|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||115 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||130.36 km 2|
|Residents:||18,199 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||140 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||01558|
|Area code :||03522|
|License plate :||MEI, GRH, RG, RIE|
|Community key :||14 6 27 060|
|City structure:||5 districts , 20 villages|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Sven Missbach (independent)|
|Location of the city of Großenhain in the district of Meißen|
Großenhain , formerly known as Hayn , is a large district town in Saxony on the Große Röder in the district of Meißen . Awareness of the “friendly city in the country” was increased by the 2002 State Garden Show . In 2014, Großenhain was the venue for the Saxon Day .
Districts / localities : Folbern (1999), Rostig (1995), Skassa (1994), Weßnitz (1995), Zschauitz (1994), Walda (October 2009), Kleinthiemig (October 2009), Wildenhain (October 2009), Bauda (October 2009), Colmnitz (October 2009). Since January 2010: Zabeltitz , Görzig , Treugeböhla , Krauschütz , Nasseböhla , Skäßchen , Skaup , Strauch , Stroga , Uebigau .
Grossenhain lies in the area of influence of the Elbe valley with relatively mild winters and warm summers. In Großenhain there is below-average rainfall, which led to the Großenhain airfield being expanded to become an alternative airfield for Dresden in the 1930s .
Settlement from 1205
The place was first mentioned in 1205 as Hayn . The grain measure mensura Haynensis is called, which is defined as the unit of measurement for interest payments from several villages, from which one can conclude that the place already had a certain regional importance at that time. The Magdalenenkloster ("Reuerinnen") in "Ozzek" is equipped with land in Naundorf in 1240. In 1254 the place was mentioned as civitas . In 1291 the city was fortified and a city wall was built at the behest of the Margrave of Meißen Friedrich the Freidigen and his brother Dietzmann . In 1292 the city was besieged unsuccessfully by the Margraves of Brandenburg. From 1312 to 1316 Hayn belonged to Brandenburg, as a pledge for the ransom of Friedrich, who was captured. In 1398, the city of (Grosse) Hayn, together with the cities of Dresden, Meißen and the Upper Lusatian Union of Six Cities, signed a contract to increase the safety of the Hohen Landstrasse , which ran from Leipzig via Wurzen, Oschatz, (Grosse) Hain, Kamenz, Bautzen, Görlitz to Breslau and continued east. In 1429 the city was destroyed by the Hussites . In 1443 Hayn obtained the right to stockpile merchants, and in 1489 the right to trade in woad was confirmed by the margrave, who moved the trade in woad from Görlitz to Hayn. The local cloth makers produced goods for long-distance trade and profited from the trade in woad . As a result, the city experienced an economic heyday in the 15th and 16th centuries and developed into an important trading center on the very important trade and military route, the Hohe Landstrasse. The Grossenhain Servite Monastery existed from 1318 to 1539.
In 1621 Großenhain (Hain) had a tipper mint, in which interim coins (tipper coins) were struck under mint master Marcus Brun. These were mainly Kipper- Schreckenberger , Kreuzer pieces and 3-Pfennig pieces.
In 1704 the city was destroyed during the Northern War.
Garrison town from 1744
On June 8, 1744, Grossenhain was completely destroyed by the largest city fire in its history. Since the middle of the 17th century Grossenhain was sometimes occupied by garrisons after the reconstruction after the town fire in 1744 . At first it was mainly infantry battalions , after the coalition wars cavalry , for which the barracks were built from 1875 . The two regiments stationed longest in Grossenhain were the line infantry regiment "Prince Anton" and the 1st hussar regiment "King Albert" No. 18 , the last colonel of honor King Friedrich August III. who also did his military service in this regiment. Two squadrons of Reichswehr cavalry were stationed between the world wars and a remont school was set up during the second world war . The NVA - Armored Regiment 16 "Leo Jogiches" was stationed in Großenhain.
