Vladimir Nabokov

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Nabokov monument in Montreux
Vladimir Nabokov signature.svg

Vladimir Nabokov (especially in English transcription known Russian Владимир Владимирович Набоков  / Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov , scientific. Transliteration Vladimir Vladimirovič Nabokov , pronunciation  [ vlɐdʲimʲɪr vlɐdʲimʲɪrəˌvit͡ʃ nɐbokəf ] ; born 10 . Jul / 22. April 1899 greg. In St. Petersburg ; † July 2, 1977 in Montreux , Switzerland ) was a Russian - American writer ,Please click to listen!Play  Literary scholar and butterfly researcher . He is one of the most influential storytellers of the 20th century. His best known work is the novel Lolita .


Nabokov's life was marked by multiple exiles. In 1917 the Nabokov family fled to Germany before the October Revolution . Although he was not a particularly good tennis player, he earned his first money as a tennis teacher in Berlin and in this context also met the future tennis talent Daniel Prenn . Nabokov's first poems and novels, which he published under the pseudonym W. Sirin , appeared in Berlin and found their readership mainly among exiled Russians who lived in Western Europe. After the seizure of power by the Nazis Vladimir Nabokov emigrated with his Jewish wife Véra over France to the United States. He earned his living there by teaching at various universities. Nabokov became famous for his twelfth novel, published in 1955. Lolita describes the relationship between the pedophile first-person narrator Humbert Humbert and Dolores ("Lolita"), who is twelve years old at the beginning of the plot. At first there was no American publisher; the Parisian publisher Olympia Press , which specializes in English-language erotica , brought out the novel. In the years after its publication, its literary reception was burdened by the question of whether it was a pornographic or a highly moral work. Marcel Reich-Ranicki wrote in 1987 that, from today's perspective, the discussion at that time seemed absurd and ridiculous at the same time. There is not a single sentence in the novel that even brings it close to pornography. The public debate about it meant that Nabokov's works met with broad buyer interest. The sales success allowed Nabokov to quit his professorship at Cornell University and devote himself entirely to writing. The Nabokov couple returned to Europe at the beginning of the 1960s and initially led a nomadic hotel life without a fixed address, before they permanently rented the Hotel Palace in Montreux, Switzerland.

Among the best-known works by Nabokov, alongside Lolita, are the novels Pnin , Fahles Feuer and Ada or Das Verlangen .


Nabokov's birthplace in Saint Petersburg

Nabokov came from an influential and wealthy aristocratic family . His family tree should go back to Karl Heinrich Graun and Johann Heinrich Hartung . His grandfather was the Russian minister of justice, his father Vladimir Dmitrijewitsch Nabokow was a politician after the overthrow of the tsar in 1917, involved in the republican provisional government , which then put an end to the October Revolution . His mother Jelena Ivanovna Rukavischnikowa was the daughter of a wealthy landowner. The family belonged to that cosmopolitan Russian upper class that ceased to exist after the revolution. A cousin was the composer Nicolas Nabokov . Vladimir Nabokov's father was clearly oriented towards the West; there were English governesses and literature in the house. As a child, Nabokov spoke French and English; he was tutored by private tutors, read a lot, was a sickly, sheltered child with strong ties to his mother. The family traveled around Europe and their summer residence was near Saint Petersburg. Nabokov's passion for butterflies developed early on, as did that for writing poetry . At the age of 17 he published his first volume of poetry. His first great love, Valentina Schulgina, whom he met in 1915, appears as the main character in his novel Maschenka ; the second love, Eva Lubrzyńska, appears as a character in The Test of Courage . To avoid the October Revolution, most of the members of the Nabokov family fled to Yalta in 1917 . The father stayed in Saint Petersburg for the time being, where he was arrested by Bolsheviks in 1918. But then he was also able to flee to the Crimea.

First exile

Memorial plaque on Nestorstrasse 22 in Berlin-Halensee

While his family from there to London and later as numerous other Russian exiles to Berlin fled, where she spent more than ten years, Vladimir initially enrolled at Trinity College in English Cambridge one. There he studied natural sciences , Russian and French literature from 1919 to 1922 . He was not a particularly committed student, but dedicated himself to his own translations, love affairs and trips to London. He published his first article on butterflies.

