Buddy Holly


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Buddy Holly in a promotional picture for Brunswick Records

Buddy Holly (* 7. September 1936 as Charles Hardin Holley in Lubbock , Texas ; † 3. February 1959 in Mason City , Iowa ) was an American rock 'n' roll - musicians and - songwriter . His best known songs include That'll Be the Day, Peggy Sue , Oh Boy! and It Doesn't Matter Anymore .

biography

Born and raised in Lubbock in western Texas , Holly (at that time still with the real surname Holley) performed at smaller events at the age of 13. He was the youngest of four children and came from a musical family. At the age of 15 he was already playing guitar , banjo and mandolin and formed the duo "Buddy and Bob" with his friend Bob Montgomery.

Beginnings

During this time, Holly's first attempts as a songwriter with Montgomery and from 1952 numerous demo recordings of their own compositions also fall. In 1954 and 1955 they even held sessions at the Nesman Recording Studio in Wichita Falls , Texas, where the Montgomery compositions Gotta Get You Near Me Blues , Soft Place in My Heart and Door to My Heart were recorded. From 1955 they played together with bassist Larry Welborn, who was soon supported by Jerry Allison on drums. Earlier this year the duo supported Elvis Presley and Bill Haley , which left a lasting impression on young Holly. During this time he was heavily influenced by the blues and rhythm and blues , and was of the opinion that these two genres were compatible with country music . Holly and Montgomery therefore also called their music "Western & Bop".

In the fall of 1955, Montgomery, who leaned more towards traditional country music, left the duo, but continued to compose songs with Holly. He then continued to play with Allison and Welborn as well as with guitarist Sonny Curtis and bassist Don Guess. Together with Ben Hall , Holly and the band also appeared on the radio stations KSEL and KDAV.

First successes

Buddy Holly's professional career began in late 1955 when he was discovered by talent scout Jim Denny . On December 7, 1955, demo recordings were made in the Nesman Recording Studio and sent to Decca Records . Holly sang his first recordings for Decca Records on January 26, 1956 under time pressure. He was accompanied by Sonny Curtis on electric guitar, studio musician Grady Martin on guitar, Don Guess on double bass and Jerry Allison on drums. From this session the Love Me composed by Holly and Sue Parrish and Ben Hall's Blue Days - Black Nights were released. The Billboard Magazine ruled in its issue of April 21, 1956 as follows about Love Me : Cedarwood succumbs to rock and roll, too. If the public will take more than one Presley or Perkins, as it well may, Holly stands a strong chance. The B-side was rated similarly good: Warbler, tune, guitar, etc., are patterned very closely after Elvis Presley. Good material and fine production on both sides. Should do fine. Despite promising predictions from Billboard, the single didn't hit the charts.

In 1956 Holly and his band played numerous other songs in either Bradley's Studio A or Norman Petty's studio in Clovis , New Mexico , including the first version of the later hit That'll Be the Day . This version, which corresponded more clearly to the rockabilly , was withheld by Decca because they were dissatisfied with the recording due to Holly's hoarse voice and an overly dominant echo effect. In late 1956, Decca released Holly's second single Modern Don Juan along with You Are My One Desire . Due to the lack of success, Decca lost interest in a collaboration later in the year and did not renew the contract.

Holly then looked for a suitable producer for his musical ideas. Since the spring, he and his band had recorded numerous demo tapes in Norman Petty's studio, and from then on, working with Petty gave the band a new perspective. Guitarist Sonny Curtis was replaced by Niki Sullivan at the end of 1956, while Don Guess was first represented by Larry Welborn on bass and later replaced by Joe B. Mauldin in the spring of 1957. On February 25, 1957, Holly on microphone and electric guitar and his band, consisting of Larry Welborn on bass and Jerry Allison on drums, played again the piece That'll Be the Day , which Petty thought promising. Holly took the title line from the very successful John Ford - Western The Searchers (German: The Black Falcon ), which appeared in the previous year , in which leading actor John Wayne makes this statement several times (German: "The day will come"). Holly's own composition I'm Looking for Someone to Love was recorded as the B-side . These recordings were not initially intended for publication, but still made it into production and marketed as they were believed to be master tapes .

