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Meadow mushroom (Agaricus campestris)

Meadow mushroom ( Agaricus campestris )

Subdivision : Agaricomycotina
Class : Agaricomycetes
Subclass : Agaricomycetidae
Order : Mushroom-like (Agaricales)
Family : Mushroom relatives (Agaricaceae)
Genre : Mushrooms
Scientific name
L. (nom. Cons.)

The mushrooms ( French for "mushroom", Latin Agaricus syn. Psalliota ), in German also Egerlinge or Angerlinge , are a genus of mushrooms from the family of mushroom relatives (Agaricaceae).

The type species is the meadow mushroom ( Agaricus campestris ).


The mushroom genus includes popular edible mushrooms , but there are also poisonous species, and some species can accumulate heavy metals in correspondingly polluted locations . The two-pored mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) is the world's most important cultivated mushroom; other species, such as the Brazilian almond bark , are also cultivated.


Mushrooms consist of 91% water, on average around 4% protein and less than 1% fat. Mushrooms are considered to be low in energy; the physiological calorific value is approx. 100  kJ / 100 g (24  kcal / 100 g). They also contain essential amino acids , vitamins K, D (in the form of D2 ), E and B, niacin and the minerals potassium, iron and zinc. These figures are average values ​​and refer to cultivated mushrooms that are commercially available. Specimens growing in the wild can be very rich in vitamin D in locations with a lot of daylight, while cultivated specimens sometimes contain negligible amounts.


Macroscopic features

Mushrooms have a hat and stem, usually fleshy and, depending on the species, small to very large fruit bodies. The cap skin is white, yellowish or brown in color, in some species it turns yellow on pressure or injury. The surface can be smooth, fibrous or flaky, but always dry and never smeary. The brim of the hat is not rubbed. The lamellas are free and mostly densely packed. When young they are pale gray to pink, when the spores mature they are colored chocolate-brown to purple-black, are never white (as is the case with the death cap mushrooms, where they are always white and remain so with age). The lamellar cutting edge is sometimes covered with fine flakes over the entire margin. The stem is central and can be easily separated from the hat, it is cylindrical or club-shaped and often becomes hollow with age. The stem may have a tuber at the base, but not a volva .

In contrast, the mushrooms have a velum partiale, which remains on the stem as a non-displaceable, sometimes double, often easily perishable ring or at least as a leftover velum. The flesh of the hat can be invariably white, or more or less yellow or red when injured. The consistency of the stem meat is sometimes tough. Some species have a specific smell of anise, almonds or phenol. Many species show vivid color reactions with reagents such as potassium hydroxide or phenol .

Microscopic features

The thin-walled hyphae have no buckles on the septa . The cap skin consists of radially lying hyphae, sometimes with palisade fragments at the apex. The trama of the lamellas has a regular structure and can become irregular with age. Cheilo cystids are sometimes present while pleurocystids are absent. The basidia are club-shaped, relatively small and mostly 4-spore - an exception, for example, is the cultivated mushroom with 2-spore basidia. The spore powder is dark brown to purple brown, the spores vary in size depending on the species, mostly small, round to long ellipsoidal and smooth. They have a germ pore that is usually only indistinctly recognizable. The spores are inamyloid and not dextrinoid .


The mushrooms are saprobiontic inhabitants of (also fertilized) soil or compost , which can be found in forests, on meadows, in gardens and steppes.


The following species are specified or expected for Europe:

