DB class 406

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DB class 406
An ICE 3M in Amsterdam
An ICE 3M in Amsterdam
Numbering: DB 406 001–004, 007, 010, 011, 054, 080-085 (081 retired) (080-085 formerly equipped as ICE 3MF for France)

NS 406 051-053

Number: in stock: 16
built: 17
Manufacturer: Siemens / Bombardier
Year of construction (s): since 1997
Axis formula : Bo'Bo '+ 2'2' + Bo'Bo '+ 2'2' + 2'2 '+ Bo'Bo' + 2'2 '+ Bo'Bo'
Gauge : 1435 mm ( standard gauge )
Length over coupling: 200,840 mm
end car: 25,835 mm
middle car: 24,775 mm
Height: 3890 mm
Width: up to 2950 mm
Trunnion Distance: 17,375 mm
Empty mass: 435 t
Service mass: 488 t
Wheel set mass : 16 t
Top speed: 330 km / h (alternating current),
220 km / h (direct current)
Continuous output : 8000 kW (alternating current)
4300 kW (direct current)
Starting tractive effort: 300 kN
Performance indicator: 16.4 kW / t (ICE 3M service weight);
18.4 kW / t (ICE 3M empty weight)
Power system : 15 kV 16.7 Hz ~ / 25 kV 50 Hz ~ / 1.5 kV = / 3 kV =
Power transmission: Overhead line,
6 pantographs
Number of traction motors: 16
Drive: Axis-riding gear with curved tooth coupling between frame motor and pinion shaft
Brake: Motor brake , eddy current brake , disc brake , spring brake
Train control : Sifa , PZB  90, LZB 80 , Memor , ATBL , ETCS
Coupling type: Scharfenberg
Seats: 425 total (ICE 3M)
91/334 (ICE 3MF: 1st / 2nd class)

As a 406 series one is ICE - high speed train of Deutsche Bahn from the family of the ICE 3 , respectively. This is the multi-system variant of the 403 series .

A total of seventeen trains were built. The ICE 3M trains (including three of the Dutch Railways ) mainly run to Amsterdam and Brussels , but have also been used increasingly within Germany since the ICE line to France was switched to the 407 series .

The per 200.84 meter long unit trains are eight cars formed and used on train operation since 2000th

With a maximum speed of 330  km / h , they are, together with the 403 series, the fastest passenger trains in Germany . In operation, these electric multiple units in Germany can reach speeds of up to 300 km / h as planned. While the multiple units 4680-4685 were in use, they reached up to 320 km / h on the LGV Est européenne as planned.

In 2007, six trains were converted for cross-border traffic to France and designated as ICE 3MF (also: 406F series ). With the provision of the 407 series , these trains were brought back into line with the already modernized 406 series (including the replacement of the French train control systems by ETCS ) and at the beginning of 2017 all were in use with approval for Belgium, which, in contrast to the approval in the Netherlands, was used during the conversion to the ICE 3MF had expired.


The 406 series was ordered as part of the ICE 3 concept, which was commissioned in 1994.


ICE 3M in Limburg South . The multi-system trains are mainly used in traffic with Belgium and the Netherlands.

In order to be able to use the networks of foreign railways, the ICE 3M ("M" for multi-system capable ) was developed. Equipped with several traction current and train control systems, the train can run in different European countries. The multiple units are used in traffic between Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands.


In March 1999 the first two end cars of an ICE 3M of the Dutch State Railways arrived at the Wegberg-Wildenrath test center .

The multiple units were first used in passenger service between June 1 and October 31, 2000 as Expo-Express (EXE) for Expo 2000 . An ICE 3M ran from Amsterdam via Osnabrück to Hanover . Initially, three ICE 3M were available. At the beginning of October 2000, six trains of the 406 series were available for operation.

Scheduled operations in the Netherlands began in November 2000. A two-hour cycle was set up between Cologne and Amsterdam, and a pair of trains ran from and to Frankfurt am Main ; two EuroCity train pairs were initially retained. In August 2001 the delivery of the ICE 3M was completely completed.

On February 22, 2001 an ICE 3M between Berlin and Wolfsburg reached a top speed of 355 km / h.