Murray Deutsch, a friend of Petty's publishing house, brought the tapes to Bob Thiele, a senior executive at Coral Records , who also saw potential in the recordings. However, there were some hurdles before the release: Holly's Decca contract did not allow him to record pieces that he had already recorded for Decca. In addition, Coral was a subsidiary of Decca, so the release of the single could have been stopped quickly. Despite all this, Thiele was able to assert himself and That'll Be the Day with I'm Looking for Someone to Love appeared in May 1957 on Brunswick Records , another subsidiary label of Decca, which focused more on jazz and rhythm and blues. However, the record was released under the band name The Crickets to disguise Holly's collaboration and deceive Decca. All are in the name of the band have come together because on the recordings of quiet music passages in Pettys small studio always the chirping of crickets (Engl. Crickets ) could be heard. Despite the name change, Decca became aware of it, so that a lawsuit arose.

breakthrough

In the summer of 1957 it became clear that Thiele was to be proved right and That'll Be the Day became a hit. After a good rating by Billboard in June ("Fine vocal by the group on a well-made side that should get play. Tune is a medium-beat rockabilly. Performance is better than material.") The song reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 . At this point, Decca already knew that Holly was the singer, but was convinced by Bob Thiele to release him from his contract. At the same time, the older version of That'll Be the Day , recorded in 1956 , was released in order to benefit from Holly's success.

Since Petty was convinced of the commercial success of his protégés, he suggested that later records should be released in two ways. Thiele agreed, and Holly got a separate record deal with Coral Records, so that recordings have now been released with Brunswick under the name The Crickets and with Coral under Holly's name. Petty became cricket manager at the same time that That'll Be the Day was a success . Holly had also found in him someone who was open to innovative studio experiments. For example, Holly liked to work with the technique of overdubbing or, as can be heard on Everyday , replaced the drums with beating her hands on her thighs and a chime.

The next successful production followed on June 29, 1957 in Petty's studio with Peggy Sue . Released in the late summer of the same year, the song appeared together with Everyday under Holly's name on the Coral label and subsequently reached number three on the Billboard charts. That'll Be the Day and Peggy Sue became worldwide successes almost immediately in the summer of 1957. Successful tours and several television appearances in the United States and Great Britain followed .

In 1958 Buddy married Holly Maria Elena Santiago (* 1932), to whom he had already proposed a marriage for the first time. Shortly thereafter, he split from the Crickets and Norman Petty. The other group members received the naming rights from him and could therefore continue to perform under the name Crickets. In 1958 there were two more crickets singles with Buddy Holly, It's So Easy and Think It Over . As a solo artist, Holly released Rave On , Early in the Morning and Well ... All Right that same year . In the summer of 1958, Holly bought his own tape machine and from then on produced his music demos himself. He planned to take acting lessons, build his own music studio, and began promoting other artists as an independent producer. In October 1958, Holly recorded four pieces with orchestral accompaniment in New York: True Love Ways, Moondreams, Raining in My Heart, and It Doesn't Matter Anymore

In December 1958 and January 1959, Holly prepared for a new album and composed a number of songs, of which he recorded demo versions, such as Peggy Sue Got Married, That's What They Say, Crying Waiting Hoping and Learning the Game . In January 1959 he began a US tour with his new band (which also included bassist Waylon Jennings ) with other well-known artists, including Ritchie Valens , The Big Bopper (stage name of Jiles Perry Richardson) and Frankie Sardo . He plays his last concert on the evening before his death in "Surf Ballroom" in Clear Lake ( Iowa ).

death

Holly's grave

On February 3, 1959, Holly, Valens, and The Big Bopper were killed in a plane crash near Mason City on their way to their next gig in Moorhead , believed to have been caused by a pilot's instrument reading error .

In 1971 Don McLean memorialized this misfortune in his song American Pie , when he named this day with the text line " The Day the Music Died " the day "on which the music died".

The belongings that were scattered in the crash, including Holly's bloody FAOSA glasses, were seized by the federal police in order to clarify the cause of the crash. They fell into oblivion and were only given to the families of the crash victims years later. The ongoing tour was ended by Jimmy Clanton and Frankie Avalon . Holly was buried in his hometown four days later. On April 24, 1959, his song It Doesn't Matter Anymore topped the UK charts and stayed there for three weeks. In 1986 Holly was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame .

Equipment

The guitar that Buddy Holly is most often associated with is the Fender Stratocaster . He owned five different copies, most of which were stolen from him shortly after they were acquired. On acoustic guitars he used a Gibson J-45, a Gibson "Jumbo", and a Guild Navarre.

Holly used only Fender amplifiers on stage and in the studio . At first he used a Fender Pro, later he switched to the much stronger Fender Bassman , but the Pro was still used at smaller gigs. Shortly before his death, Fender gave him two “twin” amplifiers as part of an endorsement contract . He often used a Shure 55 as a microphone live , while in the studio he used a Telefunken model .

Posthumous fame

Memorial at the crash site

Holly's hometown of Lubbock was late in reacting to the fact that it produced one of the most outstanding artists of the rock 'n' roll era. There is now a Buddy Holly Park, Buddy Holly Avenue and the Buddy Holly Center in Lubbock. A museum has been created there, which on the one hand shows many memorabilia on the topic of Buddy Holly, but on the other hand is also a meeting place for fans on various occasions. There is also a themed city tour and a Buddy Holly statue in Lubbock. His grave in the Lubbock cemetery is a pilgrimage site for fans.

Holly fan Ken Paquette had a stainless steel monument erected at the crash site of the plane, a twelve-year-old Beechcraft Bonanza in which Holly, his friends and the pilot Roger Peterson died. It consisted of a guitar and three records. In 1988 the Deutsche Bundespost issued a Buddy Holly stamp.

On September 7, 2011, Holly was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame . Holly's widow and Phil Everly attended the ceremony.

The Rolling Stone listed Holly 13th of the 100 greatest musicians , 29th of the 100 best songwriters , 48th of the 100 best singers and 80th of the 100 best guitarists of all time . This makes him one of eight artists who are represented in all of these four lists.

Memorial events

Numerous commemorative events take place every year, such as Buddy Holly Week organized by Paul McCartney or the Winter Dance Party, which includes all of Holly's last tour and ends in the Surf Ballroom in Clear Lake, Iowa, where his last performance took place. The Clovis Music Festival and the Fifties in February also remember Buddy Holly.

Film, musical and tribute shows

Buddy Holly's life was made into a film, for which Gary Busey was nominated for an Oscar and as a musical a . a. on Broadway and in the Theater im Hafen Hamburg as well as in the Colosseum Theater in Essen. Other productions include shows like A Tribute to Buddy and the Buddy Holly Rock 'n' Roll Show .

Reminiscences from other artists

After his death, other artists also devoted themselves to the subject of Buddy Holly: the doctors sang about Buddy Holly's glasses, Bernd Begemann the title Buddy, better take the bus , and Weezer wrote a tribute song called Buddy Holly . Other songs about Holly include Eddie Cochran's Three Stars , Mike Berry's Tribute to Buddy Holly , Alvin Stardust's I Feel Like Buddy Holly , which was written by Mike Batt , Gyllene Tider's Swedish song Ska vi älska så ska vi älska till Buddy Holly or Garland Jeffreys Hail Hail rock and roll .

Graham Nash cited the admiration for Buddy Holly as one of the reasons for choosing the band name The Hollies . In 2011, for his 75th birthday, a CD Listen To Me: Buddy Holly was released with cover versions of his songs by well-known musicians such as Brian Wilson , Ringo Starr and Chris Isaak .

Terry Pratchett pays tribute to the importance of Buddy Holly for rock'n'roll music in his novel Rolling Stones through the character Imp y Celyn , whose name means something like "Bud of the Holly" ( holly bud ).

plant

Buddy Holly as a statue for the musical of the same name on Berliner Platz in Essen

Holly's influence on the development of rock music was considerable. He was the first successful musician to establish the standard formation of a rock band with lead guitar , rhythm guitar , bass and drums , which the Beatles adopted. Paul McCartney acquired all the publishing rights to Holly's compositions , and on the 1994/1995 world tour the Rolling Stones opened every concert with Holly's Not Fade Away, which they had released as a single in 1964. The Beatles - then called The Quarrymen  - recorded Buddy Holly's biggest hit, That'll be the Day (published on the Beatles Anthology ), for a self-produced single in 1958 . They stated that the first 40 tracks they composed were written under the direct influence of Buddy Holly's music.

