GLONASS ( Russian ГЛОНАСС than acronym for Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система ( Glo balnaja na wigazionnaja s putnikowaja s istema ) or English Glo bal Na vigation S atellite S ystem ; German "Global Navigation Satellite System" ) is a global navigation satellite system . It is operated and funded by the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation .
Manufacturers of commercial satellite navigation receivers in Europe and the USA mostly use GLONASS as a supplement to the GPS system.
GLONASS is similar in structure and functionality to the US NAVSTAR GPS . The satellites of the GLONASS constellation are named Uragan (hurricane). Technically, GLONASS is based on principles similar to GPS. The parallel, independent development of the two equivalent systems during the Cold War occurred for reasons of military strategy.
Development of the system began in 1972. The first three satellites were launched on October 12, 1982, and the system was officially declared operational on September 24, 1993. The full expansion, consisting of 21 standard and three reserve satellites, was achieved in 1996. In the following years, however, the number of fully functional satellites fell dramatically, so that GLONASS could not be used as an independent navigation system.
On September 12, 2008, the Prime Minister of Russia , Vladimir Putin , ordered the re-completion of GLONASS for 67 billion rubles (1.8 billion euros) by 2012. Despite the false start of a launcher on December 5, 2010, in which three satellites were lost, a complete GLONASS system was available again from 2011. On July 2, 2013, a Proton M rocket crashed again , which in turn destroyed three GLONASS satellites.
In July 2010, Vladimir Yevtushenkov , head of the Sistema group responsible for GLONASS , announced that Russia was planning an import ban on cell phones that are not equipped with the system.
The satellites orbit the earth on a Medium Earth Orbit in three orbit planes with a 64.8 ° inclination to the equator (GPS 55 °). As a result, the satellites reach a greater height above the horizon for users in high geographical latitudes, especially in the polar regions, so that the availability of the system is improved. The major semi-axis of the orbit is 25,500 km, the orbit height 19,100 km (GPS 20,200 km). The orbital time is 11:15 hours (GPS 11:58).
Unlike the GPS send in GLONASS satellites, all with the same code ( pseudo random noise PRN for English pseudo-random noise ), but on different frequencies ( FDMA ) in the decimeter range. Antipodal satellites transmit with the same channel number and thus identical frequencies. Every satellite used by GLONASS sends signals on two frequencies:
- L1 = 1602 MHz + k x 562.5 kHz
- L2 = 1246 MHz + k x 437.5 kHz, where k is the channel number
With GPS, all satellites use the same frequencies and are distinguished by means of code division multiplexing (CDMA) and the gold sequences used therein . In GLONASS, CDMA is used from the GLONASS ‑ K satellite generation and is based on Kasami sequences .
The time stability of the satellites is:
- 1st generation: 5 · 10 −13 seconds per day
- GLONASS-M: 1 · 10 −13 s per day
- GLONASS-K: 5 · 10 −14 s per day
- GLONASS-K2 (expected from 2020): 1 · 10 −14 s per day.
Like GPS, GLONASS needs almost 24 satellites for regular operation, so that it can be guaranteed that at least four of them are always visible in one place. Up until 2011, the number of functioning satellites was not always sufficient, so that there were not always enough satellites available for positioning at every point on the earth's surface. If the location is known, it is then only possible to determine the time. If three satellites are visible, three parameters can be derived from the signals, e.g. B. with known altitude (ship at sea) the location (latitude and longitude) and the time. Relatively high demands are made on the accuracy of the time, since a time error of one microsecond already leads to a spatial error of the order of 300 meters. Mobile receivers therefore require the exact time as a fourth parameter for a complete determination of the location ( geographical latitude , geographical longitude , height above sea level ) , for the determination of which signals from a fourth satellite are required.
Satellite constellation (space segment)
The first Uragan test satellite, Kosmos 1413, was launched into orbit in October 1982 along with two Uragan dummies . Originally, the system was to include 21 satellites for normal operations and three reserve satellites. The new plan provides for 30 satellites, which are distributed over three orbits, each with eight satellites and two reserve satellites.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union , further satellites could be launched until 1995, which had probably already been completed in Soviet times, so that in 1995 a system of 25 functioning satellites was available. In 1998, however, the number had dropped to 13 and by 2001 it had dropped to just seven satellites. From 2002 the number of functional satellites began to increase again. The problem with this was the high failure rate due to the very short lifespan of the individual Uragan satellites of just three years.