An ICE 3M multiple unit was on the road in the Alpine republic in the first week of December 2000 for approval in Switzerland. The use of the eddy current brake , even for rapid braking, is not intended in Switzerland. Further measurement runs on behalf of the ICE 3 manufacturer consortium for the technical approval of the R series followed between May 1 and 15, 2001. Among other things, a train was traveling on the Gotthard southern ramp . In Grauholz tunnel speeds were reached h over 200 km /. At the end of 2001, test series were carried out in Switzerland, Belgium and France for the approval of the vehicles. Despite the approval in Switzerland, it lapsed unused.


Deutsche Bahn has 13 units (formerly 14, Item 4681 has been retired), the Dutch State Railway has three units (Item 4654 was bought by Deutsche Bahn). From 2000 onwards, all 17 trains ran mainly in cross-border traffic between Germany, the Netherlands (since October 23, 2000) and Belgium (since December 15, 2002). Six trains were later converted for use in France (see ICE 3MF ). Since then, the ICE 3M has only seldom been used in domestic German traffic. Originally, ten four-system trains (406 series) and three three-system trains (405 series) had been ordered by the DB. These three-system trains were converted into four-system trains in 1997.

At the end of 1995 the Dutch State Railways announced that they wanted to procure six ICE trains for a total of 210 million D-Marks . In the end, four trains were ordered. It was the first order for an ICE vehicle from abroad.

Logo of the Dutch State Railways on ICE 3M. The company had acquired four of these trains.
Dutch ICE 3M in Frankfurt
ICE 3M in a depot of the Dutch State Railways

The trains of the Dutch State Railways, which are based in the Amsterdam Watergraafsmeer depot, differ only externally from the multi-system ICE-3 of Deutsche Bahn: Instead of the DB logo, the trains have the NS logo on the front flap and along the decorative stripe. The dining car bears the blue lettering Bistro instead of the red lettering BordRestaurant or BordBistro (because Bord means plate in Dutch ).

The structure of the ICE 3M is outwardly similar to the ICE 3. Cars 29/39 and 28/38 (1st class) are followed by cars 27/37 (2nd class) and 26/36 (on-board restaurant), followed by cars 25/35 until 21/31 (excluding 24/34) in 2nd class. In order to accommodate the multi-system components of the ICE 3M in the vehicle, some seats had to give way to switch cabinets in the passenger area. Therefore, the train has fewer seats than the national version. When delivered, the trains had 136 seats in 1st class and 244 seats in 2nd class (five or six seats less than in the ICE 3); the restaurant had 24 seats. The number of seats was later changed by a renovation.

The vehicle is equipped with six (2 x 3) pantographs and is suitable for the following networks:

  • Carriages 2 and 8: Type DSA380D (similar to ICE 3) for DB / ÖBB (15 kV alternating voltage ) and NS (25 kV alternating voltage)
  • Cars 3 and 7: Type DSA350G for NS (1.5 kV direct voltage ) and SNCB existing network (3 kV direct voltage)
  • Carriages 5 and 6: Type DSA380F for SNCF (25 kV AC), SBB (15 kV AC), SNCB high-speed lines (25 kV AC)

Most of the additional components, such as chokes and switching elements, were built into the transformer car. DC intermediate circuits and pulse-controlled inverters are operated like under alternating current.

In September 2000 an ICE 3 crossed the border between Germany and the Netherlands without stopping for approval drives. According to the manufacturer, this was the world's first crossing of a national border by a high-speed train without stopping. Between October and December 2001, train 4608 passed an extensive test program in Belgium on the existing and new line network. Another test phase began at the beginning of 2002, during which the trains were also used in double traction. In the same year, the trains received preliminary approval in the 3 kV network for a maximum speed of 160 km / h. In 2003, the first registration drives followed on the Belgian high-speed network. During a test drive at 270 km / h on December 8, 2003, flying gravel was observed for the first time .

Since December 12, 2004, the trains have been traveling on the new Belgian HSL 2 line at 250 km / h. Approval for higher speeds is not possible due to the gravel flight without adapting the multiple units. The entire approval process in Belgium had taken seven years.

Since the timetable change on June 14, 2009, the ICE 3 has also been running on the HSL 3 in eastern Belgium. The ETCS equipment required for this (300 kg additional weight per end car) was installed on five multiple units from the end of 2008. Around 70 test drives were completed on HSL 3 before operations began. Both HSLs are now operated exclusively with the European Train Control System, with ETCS Level 2 being used on HSL 3 between Aachen and Liège and ETCS Level 1 on HSL 2 between Liège and Brussels.