The parents ran a popular salon in Berlin, which was the meeting point for many artists and politicians among the more than 350,000 Russian emigrants in Berlin in the 1920s. The family lived first in Grunewald , later in Wilmersdorf, which was popular among exiled Russians . His father founded Slovo (Das Wort), one of the first Russian exile publishers. In March 1922 he was killed in an assassination attempt on Pavel Miliukov , also exiled, democratic Russian foreign minister, by monarchist exiled Russians in the Berlin Philharmonic . One of the perpetrators was later promoted to a Jewish hunter among the exiled Russians under Hitler in 1936 . For Nabokov this was one of the most decisive events of his life; the father's birthday will appear later than the day of the violent death of a protagonist in the novel Pale Fire .

After completing his studies, Nabokov moved from England to live with his family in Berlin. There he worked as a private teacher, translator, and occasional actor and published his first prose under the pseudonym W. Sirin . He used the pseudonym primarily to avoid confusion with his father.

In the second half of 1922 he asked seventeen-year-old Swetlana Siewert to become his wife. Her parents were only willing to agree on the condition that Nabokov had a permanent position. But he only endured the corresponding attempt in a bank for three hours. In January, Svetlana’s parents told the desperate groom that the engagement was broken.

Nabokov sealed himself off from German influences and, since he could not read German fluently, was also unable to receive German works in their original language. Michael Maar thinks that the “linguistic genius” Nabokov must have been able to speak German after several years in Berlin; he knew German classical and romanticism better than many a Germanist. Dieter E. Zimmer emphasizes from his own experience, however, that Nabokov's German was sufficient for everyday use, not for literature; For example, Nabokov had to work his way through Kafka's transformation with the help of a dictionary. Nabokov translated Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland . In May 1923 he met Véra Yevsejewna Slonim at a masked ball , who became his constant companion and whom he married two years later. From 1926 to 1929 they lived together in a two-room apartment on Passauer Strasse in Berlin-Schöneberg, and later they moved to the nearby Motzstrasse . With Maschenka and König, Dame, Bube he achieved his first respectable successes, the books were also published in German translation by Ullstein . Another seven Russian novels followed. Despite the National Socialists coming to power and although Véra was Jewish, the Nabokovs stayed in Berlin for the time being. In 1934 the son Dmitri († 2012) was born. Nabokov tried to get a job abroad, and in 1936 the family finally decided to leave the country. Vladimir went to Paris, Véra went with Dmitri to her mother-in-law in Prague.

Second exile

Tomb of Vladimir, Véra and Dmitri Nabokov in Montreux-Clarens

In France, Nabokov intensified his search for work and contacts with local intellectuals. He also met James Joyce briefly . During the separation period, Nabokov had an affair with Irina Guadanini, which put a lasting strain on his marriage. In May 1939 his mother died in Prague. In November 1939, Nabokov completed the story The Magician, which was still written in Russian . In an epilogue to his novel Lolita written in 1956, Nabokov mentions a newspaper report about a monkey in the Jardin des Plantes that is said to have drawn the bars of his cage as the first inspiration for this novella :

“The first faint pulse of Lolita passed through me in late 1939 or early 1940 in Paris, at a time when I was lying down with a severe attack of intercostal neuralgia. As far as I can remember, the initial shiver of inspiration was triggered by a newspaper article about a great ape in the Jardin des Plantes, which, after a scientist had chased him for months, produced the first drawing ever charred by an animal: The sketch showed the bars of the cage of the poor creature. The impulse that I record here had no direct relation to the resulting train of thought, which, however, was related to a prototype of my present novel, a short story about thirty pages long. "

In the same epilogue, he states that he destroyed this narrative soon after he moved to the United States in 1940. Nabokov was just as wrong about this as he was about the date of completion. It is certain that it was completed in November 1939. The story was found in February 1959 under different papers. Both this initial event and the story The Magician are the origin of his later main work Lolita .

In 1940, the year in which Nabokov's first exophonic , English-language novel The Real Life of Sebastian Knight was written, the family moved to the USA , where Nabokov initially worked as a butterfly expert at the American Museum of Natural History in New York . He soon began his academic career, which took him to Stanford University , Wellesley College , Harvard University and finally, in 1948, Cornell University , where he was professor of European and Russian literature. In 1945 Nabokov became a US citizen , in January of the same year his younger brother Sergej died in the Neuengamme concentration camp .