Mushrooms in Europe 0
German name Scientific name Author quote
Downy oak mushroom Agaricus alboargillascens (A. Pearson 1950) Bon 1985
Long stemmed mushroom Agaricus altipes (FH Møller 1950) Pilát 1951
00 Spring mushroom 00 Agaricus altipes var.  Veneris (R. Heim & G. Becker 1960) LA Parra 2005
Amanita-like mushroom Agaricus amanitiformis
(described as amanitaeformis )
Water 1974
Narrow-stemmed blood mushroom Agaricus annae Pilát 1951
Agaricus annulospecialis Bohus, Vasas & Locsmándi 1999
Long-stemmed dry mushroom Agaricus aridicola Geml, Geiser & Royse 2004
Arctic mushroom Agaricus aristocratus Gulden 1996
White aniseed mushroom Agaricus arvensis Schaeffer 1774
Giant mushroom Agaricus augustus Frieze 1838
White flaky blood mushroom Agaricus benesii (Pilát 1925) Singer 1951 ('1949')
Coarsely flaky salt marsh mushrooms Agaricus bernardii
(described as bernardi )
Quélet 1878
Beach mushroom Agaricus bernardiiformis Bohus 1975 ^
Cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus
(described as " bispora ")
(JE Lange 1926) Imbach 1946 sl
00 00 Agaricus bisporus var.  Eurotetrasporus Callac & Guinberteau in Callac et al. 2003
City mushroom Agaricus bitorquis (Quélet 1884) Saccardo 1887
Agaricus bohusianus LA Parra 2005
Spindle-footed mushroom Agaricus bohusii Bon 1983
Small-pored mushroom Agaricus boisseletii Heinemann 1987
Root mushroom Agaricus bresadolanus
(described as bresadolianus )
Bohus 1969
Meadow mushroom Agaricus campestris Linnaeus 1753: Frieze 1821
00 00 Agaricus campestris var.  Equestris
(described as " campester var.  Equester ")
(FH Møller 1950) Pilát 1951
Compost mushroom Agaricus cappellianus Hlaváček 1987
Large-pored summer mushroom Agaricus cappellii Bohus & L. Albert 1985
Snow-skinned mushroom Agaricus chionodermus Pilát 1951
Trifte dwarf mushroom Agaricus comtulus Frieze 1838
Copper-brown mushroom Agaricus cupreobrunneus
(described as " cupreo-brunneus ")
(Jul. Schäffer & Steer 1939 ex FH Møller 1950) Pilát 1951
Cypress mushroom Agaricus cupressicola Bon & Grilli 1987
Leather yellow mushroom Agaricus depauperatus (FH Møller 1950) Pilát 1951
Dune mushroom Agaricus devoniensis PD Orton 1960
Club footed dwarf mushroom Agaricus dulcidulus Schulzer 1874
Agaricus endoxanthus Berkeley & Broome 1871
Crooked aniseed mushroom Agaricus essettei Bon 1983
Cracked, flaky mushroom Agaricus fissuratus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Agaricus fragilivolvatus Contu 1998
Agaricus freirei Blanco-Dios 2001
Dark fibrous mushroom Agaricus fuscofibrillosus (FH Møller 1950) Pilát 1951
Sheath mushroom Agaricus gennadii (Chatin & Boudier 1898) PD Orton 1960
Purple-brown dwarf mushroom Agaricus heinemannianus Esteve-Raventós 1999 ('1998')
Brown square mushroom Agaricus impudicus (Rea 1932) Pilát 1951
Broad-scaled iodoform mushroom Agaricus iodosmus Heinemann 1965
Sand lawn mushroom Agaricus koelerionensis (Bon 1972) Bon 1980 ('1979')
Large blood mushroom Agaricus langei
(described as " Langei ")
(FH Møller 1950) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Woolfoot mushroom Agaricus lanipes (FH Møller & Jul. Schäffer 1938) Hlaváček 1949
Gray dune mushroom Agaricus laskibarii LA Parra & P. ​​Arillaga 2002
White-haired aniseed mushroom Agaricus leucotrichus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Steppe mushroom Agaricus litoralis (Wakefield & A. Pearson 1947) Pilát 1951
Shiny mushroom Agaricus lividonitidus (FH Møller 1950) Pilát 1951
Bladderwrack mushroom Agaricus luteoflocculosus Kalamees 1985
Yellow-spotted dwarf mushroom Agaricus luteomaculatus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Ocher-colored dwarf mushroom Agaricus lutosus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Large aniseed mushroom Agaricus macrocarpus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Flake mushrooms Agaricus macrosporoides Bohus 1974