In autumn 2010, two-week test drives took place on the new line between Liège and Brussels for the intended use in Belgium at 300 km / h and in double traction . When driving in double traction, there was an intense flight of gravel, which is why driving on the high-speed routes in double traction is not permitted.

When the new multiple units of the ICE series 407 are approved for Belgium, the existing ICE 3M fleet will mainly be used in traffic between Germany and the Netherlands.


ICE 3MF and TGV in Gare de l'Est in Paris

As ICE 3MF (“MF” for multi-system France ), six ICE 3M converted for French traffic have been operating between Frankfurt and Paris since June 10, 2007 . They reached a speed of 320 km / h on the LGV Est , the highest speed reached by an ICE multiple unit in scheduled passenger traffic.

Initial talks on the approval of the ICE 3 in France began in 1995. According to DB information, adjustments in the planning and construction phase of the trains were only possible to a limited extent due to incomplete information from the French railway company SNCF . It was not until the end of 1999 that the SNCF opened up to Deutsche Bahn admission.

The practical work started in 2000. 14 (later 15) bilateral working groups were formed in which the necessary documents were exchanged and requirements were defined. On June 5, 2000, the SNCF published the conditions of admission. The first test drives took place in July 2001. For the first time since 1969, a German long-distance railcar was transferred to the SNCF network. The train was first towed from Kehl to the Strasbourg-Hausbergen marshalling yard, where it was equipped with French measuring devices. After wagon and vehicle technical examinations (so-called dédouanement ) on a former marshalling yard near Nancy , the first tests under 25 kV followed as well as the first test drives on the route to Réding . In autumn 2002, the previously used 4608 multiple unit was converted in the Wegberg-Wildenrath test center for use in France. This multiple unit had been used exclusively for trials since it was commissioned. For tests in double traction, the 4605 multiple unit was withdrawn from commercial use and also converted for use in France. Among other things, the TVM train protection system was permanently installed in both trains and an emergency stop button was integrated into the driver's desk. In autumn 2002, both trains were available for trial operation. The time required for the necessary tests was calculated to be 26 calendar weeks.

The first large series of journeys with the two converted multiple units began in December 2002. First, one of the two multiple units completed test and approval runs on the high-speed line between Lille and Calais . The eddy current brakes, which according to the agreement should only be used from over 220 km / h, have not yet been tested in these test drives up to 220 km / h. On January 30, 2003, multiple unit 4608 suffered damage in the underfloor area during a test drive, presumably due to snow and ice shedding, as this causes intensive flight of gravel. As a result, the test program was suspended for three months and the train was repaired in Germany.

After the capacities of the Agence d'Essai Ferroviaire (AEF) entrusted with the test had meanwhile been used elsewhere, the resumption of the test program was delayed. The test drives were resumed after the summer break in 2003 with technical running tests. For 14 days, the multiple unit shuttled at top speed between Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Lille (a total of 720 km per day). For the desired approval for 320 km / h, the test speed of 352 km / h had to be achieved (according to UIC Code 518). A test drive reached 354 km / h.

This was followed by tests on the running behavior in tight curves , the braking technology and the starting ability with reduced tractive effort on steep ramps . Attempts to draw power in double traction, however, led to problems that could not be solved at first. In autumn 2003 the test program in France was interrupted for tests on the Belgian high-speed line. There, on October 28, 2003 - this time without the effects of the weather - there was renewed damage to the underfloor area of ​​the 4608.

Further test drives in France took place on the 110 km long route between Lille and Calais. This should complete the journeys required for approval. In March 2004 this test program was also canceled due to damage caused by a gravel flight. In addition, problems with control technology and pantographs had to be solved. By then, the ICE 3 trains had covered more than 60,000 km in test drives.

In order to investigate the causes and solutions of the flying ballast phenomenon in particular, a further measurement campaign was decided, which ran from July 8 to November 23, 2005. The trains reached speeds of up to 353 km / h between Lille and Calais. While issues with the eddy current brakes were resolved, modifications made to the train proved ineffective.