The writing of the novel Lolita in English took several years from 1949. In the meantime, Nabokov tried to burn the draft. His wife Véra saved him from the flames at the last minute.

In December 1953 the manuscript was finally available in its pure form, and Nabokov first sent it to friends. Neither the literary critic Edmund Wilson nor Morris Bishop , a writer like Nabokov at Cornell University and his closest confidante, gave positive feedback on the manuscript. Bishop even warned Nabokov that publication could result in his losing his job at Cornell University. The editors of the publishers Viking Press and Simon & Schuster thought the material could not be published - at Simon & Schuster they even described the novel as pure pornography. The experiences with three other US publishers were similar. At Doubleday there were advocates among the editors, but the publishing house management categorically rejected the novel. Finally, the novel was published in 1955 by the Paris publisher Olympia Press, which specializes in English-language erotica .

After Graham Greene named Lolita one of his three 1955 books in the Sunday Times , Sunday Express editor-in-chief John Gordon responded with an angry slavery . In Great Britain, the scandalous story of a sexual relationship between a middle-aged man and the underage daughter of his landlady sparked a literary debate that sparked interest in the novel in a number of Western countries. However, she also ensured that the French Ministry of the Interior issued a long-term ban on the sale of all works published by the publisher in the so-called L'affaire Lolita . In 1958 Nabokov managed to break free from the contract with Olympia Press and to have Lolita published by the prestigious New York publisher GP Putnam's Sons . Nabokov expert Dieter E. Zimmer calls it a lucky coincidence that Nabokov finished working on the novel in the early 1950s. Ten years later, when the sex taboo had already fallen across the West, this work would not have caused such widespread attention. Ten years earlier - when this sex taboo was still in full force - it would not have been possible to have this work printed by a reputable publisher. The scandal was necessary in order to free Nabokov from the existence on the fringes of the literary business, which was due to his exile .

In the United States, reviews of Lolita were divided. The liberal New York weekly The Village Voice panned the book, while the Catholic magazine Commonweal gave the novel great literary value. The New Republic published three reviews within 16 months, two of which described Lolita as a major literary event and the best novel since the 1930s, but a third only certified the novel as profanity. Regardless of this, the sales success was great. The third edition had to be launched within days of initial publication, and the novel was the first since Gone with the Wind to sell more than 100,000 copies in three weeks. With the royalties that his novel Lolita earned, Nabokov was able to withdraw from his professorship in 1959 to concentrate on writing. The fame he gained through this novel also ensured that his other works found a wide readership in numerous countries.


In 1961 he moved to Switzerland with his wife and spent the rest of his life in the Palace Hotel in Montreux on Lake Geneva . He died there on July 2, 1977. He was buried in Clarens .

Butterfly researcher

Under the guidance of his scientifically active father , he has been collecting insects, mainly butterflies, since childhood. His private butterfly collection comprised around 4500 individual pieces. He had rediscovered twenty butterfly species, described them for the first time, and named them after himself, for example Carterocephalus canopunctatus Nabokov (1941), Icaricia Nabokov (1945) or Pseudochrysops Nabokov (1945).

Nabokov worked 1940-1948 as curator of the butterfly collection in the Zoological Museum of Harvard University , and published a number of taxonomic journal articles. More than 150 of his scholarly drawings were published in 2016 along with essays on Nabokov's work.

Chess composition

Vladimir Nabokov
May 1940
  a b c d e f G H  
8th Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess nlt45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess blt45.svg 8th
7th Chess klt45.svg Chess plt45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess pdt45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess rdt45.svg Chess --t45.svg 7th
6th Chess --t45.svg Chess qlt45.svg Chess pdt45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess nlt45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess bdt45.svg 6th
5 Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess kdt45.svg Chess --t45.svg Chess ndt45.svg Chess rlt45.svg 5
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  a b c d e f G H  
Mate in 2 moves

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Nabokov dealt extensively with chess compositions . In his autobiography Speak, Remember, Speak , he describes that this activity fascinated him, but also cost him a lot of time, which he should have spent on "linguistic adventures", that is, on his literary work. He was of the opinion that the same demands are made on chess composers as on creators of other works of art . In 1970 he published the book Poems and problems. ISBN 0-07-045724-7 , which contains 53 poems and 18 chess problems by him.