On November 15, 1913, the construction of an airfield began on behalf of the military . The first aircraft landed on this on February 21, 1914, the steel pigeon built by DFW in Lindenthal near Leipzig with the military registration number A 183.13. Since 1914 there was a military airfield in Grossenhain with the "Flieger-Ersatz -teilung 6", which trained pilots and observers, and a "Combat Single Seat School". Between 1914 and 1918 around 60,000 men were trained here (other estimates are more likely to be 6,000) to become observers or pilots. Even Manfred von Richthofen was trained, among other things here to the observer. Since then, the airfield has been used as a military aviation station, emergency and transport landing pad, air base of the Air Force and Soviet military airfield of the 105th Bombing Fighter Division of the Soviet Armed Forces Group in Germany . From 1991 parallel and since 1993 exclusively civil use takes place. In November 1918, the first workers 'and soldiers' council in Saxony was formed in Großenhain .
On May 24, 2010, a tornado of magnitude F3 devastated large parts of Grossenhain and the neighboring communities on the Fujita scale . In the city, around forty people were injured, some seriously, and one child was killed in a falling tree. In the districts of Walda and Kleinthiemig, 80 percent of the roofs were destroyed.
As a result of the resolutions of the Congress of Vienna , the Electoral Saxon office of Hayn lost large parts of its territory. The office was divided into judicial districts, which were only reunited from Großenhain in 1874 with the formation of the administrative governing body in Großenhain. In 1939 the administrative authority of Großenhain was given the uniform imperial designation of the district.
During the administrative reorganization and de facto dissolution of the states in the GDR in 1952, the Grossenhain district was formed from the eastern part of the former Grossenhain district. Grossenhain became the district town .
Even before reunification in 1990, the Grossenhain district became a district in accordance with the new municipal constitution of the GDR of May 17, 1990, which became state law of Saxony on October 3, 1990 according to the provisions of the Unification Treaty.
On August 1, 1994, the Riesa-Großenhain district was created by merging the Riesa and Grossenhain districts . Grossenhain remained a district town. On August 1, 2008, the district was combined with the district of Meißen (1996-2008) to form the new district of Meißen , whose district town is Meißen. Grossenhain lost its district town status after more than fifty years.
The city of Großenhain has been the seat of the superintendent of the Evangelical Lutheran Church District Großenhain since the Reformation was introduced in 1548 . The current parish of Großenhainer Land with the ephoral church of Marienkirche in Großenhain is subordinate to him. Due to the incorporation of surrounding places, the Wildenhain parish area and the Skäßchen parish area are now partially within the Großenhain urban area. The associated churches are located in the districts of Bauda , Görzig, Skäßchen , Skassa, Strauch , Walda, Wildenhain and Zabeltitz .
Since 1907 there has been a Catholic parish again in Großenhain , the Catholic Parish of St. Katharina Großenhain. It owns the parish church of the same name, which was rebuilt until 1907, and is subordinate to the Dresden-Meißen diocese , which was re-established in 1921 .
1834 to 1960
1981 to 2002
2003 to 2013
The incorporations are to be taken into account in the population figures.
1 October 29, 2 August 31, from 1960 on December 31
|Bauda||03/01/1994||Incorporation to Wildenhain|
|Colmnitz||03/01/1994||Incorporation to Wildenhain|
|Görzig||03/01/1994||Merger with four other communities to form Zabeltitz|
|Kleinthiemig||01/01/1960||Merger with Walda to form Walda-Kleinthiemig|
|Krauschiitz||01/01/1960||Incorporation to Skäßchen|
|Nasseböhla||03/01/1994||Merger with four other communities to form Zabeltitz|
|Rusty||09/01/1961||Incorporation to Weßnitz|
|Skäßchen||03/01/1994||Merger with four other communities to form Zabeltitz|
|Skaup||01/01/1960||Incorporation to Skäßchen|
|shrub||03/01/1994||Merger with four other communities to form Zabeltitz|
|Stroga, district of Zabeltitz||07/01/1950||Reclassification to Nasseböhla|
|Treugeböhla||01/01/1973||Merger with Zabeltitz to form Zabeltitz-Treugeböhla|
|Uebigau||01/01/1960||Incorporation to Skäßchen|
|Walda||01/01/1960||Merger with Kleinthiemig to form Walda-Kleinthiemig|
|Walda-Kleinthiemig||03/01/1994||Incorporation to Wildenhain|
|Wildenhain||October 01, 2009|
|Zabeltitz-Treugeböhla||03/01/1994||Merger with four other communities to form Zabeltitz|
Grossenhain with its 18,537 inhabitants is a small town that is conservative. The largest political association with around 100 members is the CDU , which Johannes Fiolka chairs. The next largest political association is the Left , represented by Ulrich Köhler, followed by the SPD , represented by Andrea Kreisz. The unemployment association led by a former SPD member joined the city council elections in 2004 as a new political force, which surprisingly received 9.6% and two seats.