In the course of the multi-year test program, numerous adjustments were successively made to the multiple units. Initially, two multiple units were in use, and later one more. At the end of February 2006, the first multiple unit (4605) was transferred to the Siemens plant in Krefeld to be converted there for traffic to France.

The test and approval process lasted until the beginning of 2007; the last test drive at high speed was on March 8th. The multiple unit 4605, which had already been used for test and approval runs, was the first train to be converted into an ICE 3MF by Bombardier in Hennigsdorf and at the Krefeld - Oppum depot . Commissioning took place in the Wegberg-Wildenrath test center. In addition to countless changes to the vehicle technology , the trains for France traffic were equipped with blasting capsules , warning lights, red flags and torches to stop oncoming trains, and a compartment in car 27 for the chaining of passengers by the police. In order to accommodate the necessary technology, the number of seats was reduced by six. With the upgrade, the trains lost their approval for the Belgian route network, but were allowed to run again to the Netherlands (as of January 2012).

On May 31, 2007, the approval for the traffic of the ICE 3MF on selected 25 kV routes in France was granted by the French approval authority EPSF.

Due to the many differences in technology and philosophy between the German and French railway systems, there were numerous problems with the approval of trains in France. The tests dragged on over six years or over 120,000 km of test drives. The approval process had cost a total of 28 million euros up to autumn 2005, including over one million euros in translation costs. The cost of 28 million euros also includes measures for Belgium approval. This means that there were 14 years between the first studies and approval. Overall, the two ICE 3 multiple units covered more than 100,000 kilometers during the test drives.

For cost reasons, approval for the French 1.5 kV network was waived, despite the appropriate equipment of the multiple units, as was approval for operation in double traction in France. For political reasons, the possibility of an on-the-fly system change between France and Belgium was not implemented.

New numbering scheme ICE 3MF using
the example of the 4680 multiple unit (formerly 4605)
designation old New
End car 1 406 005 406 080
Transformer car 2 406 105 406 180
Converter trolley 3 406 205 406 280
Middle car 4 406 305 406 380
Middle car 5 406 805 406 880
Converter trolley 6 406 705 406 780
Transformer car 7 406 605 406 680
End car 8 406 505 406 580

Originally (as of 2003) the plan was to procure five additional ICE 3 trains for traffic on the POS axis . This order was still pending in autumn 2004. The DB had at times considered leasing five TGV-POS sets from the SNCF for the French traffic; the deal did not come about due to different asking prices. A decision on converting existing ICE 3 trains was still pending at this point in time.

It was not until the end of 2005 that Deutsche Bahn commissioned the manufacturer consortium made up of Siemens and Bombardier to equip five ICE-3 multiple units for use in France. The order volume was 43 million euros, corresponding to around 8.6 million euros per set.

The conversion of six ICE 3M trains, which had previously been in passenger service at Deutsche Bahn, to ICE 3MF was completed in autumn 2007. The multiple units 4605, 4606, 4608, 4609, 4612 and 4613 were converted for use on the route network in France and then renamed as 4680, 4683, 4681, 4682, 4684 and 4685.

Additionally attached eyelet for chaining passengers by the police

At the start of operations on June 10, 2007, seven Deutsche Bahn train drivers had acquired driving licenses for French traffic. In the first few months of operation, the transformers of the trains sometimes overheated, which led to some train failures, until this problem was solved with changed insulation materials. The multiple units were retrofitted until the timetable change at the end of 2007.

Four of the six ICE 3MF multiple units were required for regular operation. After an accident near Paris, there were bottlenecks because from June 2008 on some days there were not enough ICE 3MF trains available to run all five daily train pairs between Frankfurt and Paris. For this reason, TGV trains partly took over the traffic between Frankfurt and Paris, partly replacement trains ran between Frankfurt and Saarbrücken , which were connected to TGVs there. There were also numerous failures in autumn and winter 2008/2009; TGV trains ran again as a replacement for ICE units that were not operational.

From April 20, 2009, one of the up to five daily trains was replaced by a TGV. The reason given by Deutsche Bahn was shortened ultrasound test intervals. At the beginning of 2010, according to the SNCF, the DB rented two TGVs in order to maintain traffic between Frankfurt am Main and Paris after the ICE 3MF were partially inoperable or needed for other purposes; of five daily train pairs, only one was served by ICE between mid-January and mid-February 2010. The released multi-system trains reduced ICE 3 bottlenecks in domestic traffic.