In this two-move, the composition of which, according to his own statement, left Nabokov in a “powerlessness of concentrated chess brooding”, there is a strong seduction in the pawn conversion 1. b7 – b8S, that in the variants

  • 1.… d7 – d6 + 2. Nb8 – d7 #,
  • 1.… d7xe6 + 2. Nd8 – f7 #,
  • 1.… d7 – d5 + 2. Qb6 – c7 #,
  • 1.… Ke5 – d6 2. Qb6 – c5 # and
  • 1.… Ne2xf4 2. Qb6 – d4 # leads to mate.

Black then has the parade 1.… c3 – c2. White must prevent this by moving the key 1. Be4 – c2 in order to achieve mate on the next move. (1.… d7 – d6 2. Rf4 – f5 #, 1.… d7xe6 2. Qb6 – c5 #, rest as usual.)


Vladimir Nabokov is one of the most influential storytellers of the 20th century. Several writers and authors were significantly influenced by Nabokov's work, such as the German-Austrian writer Daniel Kehlmann , the German author Juli Zeh or the British Zadie Smith . Because of his games with narrative instances , his unreliable narrators , his irony and metafictional tricks, Nabokov is considered a pioneer of postmodern literature .

Nabokov stated that he did not believe that any other writer had any decisive influence on him. It could well be that a sentence he wrote down "has a parallel in style and tone of voice with a writer" whom he "loved or hated half a century ago." He was in great love with Pushkin and considered him the greatest Russian poet, had read the entire Tolstoy in Russian, the entire Shakespeare in English, the entire Flaubert in French, and admired Marcel Proust , Franz Kafka , James Joyce and Jorge Luis Borges , however, as a "master of the puzzle, eluded all definitions and rubrifications". As clear as he adored some poets and writers, so clear were his dislike of other authors and people. He declared that he "hated no one except four doctors: Doctor Freud , Doctor Schiwago , Doctor Schweitzer , Doctor Castro ". The former, whom he often referred to in prefaces to the translations of his novels as a “Viennese quack”, “shoot the bird”. To the horror of their followers, he considered a number of writers "second-rate and ephemeral," including Camus , García Lorca , Kazantzakis , DH Lawrence , Thomas Mann, and Thomas Wolfe .


Until the invitation to the beheading (1938) Nabokov wrote in Russian, his son translated much of it into English. From The True Life of Sebastian Knight (1941), Nabokov wrote in English. The German title is always given below, but the preceding years refer to the first publication in Russian or from 1941 in English.


  • 1926 Maschenka . Novel. (Orig. Russian Mašenka ; English Mary, 1970)
German first edition under the title She is coming - is she coming? Translated from the Russian by Jakob Margot Schubert and Gregor Jarcho. Berlin: Ullstein 1928.
From d. Engl. By Klaus Birkenhauer. Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1991.
  • 1928 König Dame Bube ( Korol'-dama-valet ; English King, Queen, Knave, 1968)
Translated from the Russian by Hanswilhelm Haefs .
Translated from the Russian by Dietmar Schulte. Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1961.
  • 1930 The Scout ( Sogljadataj ; The Eye, English version by Dmitri and Vladimir Nabokov, New York 1965.)
German translation by Dieter E. Zimmer . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1985.
  • 1932 The Test of Courage ( Podvig ; Engl. Glory, 1971)
From the American. by Susanna Rademacher . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1977.
  • 1932 Laughter in the Dark ( camera obscure ; English Laughter in the Dark, 1936)
  • 1934 Despair ( Otčajanie ; English Despair, 1937, 1966 changed and expanded by Nabokov)
  • 1937–1952 Die Gabe ( Dar , incomplete 1937–1938, complete 1952; Engl. The Gift, 1963)
From d. Engl. And Soot. translated by Annelore Engel-Braunschmidt, using a translation by Ulla H. de Herrera.
  • 1938 Invitation to beheading (Orig. Russian Priglašenie na kazn ' ; English Invitation to a Beheading, 1959)
German, translated from English by Dieter E. Zimmer , Rowohlt Taschenbuchverlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1973, ISBN 3-499-11641-3 .
Translated from English by Dieter E. Zimmer.
  • 1947 The Bastard Sign (Bend Sinister)
German by Dieter E. Zimmer.
From d. Engl. By Helen Hessel with collabor. by Maria Carlsson , Kurt Kusenberg , HM Ledig-Rowohlt , Gregor von Rezzori .
From d. American by Curt Meyer-Clason . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1965
From d. Engl. By Uwe Friesel .
  • 1969 Ada or The Desire . From the annals of a family. (Ada; or Ardor: A Family Chronicle)
From d. Engl. By Uwe Friesel and Marianne Therstappen.
  • 1972 See-through things . Novel. (Transparent Things)
German by Dieter E. Zimmer. Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1980.
German by Uwe Friesel. Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt 1979.
  • 2009 The Model for Laura ( The Original of Laura ; fragment of an English novel from the estate).
From the American by Dieter E. Zimmer.

