Luigi Einaudi

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Luigi Numa Lorenzo Einaudi (born March 24, 1874 in Carrù , Kingdom of Italy , † October 30, 1961 in Rome ) was a financial scientist and Italian President from May 1948 to May 1955 .


academic career

Einaudi finished his law degree at the University of Turin in 1895 . He taught from 1903 to 1949 as a professor of finance in Turin and was a lecturer at the Polytechnic in Turin and the Luigi Bocconi University of Economics in Milan . Until 1926 he was editor at La Stampa and the Corriere della Sera and correspondent for the British weekly magazine The Economist . Einaudi was editor of the magazines La Riforma Sociale (1900-1935) and Rivista di Storia Economica (1936-1943). In 1935 he was accepted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . Since 1947 he was an elected member of the American Philosophical Society . In 1954 he was elected an honorary member of the British Academy .


In 1919 he was taken over by King Victor Emmanuel III. Appointed Senatore del Regno , then a tenure position. As a senator he advocated a liberal economic policy and was an opponent of protectionism . As an opponent of fascism he fled in September 1943 over the mountain pass de Fenêtre Durand in Switzerland . He returned to Italy in 1945 and was Governor of the Bank of Italy from January 5, 1945 to May 11, 1948 . From 1946 to 1948 he was a member of the constituent assembly . He was deputy prime minister, briefly finance minister until the ministry was split up and then budget minister in the De Gasperi IV cabinet (June 1947 to May 1948). On May 11, 1948 he was elected President in the fourth ballot. His term of office ended on May 11, 1955; from that day until his death he was a Senator for life.

As early as 1918, Einaudi had pleaded for a federal Europe under the pseudonym Junius . After 1945 he advocated the European Political Community , which was to be established under the Treaty on European Defense Community .

In terms of economic policy, Einaudi fought against budget deficits financed by the central bank . He succeeded in restructuring the state budget and stabilizing the lira at the inflation level achieved without currency reform . Similar to Jacques Rueff , Ludwig Erhard and Reinhard Kamitz , as a professor he was able to apply his concept in practice with great success and to push ahead with the reconstruction.


Einaudi was married to Ida Pellegrini. They had three sons, including the publisher Giulio Einaudi . The composer and pianist Ludovico Einaudi is a grandson of Luigi Einaudi.

Awards (selection)


Einaudi's list of publications is around 800 pages long.


  • Riccardo Faucci:  Einaudi, Luigi. In: Fiorella Bartoccini (ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 42:  Dugoni – Enza. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 1993.
  • Fabio Masini: Luigi Einaudi and the Making of the Neoliberal Project. In: History of Economic Thought and Policy, Volume 1 (2012), No. 1, pp. 39–59 ( Draft ; PDF; 87 kB).
  • Angelo Santagostino: Luigi Einaudi, the Father of the 'Fathers of Europe' . Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2017, ISBN 978-1-4438-9598-9 ( look inside the book ).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b Biografia
  2. Book of Members 1780 – present, Chapter E. (PDF; 477 kB) In: American Academy of Arts and Sciences ( Retrieved July 27, 2018 .
  3. Member History: Luigi Einaudi. American Philosophical Society, accessed July 27, 2018 .
  4. ^ Deceased Fellows. British Academy, accessed May 23, 2020 .
  5. Valpelline on, the homepage of Gedenkorte Europa 1939–1945
  6. the day of his election as President
  7. from July 12, 1946 to January 17, 1947 for the UDN and from January 17, 1947 to January 31, 1948 for the PLI
  8. A 2/3 majority was required in the first three ballots; a simple majority was sufficient for the fourth. Source: Der Spiegel 20/1948, pp. 10–11: The game is over.
  9. Hans Willgerodt : Einaudi, Luigi. In: Lexicon of the social market economy. UTB, Freiburg 2002, p. 29.
  10. p. 44
  11. Luigi Firpo (1971): Bibliografia degli scritti di Luigi Einaudi (dal 1893 al 1970) (digitized online )