Buddy Holly wrote almost all of his pieces himself, many of which were more musically demanding than other titles of the time. His pieces have also been played by other musicians. One of the first was Bobby Vee , who stood in for Buddy Holly at the disaster day concert and sang his title. Linda Ronstadt was also successful with her version of That'll Be the Day . The song Peggy Sue Got Married provided the title for the film of the same name Peggy Sue got married to Kathleen Turner .

In the studio, Holly often resorted to the technique of overdubbing , that is, he added one or more sound recordings over an already existing sound recording. With it Holly could sing a duet with herself; an example of this recording technique is the title Words of Love . In addition, after breaking up with the Crickets and Norman Petty, Holly was the first successful independent musician to produce his own pieces independently of record companies.

Buddy Holly was a very prolific artist when it came to writing and recording, if only in the form of demo recordings. Between 1953 and 1959 he recorded numerous pieces privately, ( Good Rockin 'Tonight , Rip It Up, Blue Suede Shoes, Two Timin' Woman, Wait Till the Sun Shines Nellie, Smokey Joe's Cafe ), in the studio ( Love's Made a Fool of You, Baby Won't You Come Out Tonight, Because I Love You, Bo Diddley, Brown Eyed Handsome Man ) or unused masters ( Reminiscing, Come Back Baby, That's My Desire ) on what a lot of room for years of publications, revised and in the rough version, gave. In 1959/1960 six original compositions that Holly recorded as demos were revised and published. Since 1962, Holly's albums have been released regularly with recordings that Norman Petty subsequently commercialized with more or less success. These recordings appeared on the albums Showcase, Giant, Holly in the Hills, It Doesn't Matter Anymore and Reminiscing . Starting in the 1980s, more and more bootlegs with the original versions of the pieces appeared. In addition, from 1953 Buddy Holly had repeatedly participated as a guest musician on recordings by other artists.

Posthumous publications

Long after the artist's death there was a loyal fan base who continued to live with his music. Holly's enduring importance is evident in the regular republication of his works. In addition to LPs, CDs and MCs, which have been circulating in fan circles for decades, the DVD medium has already assumed great importance. Old recordings from US television, the film The Buddy Holly Story and commemorative programs are now available.

In October 2004 a CD with the title: Stay all night - The Country Roots of Buddy Holly was released . In June 2005, Universal Music released a DVD with CD: The Music of Buddy Holly and the Crickets, which traces the career of the rock 'n' roll pioneer in sound and image. In September 2007 the company Rollercoaster Records released a 2-CD box with the title Ohh, Annie ! , which contains accidentally discovered, previously unreleased recordings by Buddy Holly from 1956 in addition to the better known in technically improved sound quality.

Shortly before his death, Holly had taped the "Apartment Tapes" in his New York apartment. Accompanied only by his Gibson acoustic guitar, you can experience the singer unplugged here. These tracks were officially only released on a 9 LP box, never on CD. This opened the door to a gray market; innumerable pressings were circulating on which the songs were published. It was not until 2009 that Geffen Records closed this gap with Buddy Holly - Not Fade Away with CDs and books.

Discography

Singles

year Title (A side / B side) Catalog number
Decca Records
1956 Love Me / Blue Days - Black Nights 9-29854
Modern Don Juan / You Are My One Desire 9-30166
1957 That'll Be the Day / Rock Around with Ollie Vee 9-30434
Coral Records
1957 Mailman, Bring Me No More Blues / Words of Love 9-61852
Peggy Sue / Everyday 9-61885
1958 I'm Gonna Love You Too / Listen to Me 9-61947
Rave On / Take Your Time 9-61985
Early in the Morning / Now We're One 9-62006
Well ... All Right / Heartbeat 9-62051
1959 It Doesn't Matter Anymore / Raining in My Heart 9-62074
Peggy Sue Got Married / Crying, Waiting, Hoping 9-62134
1960 That Makes It Tough / True Love Ways 9-62210
1962 Reminiscing / Wait Till the Sun Shines Nellie 62329
1963 Bo Diddley / True Love Ways 62352
Brown-Eyed Handsome Man / Wishing 62369
1964 Rock Around with Ollie Vee / I'm Gonna Love You Too 62390
1965 Slippin 'and Slidin' / What to Do 62448
1966/1967 Rave On / Early in the Morning 62554
1967 You're the One / Love Is Strange 62558