The table below shows the results of the last two city council elections on May 26, 2019 and May 25, 2014:
|Parties and constituencies||Percent
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||25.3||6th||-||-|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||23.4||5||43.4||10|
|Together for Großenhain||21.3||5||-||-|
|We in Großenhain||5.2||1||-||-|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||4.5||1||6.0||1|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||4.4||1||8.0||2|
Sven Missbach has been the Lord Mayor since August 1, 2015, and he was elected to succeed Burkhard Müller in June 2015. Müller had held the office for 25 years.
Grossenhain is part of the Meißen constituency (constituency 156). Thomas de Maizière , who was elected for the 2009 federal election and the former German Federal Minister of the Interior, maintains a constituency office in the city center of Großenhain. De Maizière is also a member of the CDU local association in Großenhain. Susann Rüthrich ( SPD ) also moved into the Bundestag as a member of the Bundestag in 2013 and 2017 via the SPD's state list . Their citizens' offices are located in Meißen, Dresden and Pirna.
Culture and sights
The most famous church building in Großenhain is the Protestant Marienkirche , which was built from 1746 to 1748 by the Dresden council carpenter Johann Georg Schmidt and the council mason Johann Gottfried Fehre on the site of a late Gothic hall church. "Of Schmidt's large church buildings, only the Großenhainer Marienkirche is still largely in its original state." According to Heinrich Magirius, the sacred building is “one of the most original spatial creations of Saxon church art of the late Baroque”. Because of its T-shaped floor plan, also known as the cloverleaf shape, and the gallery of prayer rooms in the interior, it is considered an art-historical specialty.
On the market square, next to the Marienkirche, is the Großenhain town hall, which dates back to the 19th century, with its slender tower. It was built from 1873 to 1876 by the Dresden architects Bruno Adam and Oswald Haenel and, along with the Großenhain Marienkirche, is a landmark of the city. Other historical buildings in the city center are the old Latin school , which is now used as a museum, the remains of a Gothic-style monastery that now houses the Karl Preusker library, and the original parts of the former city fortifications and ramparts. The Zschille Villa is located on the Promenadenring and is considered a “gem in the city center”.
The Großenhainer baseline was the baseline for the Royal Saxon Triangulation . It consists of three fixed points in Quersa, Großenhain and Raschütz. The points were created in the years 1869 to 1872. A base house rises above a base pillar set in the ground, on which another pillar is located exactly vertically above the base pillar. Only the Quersa point still exists in this form.
For the fallen of the First World War , monuments were erected in the several suburbs of Großenhain and the villages that are now incorporated. An aviator memorial in the Großenhain city park and a Kaiser Wilhelm fountain in front of the Marienkirche were removed after 1945.
In the Großenhain inner city there are two memorials for the victims of the National Socialism . A VVN memorial stone was created in 1949 from a previous hussar memorial. There is also a Scholl sibling memorial. In the Großenhainer Friedhof there is a grave and a memorial stone for 100 prisoners of war as well as women and men who were abducted to Germany during the Second World War and victims of forced labor , as well as a memorial stone for Italian military internees . There is a Soviet honorary cemetery near the cemetery. At the airfield a memorial with a MiG-17 commemorates the former Soviet garrison.
In 2007, a memorial for the victims of war, displacement and political tyranny was created in Marienkirche in Grossenhain.
The Karl Preusker Library was founded in 1828 by Karl Benjamin Preusker as the first public library in Germany in Großenhain. It was called the "Patriotic Citizens Library". Two years later he set up the commercial Sunday school, from which today's vocational school emerged. In addition, Preusker privately put on one of the first prehistoric and early historical collections in Saxony and bequeathed it to the later State Museum for Prehistory Dresden . He is one of the founders of Saxon archeology.
The Grossenhain Kulturschloss cultural center houses numerous rooms for culture, art, conferences and events. Both classical theater performances and large symphony concerts as well as cabaret and chanson and jazz evenings take place there.
The Old Latin School Museum is located in the old Latin School behind the Marienkirche in Großenhain.
