersection of its lines of action. The classic form of the Turton is based on two unequally strong white long steppers (lady and tower or lady and bishop); the weaker figure is pushed back over the point of intersection in order to be able to bring the stronger figure forward. It is named after Henry Turton (there also the root problem). In the Loyd-Turton (after Samuel Loyd ) the stronger figure is pushed back in order to be able to put the weaker one in front. The Brunner Turton (after Erich Brunner ) plays this through for two identical figures (usually towers). In the Zepler form of the Turton (after Erich Zepler ), the point of intersection is exceeded by pushing forward (anti-critical) instead of pushing back.
- Over -transformation : A → Holst transformation in which the harmful transformation into a lady is forced.
- Valladão (-Task): A → cumulative task, in which the occurrence of all "special moves " ( castling , pawn conversion and en-passant capture) is required in the most economical position possible.
- Valve: See under → Lock change.
- Improved threat: Any withdrawal of a white piece creates a → threat that can be refuted by black. White therefore gives up this original threat in order to use the same theme figure to pose a new, effective threat.
- Advance adjustment: In advance adjustment, the line of action or traction of a figure is adjusted that does not exist at the moment in the current → position , because the figure to be adjusted has not yet moved to the field in the line concerned.
- Wurzburg-Plachutta: The (forced) mutual adjustment of two step-like figures without a white sacrificial stone . Otto Wurzburg succeeded in the → first representation of this victimless → Plachutta (see there), hence the name. This combination of intersection points is also known as a double-ended wooden house .
- Y-Escape: The king 's escape moves to the fields that form a “Y” (together with his standing space ).
- Z-Escape: The king 's escape moves to the fields that form a "Z" (together with his standing space ).
- Move change ( English "White to play", French "blocus complet"): White wants to take advantage of Black's compulsion to move , but does not have a neutral → waiting move or a waiting maneuver that can maintain the entire sentence in whole or in part. That means, a different → plan must be implemented, which then leads to a changed and / or additional game. The → key move can again lead to a forced move, but also contain a → threat or offer check .
- Dilemma : A series of deduction chess , which in a mating task inevitably lead to mate and in a chess study mostly to → profit .
- Heinrich Ranneforth: The chess problem. Schachverlag Hans Hedewigs Nachf. Curt Ronniger, Leipzig 1937. p. 10.
- Manfred von Fondern: Lexicon for chess friends. Lucerne and Frankfurt / M. 1980, article Reflexmatt.
- Fairy tale lexicon of the problem chess magazine Die Schwalbe . Article Reflexmatt.
Raymond Smullyan: Chess with Sherlock Holmes. 50 exciting problems. Otto Maier Verlag, Ravensburg 1982, ISBN 3-473-43117-6 .
Solution: On c3; last move was 2. Kb3xc3 + after 1. c2 – c4 b4xc3 ++ ep
- goja.sk. sci Fi.
- See for example the price reports at Georgian Composition Tournaments. Retrieved July 9, 2015 .
- György Bakcsi : International grandmasters and masters of chess compositions. Thun, Frankfurt am Main 1988, ISBN 3-8171-1033-2 .
- Friedrich Chlubna : Chess for Nutcrackers. An introduction to the world of the chess problem. Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-9500310-0-6 .
- Karl Fabel : Introduction to Problem Chess. 2nd Edition. Schachverlag Rudi Schmaus, Heidelberg 1976.
- Fritz Hoffmann: A thousand years of chess problems. Promos-Verlag, Pfullingen 2000, ISBN 3-88502-021-1 .
- Schleswig-Holstein State Library Maßmann Collection with a link to the catalog
- Website of the Permanent Commission for Chess Composition (English)
- ARVES Alexander Rueb Association website for endgame studies (Dutch and English)
- Endgame study. ( Memento of July 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). At: ChessCafe.com. English.
- Database of biographical data of chess composers and sources of chess compositions (English)
- Problem database Database of chess problems (made available by " Die Schwalbe ")
- Yet another chess problem database + wiki collection of chess compositions organized as a wiki
- problemschachbuch.de Electronic problem chess books by Werner Speckmann - with an overview of the basic terms used in problem chess
- Chess composition books. ( Memento from April 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). Digitized chess books about chess composition.
- German-language website about retro analysis, collection of tasks and explanations of terms.
- Shortest construction task card (German and English).
- Moves that determine all the previous moves. Games that are clearly determined by their last move.