Albums

  • The "Chirping" Crickets (1957)
  • Buddy Holly (1958)
  • That'll Be the Day (1958)

Posthumously released albums

  • The Buddy Holly Story (1959)
  • The Buddy Holly Story Vol. 2 (1960)
  • Reminiscing (1963)
  • Showcase (1964)
  • Holly in the Hills (1965)
  • It Doesn't Matter Anymore (1966)
  • Giant (1969)
  • Buddy Holly - The Legend Raves On (2009)
  • True Love Ways (with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra , 2018)

Chart placements

Albums

year title Top ranking, total weeks, awardChart placementsChart placements
(Year, title, rankings, weeks, awards, notes)
Remarks
DE DE AT AT UK UK US US
1959 The Buddy Holly Story - - UK2 (155 weeks)
UK
US67
gold
gold

(31 weeks)US
1960 The Buddy Holly Story Volume 2 - - UK7 (14 weeks)
UK
-
1961 That'll be the day - - UK5 (14 weeks)
UK
-
1963 Reminiscing - - UK2 (31 weeks)
UK
-
1964 Buddy Holly Showcase - - UK3 (16 weeks)
UK
-
1965 Buddy in the Hills - - UK13 (6 weeks)
UK
-
1967 Buddy Holly's Greatest Hits - - UK9 (50 weeks)
UK
-
Re-entry in 1984
1968 Everlasting hits DE19 (8 weeks)
DE
- - -
1969 Giant - - UK14 (1 week)
UK
-
1978 His 20 greatest hits /
20 golden greats
DE1 (12 weeks)
DE
- UK1
platinum
platinum

(20 weeks)UK
US55
gold
gold

(12 weeks)US
with The Crickets
1989 True Love Ways - - UK8th
gold
gold

(11 weeks)UK
-
1993 Words Of Love - - UK1
gold
gold

(9 weeks)UK
-
with The Crickets
1996 The very best of - - UK13
gold
gold

(17 weeks)UK
-
Re-entry in 2009 with the highest ranking 13th
1999 The very best of - - UK25th
gold
gold

(4 weeks)UK
-
with The Crickets
2008 Not fade away - - - US101 (4 weeks)
US
2012 The Best Of Buddy Holly: 20th Century
Masters The Millennium Collection
- - UK-
gold
gold
UK
US157 (2 weeks)
US
2018 True Love Ways - - UK10
gold
gold

(13 weeks)UK
-

gray hatching : no chart data available for this year

Singles

year Title
album
Top ranking, total weeks, awardChart placementsChart placements
(Year, title, album , rankings, weeks, awards, notes)
Remarks
DE DE AT AT UK UK US US
1957 Peggy Sue - - UK6 (17 weeks)
UK
-
1958 List to Me - - UK16 (2 weeks)
UK
-
Rave On DE30 (2 weeks)
DE
- UK5 (14 weeks)
UK
-
in DE only placed in 1968
Early in the morning - - UK17 (4 weeks)
UK
US32 (7 weeks)
US
1959 Heartbeat - - UK30 (1 week)
UK
US82 (4 weeks)
US
It doesn't matter anymore - - UK1 (21 weeks)
UK
US13 (14 weeks)
US
Raining in my heart - - - US88 (2 weeks)
US
Midnight Shift - - UK26 (3 weeks)
UK
-
Peggy Sue got married - - UK13 (10 weeks)
UK
-
1960 Heartbeat [1960] - - UK30 (3 weeks)
UK
-
True Love Ways - - UK30 (12 weeks)
UK
-
Re-entry in 1988
Learning the game - - UK36 (3 weeks)
UK
-
1961 What to do - - UK34 (6 weeks)
UK
-
Baby I Don't Care / Valley Of Tears - - UK12 (14 weeks)
UK
-
1962 List to Me [1962] - - UK48 (1 week)
UK
-
Reminiscing - - UK17 (11 weeks)
UK
-
1963 Brown Eyed Handsome Man DE19 (8 weeks)
DE
- UK3 (17 weeks)
UK
-
Bo Diddley - - UK4 (12 weeks)
UK
-
Wishing - - UK10 (11 weeks)
UK
-
What to Do [1963] - - UK27 (8 weeks)
UK
-
1964 You've got love - - UK40 (6 weeks)
UK
-
with The Crickets
Love's Made a Fool of You - - UK39 (6 weeks)
UK
-
1968 Peggy Sue / Rave On - - UK32 (9 weeks)
UK
-
1986 That'll be the day - - UK85 (2 weeks)
UK
US-
gold
gold
US