Economy and Infrastructure
The car trailer manufacturer STEMA Metalleichtbau GmbH was founded in 1951 as VEB Stema Ofenbau in Großenhain and privatized in 1991. The STEMA since 1997 market leader for car trailers in Germany and 2009, the millionth trailer for worldwide sales was produced.
A Großenhain subsidiary of the Textima combine , the former textile machinery manufacturer Großenhain , which was transferred to Großenhainer Textilmaschinen GmbH after 1990 , used to manufacture cotton and worsted flyers in Großenhain, which were sold worldwide. Today there is still a sales office in Großenhain.
The Polartherm flat glass GmbH , a manufacturer of various flat glass products, in 1993 established a branch in Großenhain, which was later extended to the headquarters.
With the development of the industrial area at the Großenhain airfield, a large number of companies have settled in Großenhain - including the compressor manufacturer Boge. Furthermore, for example, the aircraft parts supplier 3D ICOM & Co. KG, the fashion chain Schneider Moden KG, the Spedition Pflaum GmbH and the light advertising manufacturer Creative Factory GmbH are located in the commercial area Flugplatz.
In 2007 the Großenhain Hospital was merged with the Riesa Hospital to form a plan hospital. Since April 2008, both houses have been part of the Elblandkliniken .
In 2013, the former acute hospital in Großenhain became the newly built Elbland rehabilitation and prevention clinic. The Elbland Rehabilitation Clinic in Großenhain is a neurological rehabilitation clinic with 125 beds. It is operated under the umbrella of the Elblandkliniken and the Recura Kliniken. On the premises of the rehabilitation clinic there is also an outpatient specialist center with a medical care center, a dialysis practice and independent specialists.
The city's first railway connection was established in 1862 by the Großenhain branch line with the first Großenhain railway station, the Cottbus railway station , to the Leipzig-Dresden railway . The Cottbus - Senftenberg - Großenhain line of the Cottbus-Großenhainer Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft , which has been built since 1868, was opened in 1870. Between 1873 and 1875 the line between Dresden and Elsterwerda via the second Großenhainer Bahnhof, the Berliner Bahnhof , was completed. At the same time, a connecting line between the two stations was also created. This is used today by the RB 31 (Dresden Hbf - Großenhain Cottb Bf - Elsterwerda).
Since 2002, only the Cottbus train station, including a newly created, modern crossing point for city and regional bus traffic, has been used as a passenger station.
Local transport lines:
- RE 15 Dresden Hbf - Großenhain Cottb Bf - Ruhland - Hosena - Hoyerswerda
- RE 18 Dresden Hbf - Dresden-Neustadt - Großenhain Cottb Bf - Ruhland - Senftenberg - Cottbus
- RB 31 Dresden Hbf - Großenhain Cottb train station - Elsterwerda
In addition to numerous bus connections to the surrounding communities, there are also connections to Dresden, Riesa and Meißen.
- Grossenhainer care (= values of the German homeland . Volume 70). 1st edition. Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-412-09706-6 .
- Bibliography on the medieval history of Großenhain
- Carl Wilhelm Hering: History of the city and ephorie Grossenhain or the former Hainer care . Bornemann, Großenhain / Oederan 1849 ( digitized ).
- Siegfried Hoffmann, Dietrich Heerde: Grossenhain a picture chronicle. Geiger-Verlag, Horb am Neckar 1991, ISBN 3-89264-531-0 .
- Grossenhain City Council: Grossenhain through the ages. Grossenhain 1954.
- Council of the City of Grossenhain, City Museum: Grossenhain, A series of pictures from the local history. Grossenhain 1954.
- Sächsische Heimatblätter 60 (2014) 3 - Special issue on the occasion of the Day of Saxony 2014 in Grossenhain with articles on the city's history and current urban development.
- Reinhard Spehr : An archaeologist's reflections on the founding and oldest history of Grossenhain. in the home calendar for the Großenhainer care. Volume 9, 2005, pp. 38-40.
- Heinrich Stöcker, Association "Heimatfreunde der Grossenhainer Pflege" e. V .: War, plague and fire in the Großenhainer Land. Gräser Verlag, Großenhain 2005, ISBN 3-932913-07-8 .
- Gustav W. Schuberth: Chronicle of the city of Großenhain from 1088 to the present. Illustrated by Camillo Ehregott Zschille, Verlag Hermann Starke, Großenhain 1887–1892 ( digitized version ).