Since 2001, improved Uragan M satellites with a lifespan of seven years have also been in use. The new generation with a lower starting mass and a service life of ten years is called Uragan-K; the first launch took place on February 26, 2011. Uragan and Uragan-M (both 1415 kg) are often launched in a triple with heavy Proton rockets, but sometimes also like the lighter Uragan-K (935 kg based on the Ekspress-1000K satellite bus) with a significantly cheaper Soyuz-2 / Fregat . From the year 2022 satellites of the type Glonass-K2 will be launched, which will send out a new signal (two military L1 and L2, as well as a civilian L1).
At the end of 2005, three more GLONASS satellites (two Uragan-M and one Uragan) were launched with a Proton rocket, and at the end of 2006 another Proton launch followed with three Uragan-M satellites; in October 2007, December 2007, September 2008, December 2008, December 2009, March 2010 and September 2010 three satellites each were launched. Three satellites were lost in a false start in December 2010, and three more in early July 2013.
|slot||channel||GLONASS no.||Cosmos no.||Start date||Installation||status||
Boarding school Designation
( NSSDC ID)
( AFSC )
|1/01||01||730||2456||December 14, 2009||01/30/2010||in use||2009-070A||36111||M.|
|1/03||05||744||2476||04/11/2011||December 08, 2011||in use||2011-064B||37868||M.|
|1/04||06||742||2474||October 02, 2011||25.10.2011||in use||2008-055A||37829||M.|
|1/05||01||734||2458||December 14, 2009||01/10/2010||in use||2009-070C||36113||M.|
|1/06||-04||733||2457||December 14, 2009||11/24/2010||in use||2011-070B||36112||M.|
|1/07||05||745||2477||04/11/2011||December 18, 2011||in use||2011-064C||37869||M.|
|2/10||−07||717||2424||December 25, 2006||04/03/2007||in use||2006-062C||29672||M.|
|2/11||00||723||2436||December 25, 2007||01/22/2008||in use||2007-065C||32395||M.|
|2/13||−02||721||2434||December 25, 2007||02/08/2008||in use||2007-065A||32393||M.|
|2/14||−07||715||2425||December 25, 2006||04/03/2007||in use||2006-062A||29670||M.|
|2/15||00||716||2426||December 25, 2006||10/12/2007||in use||2006-062B||29671||M.|
|3/17||04||746||2478||11/28/2011||December 23, 2011||in use||2011-071A||37938||M.|
The start date relates to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the commissioning to the Moscow time zone.
Ground stations , the so-called control segment , are located near Moscow ( Krasnosnamensk and Shcholkowo ), in Komsomolsk-on-Amur , near Saint Petersburg , in Yeniseisk (all on the territory of the Russian Federation) and in Ternopil (Ukraine).
In 2008 the first civilian commercially used devices that support GLONASS appeared. The system is therefore in direct competition with the US GPS, the European Galileo system and the Chinese Beidou .
Appropriately designed navigation devices can receive data from both the GLONASS and GPS satellites and, by evaluating both signals, achieve better coverage. This application also has advantages in the event of a system failure or as protection against manipulation (see GPS jammer ).
In 2009 the first Russian receiver for GLONASS (incl. GPS / Galileo / Compass) fully integrated on a chip was presented. In April 2011, ZTE launched the first smartphone that uses GLONASS in addition to GPS, followed by several smartphones from different manufacturers.
In order to improve the accuracy, namely by correcting the changing influences of the ionosphere on the signal propagation times , a satellite based augmentation system is being set up with SDCM for GLONASS .
The ERA GLONASS project ( Russian экстренного реагирования при авариях, extrennowo reagirowanija pri avarijach ; German emergency response to accidents ) provides for devices that automatically send an alarm message in the event of a traffic accident, which also includes the location. The system will be compatible with the European eCall .