gray hatching : no chart data available for this year

Cover versions (selection)

Awards for music sales

Golden record

  • CanadaCanada Canada
    • 1978: for the album 20 Golden Greats
  • United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
    • 1986: for the album 20 Love Songs
    • 2013: for the album The Best Of
    • 2013: for the album The Very Best Of

Platinum record

  • NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands
    • 1979: for the album All Time Greatest Hits

Note: Awards in countries from the chart tables or chart boxes can be found in these.

Country / Region Gold record icon.svg gold Platinum record icon.svg platinum Sales swell
Awards for music sales
(country / region, awards, sales, sources)
Canada (MC) Canada (MC) Gold record icon.svg gold1 0! P- 50,000 musiccanada.com
Netherlands (NVPI) Netherlands (NVPI) 0! G- Platinum record icon.svg platinum1 100,000 nvpi.nl
United States (RIAA) United States (RIAA) Gold record icon.svg 3 × gold3 0! P- 2,000,000 riaa.com
United Kingdom (BPI) United Kingdom (BPI) Gold record icon.svg 9 × gold9 Platinum record icon.svg platinum1 1,200,000 bpi.co.uk
All in all Gold record icon.svg 13 × gold13 Platinum record icon.svg 2 × platinum2

literature

  • John Goldrosen: The Buddy Holly Story . German translation by Teja Schwaner. Heyne Verlag, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-453-35050-2 .
  • Martin Huxley: The Day the Music Died . Pocket Books, New York 2000, ISBN 978-0671039622 .
  • John Gribbin: Not fade away: the life and music of Buddy Holly, Thriplow: Icon Books, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84831-034-6 .
  • Philip Norman: Buddy: the definitive biography of Buddy Holly, London: Pan Books, 2009, ISBN 978-0-330-50888-9 .
  • Dave Laing: Buddy Holly . Studio Visty Ltd., London 1971.

Web links

Commons : Buddy Holly  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Billboard, April 21, 1956: Reviews of New C&W Records , p. 52.
  2. http://allmusic.com/artist/buddy-holly-p4502/biography
  3. ^ Billboard of June 10, 1957: Reviews of New Pop Records , p. 55
  4. a b "Equipment" on buddyhollyandthecrickets.com  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.buddyhollyandthecrickets.com  
  5. Clear Lake Attractions ( Memento from May 1, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  6. Buddy Holly: A Star for a Legend. Spiegel Online , September 9, 2011, accessed on January 26, 2013 : “52 years after his death, Buddy Holly was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. His widow Elena said it was half a dream come true. Unfortunately, the other half remained unfulfilled. "
  7. 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone , December 2, 2010, accessed August 7, 2017 .
  8. The 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time. Rolling Stone , August 2015, accessed August 7, 2017 .
  9. 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Rolling Stone , December 2, 2010, accessed August 7, 2017 .
  10. 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time. Rolling Stone , December 18, 2015, accessed August 7, 2017 .
  11. lubbockonline.com: Holly's influence will not fade away . Accessed September 7, 2010.
  12. Buddy Holly Tribute for the second: "Listen To Me" completely in the stream
  13. a b Chart sources: DE AT UK US