The German edition of the work was published on November 10, 2009. Dmitri Nabokow ignored his father's wish, who wanted the manuscript destroyed after his death.



Work edition

  • Vladimir Nabokov - Collected Works , ed. by Dieter E. Zimmer, Reinbek near Hamburg: Rowohlt 1989–2017
    • 1. Early novels: 1. Maschenka. King, Queen, Jack , 1991
    • 2. Early Novels: 2. Lushin's Defense. The scout. The Test of Courage , 1992
    • 3. Early Novels: 3. Laughter in the Dark , 1997
    • 4. Invitation to be beheaded , 1990
    • 5. The Gift , 1993
    • 6. The Real Life of Sebastian Knight , 1996
    • 7. The bastard sign , 1990
    • 8. Lolita , 1989
    • 9. Pnin , 1994
    • 10. Pale Fire , 2008
    • 11. Ada or The Desire , 2010
    • 12. Late novels: See-through things
    • 13. Stories 1. 1921–1934, 1989
    • 14. Stories 2. 1935–1951, 1989
    • 15.1. Dramas, 2000
    • 15.2. Lolita, a screenplay , 1999
    • 16. Nikolaj Gogol , 1990
    • 17. Lectures on Russian Literature, 2013
    • 18. Lectures on Western European Literature, 2014
    • 19. Lectures on Don Quixote 2016
    • 20. Clear Words - Interviews, Letters to the Editor, Articles, 1993
    • 21. Wayward Views, 2004
    • 22. Memory, read: reunion with an autobiography , 1991
    • 23. Correspondence with Edmund Wilson 1940–1971, 1995
    • 24. Letters to Vera, 2017
    • Marginalia. Compiled by Dieter E. Zimmer, 1989


  • 1951 Other banks. A book of memory. ( Speak, Memory , also published as Conclusive Evidence and Conclusive Evidence. A Memoir )
  • 1966 Speak, Memory: an autobiography revisited (1984: Memory, read: reunion with an autobiography )


From Russian to English:

From English to Russian:

Film adaptations

Literary studies

  • Lectures on Russian Literature . Edited by Fredson Bowers. New York 1981 (online)
    German: 2013 Lectures on Russian literature , edited by F. Bowers and Dieter E. Zimmer. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek
  • 1984 The Art of Reading: Masterpieces of Russian Literature. ISBN 3-10-051503-X .
  • 1984 The Art of Reading: Masterpieces of European Literature. ISBN 3-596-10495-5 .
  • 1985 The art of reading: Cervantes Don Quixote. ISBN 3-10-051504-8 .


