A soldier transmitter can be used on the one hand to entertain and provide information to one's own armed forces ( troop support transmitter ). In war and deployment or in a foreign stationing country, it should maintain and strengthen the "morale" of the (fighting) soldiers and dispel any doubts about the meaning of the actions. For this reason, greetings are an important part of the program, which is why it is also referred to as the “bridge between the front and home”.
Troop support transmitters also have an indirect effect on the population in the stationed country. So influenced z. For example, the American AFN and the British BFN / BFBS influenced the music culture and radio practice in Germany through their music program and the forms of moderation, especially in the 1950s and 1960s. Many teenagers preferred to listen to these soldier channels as an alternative to the comparatively staid German program.
On the other hand, depending on the direction and producer, it can also be used for propaganda purposes towards foreign soldiers or civilians (as “white” propaganda that reveals their origin, or as “gray” or “black” propaganda that tries to disguise the same ). It may be that one goal of today "operational information" mentioned psychological defense (PSV) targeted disinformation is.
Finally, there are also stations operated by the military that broadcast a general program for their own people.
In addition to the content aspect, possible reasons for setting up soldiers' transmitters are the distance from the country of origin (which, however, plays an increasingly less important role due to satellite and internet connections ) and the time difference, which may require different program schemes than in the country of origin. During the Second World War , mobile transmission systems on trucks were often used as troop support transmitters.
Well-known soldier stations
- Radio Andernach , troop support radio of the Bundeswehr (since 1974)
- Bundeswehr TV , troop support television of the Bundeswehr (since 2010)
- OEY 21, training station for the Austrian Armed Forces (1981-90)
- Rundfunkbataillon 990 of the Bundeswehr to inform the soldiers of the NVA (June / July 1962 under the code name "Westwind", June / July 1963 under the code name "Südwind")
- German soldier transmitter 935 of the NVA for the pro-socialist information of Bundeswehr soldiers (October 1960 to July 1972)
Soldatensender Belgrade , soldierenderender of the Wehrmacht , which gained worldwide fame in 1941 with the broadcast of the song by Lili Marleen
- 1942 part of the Wehrmacht transmitter group Southeast ; next to it: Wehrmacht broadcasting group West (Paris), soldiers radio Oslo
- Soldier transmitter "Martha", mobile long wave transmitter of the Wehrmacht (which, returned via Poland from the Caucasus and converted to an MW transmitter, in 1946 for the NWDR in Hanover-Hemmingen and, dismantled to an LW transmitter, in 1962/63 for the Deutschlandfunk in Mainflingen was used)
- German shortwave transmitter Atlantic and soldier transmitter Calais , propaganda transmitter of the British military (1943-45)
- Sender 1212 , propaganda station of the US military (1944-45)
- Radio Tokyo , Japanese propaganda station during the Second World War, became famous for " Tokyo Rose "
- American Forces Network (AFN), troop support radio for the US armed forces since 1942/43
- British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS), service radio for the British armed forces since 1943
Canadian Forces Network (CFN), service radio for the Canadian Armed Forces 1951–2014
- Canadian Forces Radio CAE (Canadian Army Europe), Canadian soldier station in Werl 1956–1970
- Radio Forces Françaises de Berlin , 1957–1993
Radio Volga (Радиостанция Волга), troop support radio for the Soviet armed forces in Germany 1945–1994 (from 1991 also broadcasts in German)
- Sowinformbjuro (Совинформбюро), news agency that reported on the course of the war from 1941
- Voice of Han Broadcasting Station (漢 聲 廣播 電台 Hàn shēng guǎngbò diàntái / 軍 中 之 聲 Jūn zhōng zhī shēng), broadcaster of the Taiwanese Ministry of Defense (since 1942)
- Galei Zahal (גלי צה״ל, short: גלצ), Israeli soldier broadcaster (since 1950)
- Gugbang FM (국방 FM / 국군 방송 Guggun Bangsong), South Korean soldier broadcaster (since 1954)
- Thai TV5 (สถานี วิทยุ โทรทัศน์ กองทัพ บก Sathānī witthayu thōrathat Kǭng Thap Bok), radio and television broadcaster of the Thai army (since 1958)
- YENED , transmitter of the Greek armed forces 1966–82, predecessor of ERT 2
- Australian Armed Forces Radio (AAFR) / Australian Defense Force Radio (ADFR), Australian soldiers station 1991–99 (shortwave station in Belconnen )
- SAFRA Radio, operator of two radio stations in Singapore (since 1994)
Broadcasters of foreign armed forces in Germany and Austria
Radio, as of 1954
After the Second World War, radio transmitters for the US , British , Canadian and Soviet armed forces were set up in Germany and Austria . The table and map show the status in 1954 before the withdrawal from Austria . From 1956, BFN only used VHF transmitters. In 1957 Berlin also got a French radio broadcaster ( FFB ).
|place||Broadcasting chain||frequency||Power kW]|
|Saalfeld (Zell am See)||BDN||890||1|
* = AFN / BDN studio
TV as of 1992
In Germany, the number of radio stations increased and television stations were added. The first American TV station was in 1957 in Ramstein , the first British in 1975 in Celle; followed by Belgian , French, Canadian and Soviet TV channels. The legal basis was Article 60, Paragraph 5 of the Supplementary Agreement to the NATO Troop Statute . The map shows the situation in 1992 before the withdrawal of the Soviet armed forces. All television channels were dismantled by the 2000s. As long as there are NATO forces in Germany, TV coverage is via satellite.
- Good Morning, Vietnam . Film with Robin Williams as the radio host for a military station in Vietnam.
- Michael Herms: This is the German soldier broadcaster . In: Das Blättchen , Vol. 6, Issue 2 (January 20, 2003): pp. 5-7. ( Online version )
- Wolfgang Rumpf: Music in the air AFN, BFBS, Ö3, Radio Luxemburg and radio culture in Germany. Lit Verlag 2007
- Bernd-Andreas Möller: Radio transmitters on wheels: the mobile radio transmission systems of the Deutsche Reichspost in the years 1932 to 1945 . Walz, Idstein 2003 ( table of contents , limited preview in Google book search)
- Dirk Drews: The Psychological Warfare / Psychological Defense of the Bundeswehr ( Memento of the original from January 22, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (2006), p. 220 (PDF p. 235)
- Derrick Sington, Arthur Weidenfeld: The Goebbels experiment: a study of the Nazi propaganda machine . Murray, London 1942, limited preview in Google Book search
- Heinrich Brunswig in: Joachim-Felix Leonhard (Hrsg.): Medienwissenschaft: a handbook for the development of media and forms of communication , 2nd part (2001), p. 1394 ; ratzer.at: 50 years of Deutschlandfunk
- dokufunk.org: Blue Danube Network, British Forces Broadcasting, BBC Europe
- Australian States on Radio: Australian Capital Territory ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Bradley C. Freeman, Yokanathan Ramakrishnan: Singapore Radio: Then and Now (2016), p.45
- Art. 60 NATO-TS ZAbk Paragraph 5 on jurion.de