The GLONASS system was developed for military use and the Russian military is the primary user of the system. However, the system is also approved for civil use and can achieve an accuracy of 4.5 to 7 meters in end devices. Many manufacturers of positioning and navigation devices combine the globally functioning satellite systems GPS, Galileo, Beidou , QZSS (additional) and also use GLONASS.
- Bernhard Hofmann-Wellenhof , Herbert Lichtenegger, Elmar Wasle: GNSS Global Navigation Satellite Systems - GPS, GLONASS, Galileo & more. Springer, Vienna 2007. ISBN 978-3-211-73012-6
- AI Perow, WN Charissow (Ed.): GLONASS. Printsipy postroeniia i funktsionirovaniia. Radiotekhnika, Moscow 2010. ISBN 978-5-88070-251-0
- Status of the GLONASS constellation
- current coverage of the earth's surface with GLONASS signals
- Russia: High-tech for Putin's dog GLONASS location for Putin's dog sueddeutsche.de December 26, 2007
- ↑ GLONASS | Garmin Support Center. Retrieved August 24, 2020 .
- ↑ a b c Jürgen Vielmeier: Location services GPS, Glonass, Galileo and Beidou: This is the best way to find you. In: EURONICS trend blog. October 12, 2017, accessed on August 24, 2020 (German).
- ↑ Peter Stelzel-Morawietz: Increase smartphone GPS accuracy with Glonass. October 19, 2016, accessed on August 24, 2020 (German).
- ↑ Putin orders additional $ 2.6 bln on Glonass development  , RIA Novosti, accessed September 13, 2008.
- ↑ Peter-Michael Ziegler: Report: Software error responsible for GLONASS satellite loss. Heise, December 6, 2010, accessed February 7, 2016 .
- ↑ a b Proton-M rocket with three Glonass satellites crashed after launch in Baikonur , accessed on July 2, 2013
- ↑ Hayo gap: Russia wants to blackmail cell phone manufacturers , accessed on September 3, 2010
- ↑ Russia to Put 8 CDMA Signals on 4 GLONASS Frequencies ( Memento from December 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), insidegnss.com, accessed on March 21, 2010 (English).
- ↑ GLONASS: Russia is replacing older satellites with more powerful ones . Sputnik News, November 6, 2019.
- ↑ Raumfahrer net editors: Reshetnjow discontinues GloNaSS-M production. Retrieved May 29, 2019 .
- ↑ GloNaSS-K1 navigation satellite launched. Raumfahrer.net, February 26, 2011, accessed April 26, 2013 .
- ↑ russianspaceweb: GLONASS-K , accessed on November 6, 2019
- ↑ russianspaceweb: GLONASS-K2 satellite , accessed on November 6, 2019
- ↑ Setback for GLONASS: Three satellites crashed in the Pacific after a false start. RIA Novosti, December 5, 2010, accessed December 6, 2010 .
- ^ Structure and status of GLONASS constellation. Information-Analytical Center, July 9, 2013, accessed July 9, 2013 .
- ^ Federal Space Agency. Retrieved December 6, 2015 (Russian).
- ↑ GLONASS in the NSSDCA Master Catalog , accessed December 6, 2015.
- ↑ NORAD Two-Line Element Sets Current Data. Retrieved December 6, 2015 .
- ^ Constellation status. In: glonass-iac.ru. Retrieved April 24, 2016 .
- ↑ Frank Preiß: GLONASS - Russia's Space Eye (PDF; 104 kB). March 2009.
- ↑ Technology . Leica Geosystems.
- ↑ Type NV08C-MCM-M, cf. Patent US7358896 .
- ↑ ZTE MTS 945 smartphone with GLONASS satellite support - PC Masters. Retrieved October 11, 2018 .
- ↑ Russia launching GLONASS correction relay satellites ( Memento from June 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), navigadget.com, accessed May 29, 2019 (English).
- ↑ Russia Building Out GLONASS Monitoring Network, Augmentation System ( Memento from August 29, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), insidegnss.com, accessed on May 29, 2019 (English).
- ↑ ERA GLONASS and eCall will save human lives together , RIA Novosti, accessed February 15, 2010 (German).