in alphabetical order by authors / editors

Web links

Commons : Vladimir Nabokov  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Marshall Jon Fisher: A Terrible Splendor: Three Extraordinary Men, a World Poised for War, and the Greatest Tennis MatchEver Played. Crown / Archetype 2009, ISBN 978-0-307-45214-6 , page 56f.
  2. ^ Brian Boyd: The Russian Years 1899-1940 . 1st edition. Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-498-00564-2 , p. 328 ff .
  3. Marcel Reich-Ranicki: Vladimir Nabokov - essays. Ammann Verlag & Co, Zurich 1995, ISBN 3-250-10277-6 , p. 67. The article Lust, Hörigkeit, Liebe , from which this statement comes, first appeared on October 6, 1987 in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung .
  4. Karl Heinrich Graun was the son of August Graun, excise collector in Wahrenbrück near Liebenwerda, and grandson of pastor Johann Caspar Graun from a Saxon pastor's family. Ernst Waeltner:  Graun, Johann Gottlieb. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , p. 9 f. ( Digitized version ).
  5. Nabokov alluded to the two in an interview he gave in 1966: Despot in my world. In: The time. October 28, 1966, No. 44, p. 19 f.
  6. Marcel Reich-Ranicki: Vladimir Nabokov - essays. Ammann Verlag & Co, Zurich 1995, ISBN 3-250-10277-6 , p. 135.
  7. Michael Maar: Solus Rex. P. 84.
  8. Wolfgang Schneider: The commentary as a narrative. In: Deutschlandfunk , June 22, 2008 (on Pale Fire ).
  9. Marcel Reich-Ranicki: Vladimir Nabokov - essays. Ammann Verlag & Co., Zurich 1995, ISBN 3-250-10277-6 , p. 136.
  10. ^ Brian Boyd: The Russian Years 1899-1940 . Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-498-00564-2 , p. 320.330 .
  11. Michael Maar: Solus Rex The beautiful and evil world of Vladimir Nabokov. Berlin Verlag GmbH, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-8270-0512-0 , pp. 26th f .
  12. Dieter E. Zimmer: Cyclone Lolita Information on an epoch-making novel . Rowohlt GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-498-07666-5 , p. 115 f .
  13. ^ Daniel E. Slotnik: Dmitri Nabokov, Steward of Father's Literary Legacy, Dies at 77. (No longer available online.) In: The New York Times . February 25, 2012, archived from the original on March 19, 2012 ; accessed on November 19, 2018 (English).
  14. ^ Brian Boyd: Vladimir Nabokov The Russian Years 1899-1940 . Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-498-00564-2 , p. 697 f .
  15. Vladimir Nabokov in his 1956 afterword to the novel Lolita
  16. Vladimir Nabokov: About a book with the title "Lolita". In: Same: Lolita. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1959, p. 330.
  17. Dieter E. Zimmer: Cyclone Lolita. Information on an epoch-making novel . Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2008, p. 16.
  18. Dieter E. Zimmer: Cyclone Lolita. Information on an epoch-making novel . Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2008, p. 17.
  19. Dieter E. Zimmer: Cyclone Lolita. Information on an epoch-making novel . Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2008, p. 15.
  20. Steve King: Hurricane Lolita. (No longer available online.) Barnesandnoble.com, archived from the original on October 9, 2011 ; accessed on July 14, 2015 .
  21. ^ Daniela Rippl (ed.): Vladimir Nabokov. Alexander Fest Verlag, Berlin 1998.
  22. Boris Nossik: Nabokov - A biography. Development of the Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 1999.
  23. Stephen H. Blackwell; Kurt Johnson (Ed.): Fine lines . Yale University Press, 2016, ISBN 978-0-300-19455-5 .
  24. Vladimir Nabokov: Speak, memory, speak. Reunion with an autobiography . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1984, p. 293.
  25. in the original: "a swoon of concentrated chess thought". Vladimir Nabokov: Speak, memory . Gollancz, London 1951, p. 220.
  26. See Markus Gasser: The Kingdom in the Sea - Daniel Kehlmann's Secret . Wallstein, Göttingen 2010.
  27. ^ Wolfram Eilenberger: Nabokov in the Havelland. In: Cicero . September 26, 2007.
  28. ^ Zadie Smith: Zadie Smith: Better to fail. In: FAZ.net , January 28, 2007.
  29. Achim Hölter : Nabokov, Vladimir Vladimirovicˇ (1899–1977). In: Monika Schmitz-Emans , Uwe Lindemann and Manfred Schmeling (eds.): Poetiken. Authors - texts - terms . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2009, ISBN 978-3-11-018223-1 , p. 296 (accessed via De Gruyter Online).
  30. Vladimir Nabokov: Clear Words . Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-498-04658-6 , p. 79 .
  31. Vladimir Nabokov: Clear Words . Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-498-04658-6 , p. 79 .
  32. Vladimir Nabokov: Clear Words . Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-498-04658-6 , p. 32.79 .
  33. Dieter E. Zimmer at Donald E: Morton: Vladimir Nabokov . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1984, ISBN 3-499-50328-X , p. 140 .
  34. Vladimir Nabokov: Clear Words . 1st edition. Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-498-04658-6 , p. 184 .
  35. Vladimir Nabokov: Clear Words . 1st edition. Rowohlt Verlag GmbH, Reinbek near Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-498-04658-6 , p. 92 .
  36. Vladimir Nabokov: The model for Laura ( Memento from December 28, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) at Rowohlt Verlag