- Gustav W. Schuberth: The most important results of the Chronicle of Grossenhain . Großenhain 1897 ( digitized version ).
- Gustav W. Schuberth: Grossenhain in Saxony and the surrounding area in words and pictures . Arthur Geil Verlag, Chemnitz 1913 ( digitized version ).
- Association "Heimatfreunde der Grossenhainer Pflege" e. V .: Grossenhain foray through a small town in Saxony. Gräser Verlag, Großenhain 2002, ISBN 3-932913-24-8 .
- Official website of the place
- Großenhain in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Literature about Grossenhain in the Saxon Bibliography
- Article on the Großenhain story
- anonymous travel report from 1801: Beauties of nature and art: depicted on a journey through part of the Saxon states. P. 635f.
Footnotes and individual references
- Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
- Kulturschloss Großenhain - Castle Chronicle - Excerpt from the history of the Grossenhain castle complex. Grossenhain cultural center, accessed on April 13, 2016 .
- Sächsisches Staatsarchiv, 10001 Older documents, No. 00359
- Historic old town. Grossenhain City Council, 2009, accessed April 20, 2017 .
- Grossenhain, foray through a small Saxon town 2002, Gräser Verlag
- Jörg Mosch: Grossenhain: Chimney as a tornado monument . In: Saxon newspaper . June 5, 2010.
- Tornadoes in East Germany - clearing up after the storm - mourning a dead girl. Hamburger Abendblatt , May 25, 2010, accessed on February 2, 2011 .
- From the community chronicle of Großenhain. Catholic Parish of St. Catherine, accessed April 20, 2017 .
- On the history of the Catholic church choir “St. Katharina “Grossenhain. Catholic Parish of St. Catherine, accessed April 20, 2017 .
- Population of the Free State of Saxony. Free State of Saxony, accessed on June 8, 2014 .
- CDU City Association Grossenhain - WE. CDU Großenhain, accessed on June 8, 2014 .
- CDU City Association Grossenhain - Board of Directors. CDU Großenhain, accessed on June 8, 2014 .
- Die Linke: District Association Meißen - Local Association Grossenhain. Die Linke KV Meißen, accessed on April 20, 2017 .
- SPD Nünchritz board of directors. SPD Nünchritz, accessed on June 8, 2014 .
- Municipal elections 2019 - election results of the community of Großenhain, city. State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony, accessed on June 8, 2019 .
- Local council election 2014 - resultslocal council election. State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony, accessed on November 5, 2014 .
- Dr. Sven Missbach is the new mayor author = Catharina Karlshaus. In: Saxon newspaper. June 28, 2015, accessed April 20, 2017 .
- Thomas de Maizière - Contact / Imprint. Thomas de Maizière , accessed February 2, 2011 .
- "I especially like Großenhain". In: SZ-Online . Accessed June 21, 2013 (chargeable for non-subscribers).
- Experience Großenhain - Marienkirche in Großenhain. Grossenhain City Administration, 2009, archived from the original on May 12, 2010 ; Retrieved February 2, 2011 .
- History: The Marienkirche. (No longer available online.) Evangelical Lutheran Parish in Großenhainer Land, archived from the original on March 18, 2011 ; Retrieved February 2, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Stein is dedicated to sacrifices. Sächsische Zeitung, November 12, 2007, accessed on February 2, 2011 .
- The history of the house. Museum Old Latin School , accessed February 2, 2011 .
- The Grossenhain Cultural Center. Grossenhain cultural center, accessed on February 2, 2011 .
- Nachrichten Grossenhain: Spielbühne celebrated its 48th birthday with children's theater and reunion. Sächsische Zeitung, October 26, 2009, accessed on February 2, 2011 .
- Experience Grossenhain - Museum Old Latin School. Grossenhain City Council, 2009, accessed April 20, 2017 .
- History & Future. (No longer available online.) STEMA Metalleichtbau GmbH, archived from the original on May 3, 2017 ; Retrieved April 20, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Airfield industrial and commercial area. Large district town of Großenhain, accessed April 20, 2017 .
- Website Elbland Reha Grossenhain
- Rehabilitation clinic for Grossenhain approved. In: Saxon newspaper. October 27, 2009.