Bad-smelling mushroom Agaricus maleolens FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Dark sliced ​​mushroom Agaricus mediofuscus (FH Møller 1950) Pilát 1951
Large-pored sand mushroom Agaricus menieri Bon 1981
Guinea fowl mushroom Agaricus moelleri Water 1976
Small-pored meadow mushroom Agaricus moellerianus Bon 1985
Yellowing dwarf mushroom Agaricus niveolutescens Huijsman 1960
Round-pored mushroom Agaricus nivescens (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Short-pored aniseed mushroom Agaricus osecanus Pilát 1951
Gramineae mushroom Agaricus padanus Lanconelli 2002
Large-pored meadow mushroom Agaricus pampeanus Spegazzini 1880
Agaricus parvitigrinus Guinberteau & Callac 2005
Agaricus pearsonii Bon & Boisselet 1997
Small-pored vaginal mushroom Agaricus pequinii (Boudier 1901) Konrad & Maublanc 1937
Slightly discolouring mushroom Agaricus perturbans E. Ludwig & Pohl 2007
Partridge mushroom Agaricus phaeolepidotus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Purple fiber mushroom Agaricus porphyrizon PD Orton 1960
Porphyry mushroom Agaricus porphyrocephalus FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Agaricus pseudocretaceus Bon 1985
Agaricus pseudolutosus (G. Moreno, Esteve-Rav., Illana & Heykoop 1990) G. Moreno, LA Parra, Esteve-Rav. & Heykoop 1999
Wrong meadow mushroom Agaricus pseudopratensis (Bohus 1939) Water 1976
Agaricus pseudoumbrella Bohus 1995
Dwarf purple mushroom Agaricus purpurellus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Agaricus robynsianus Heinemann 1957
Scaly sheath mushroom Agaricus rollanii LA Parra 1995 ex LA Parra 2000
00 00 Agaricus rufotegulis var.  Hadriaticus Lanconelli & Nauta 2004
Flaky mushroom Agaricus subfloccosus
(described as " subflocosus ")
(JE Lange 1926) Hlaváček 1951
Belted mushroom Agaricus subperonatus (JE Lange 1926) Singer 1951 ('1949')
Brazilian almond mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Peck 1894 ('1893')
Straw yellow mushroom Agaricus substramineus Courtecuisse 1985
Small forest mushroom Agaricus sylvaticus Schaeffer 1774
Thin-fleshed aniseed Egerling Agaricus sylvicola (Vittadini 1832) Léveillé 1855
Sulfur yellow aniseed mushroom Agaricus tenuivolvatus (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')
Large-pored aniseed mushroom Agaricus urinascens (Jul. Schäffer & FH Møller 1939) Singer 1951 ('1949')
00 Snow-white Egerling 00 Agaricus urinascens var.  Excellens (FH Møller 1952) Nauta 2001 ('2000')
Agaricus velenovskyi Pilát 1968
Agaricus wasseri Bon & Courtecuisse 1985
Agaricus xanthodermulus Guinberteau & Callac 2005
Carbolic mushroom Agaricus xanthodermus Genevier 1876 s. l.
Yellow flaky mushroom Agaricus xantholepis (FH Møller 1952) FH Møller 1952 ('1951')


The number of species in the genus is controversial and the separation of the species is sometimes difficult. There are around 200 species worldwide and around 60 species in Europe.

Classification of the sections according to Marcel Bon :


Web links

Commons : Champignons ( Agaricus )  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The genus of mushrooms described here is called Agaric in French
  2. ^ Carl von Linné (Linnaeus): Fungi Agaricus . In: Species Plantarum . 1st edition. 1753, col. 1171 ( ). Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  3. Cooked mushrooms: nutritional information online at . Retrieved November 8, 2016.
  4. Mushrooms: Vitamin Bombs of the Forest in Augsburger Allgemeine (online edition), article from August 8, 2012, accessed on February 17, 2019
  5. Eric Strittmatter: The genus Agaricus . In: Mushroom Taxa Database. July 7, 2008, archived from the original on September 7, 2013 ; Retrieved July 9, 2012 .