In November 2006, Deutsche Bahn put the ETCS equipment out to tender for ten of the 17 units in the Official Journal of the European Union . In April 2008, the contract worth 14 million euros was awarded. An option to equip the rest of the fleet was provided. The contract was awarded in spring 2008. The necessity of equipping the trains used in Belgium traffic resulted from the commissioning of the Belgian high-speed line HSL 3 . For their commissioning in June 2006, four trains were equipped with ETCS, a fifth followed later. The implementation was initially minimalist as a stand-alone system with limited functionality. Retrofitting the ETCS system proved difficult due to the limited space and the need to retain all of the seats. The ETCS equipment was housed in the driver's cab, in the area of ​​the previous trash cans in the end cars and on the roof of the vehicles.

In a second project phase at the end of 2009, an order was placed to equip the trains with a fully integrated ETCS system. This makes it possible to switch between ETCS and other train control systems while driving. The first train was converted at the beginning of 2011, and the approval for ETCS operation for Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands took place in April 2013. By December 2013, four multiple units that were not yet equipped with ETCS in the first stage had received the train control system.

According to the planning status from 2006, from the end of 2010 the ICE 3MF ETCS-guided should drive the LGV Est . The conversion of the France trains was postponed until the new ICE 3 (407 series) can be used in France traffic.

Passenger information system at maximum speed on the LGV Est européenne towards Paris

In France, the trains were only approved for single traction (half train). In the summer of 2009, the approval process for traffic in double traction should begin.

Since the availability of the 407 series for French traffic in 2016, the ICE 3MF have been retrofitted with ETCS train protection systems for trips to Belgium and the Netherlands. During this modernization, u. a. For lack of space, the French TVM was replaced by the ETCS on-board computer, but without connecting the TVM as an STM . They automatically lost their previous approval for France. Since then, only 407 series locomotives have been used for traffic to France and the ICE 3MF version is history.

In preparation for possible transports to London , an ICE 3M completed test drives in the Eurotunnel on October 19, 2010 . For any traffic through the Eurotunnel, however, the ICE 3 trains of the DB series 407 , the German variant of the Siemens Velaro , are planned.

Technical upgrade

Driver's cab of the ICE 3MF with displays for the TVM under the panel of the driver's desk

In each of the two end cars, two new equipment cabinets hold the equipment for the train control system TVM and the trip registration device ATESS. Two seats have been removed from 1st class and four from 2nd class. The equipment for the train control system KVB used in the old French network was installed in an existing cabinet ( ATBL ). Antennas and balises for the French train control system were installed below the floor. Three measuring wheelsets for the ATESS were installed on transformer cars 2 and 7. A new electronics cabinet in car 4 (bistro) and a new one in car 5 accommodate Sibas control devices for the roof line fault detection device (DFG). This system is used to detect fault currents on the high-voltage roof line in the French network (with elevated SNCF / SBB pantographs). If the fault currents exceed a limit value, the roof line between the two halves of the train (train sets) is disconnected, the associated pantograph is lowered and blocked against being raised again. Additional residual current and roof voltage transformers were retrofitted for the system . In the course of the retrofitting, the insulation and coolant of the main transformers had to be replaced.

The gap between the car transitions was reduced by adding smoke deflectors.
Additional wind deflector (marked in red) on the ICE 3MF in the area of ​​the bogie to avoid flying gravel
In addition, built-in cabinet, which the French train control TVM contained

In order to avoid damage from flying gravel at high speeds, the trains will be aerodynamically optimized as part of the France conversion . Air baffles and plastic covers were retrofitted at critical points - in the area of ​​the wagon transitions, the transition from the bogie to the center of the wagon and below the driven bogies. These are intended to protect critical sensitive components (drive, gearbox, cable whips) and avoid tornado-like air pressure turbulence in the direction of the gravel bed.

The driver's cab also underwent numerous changes in the course of the French conversion. The doors to both driver's cabs were made lockable from the inside by means of a knob cylinder; In an emergency, the door can be opened by operating the door handle even when the door is locked. The box train radio for GSM-R was replaced by a device from the 403 series (type MESA 23 ). The new systems required the installation of seven new fault switches. The driver's desk has also received numerous changes as part of the French conversion. For example, a new impact switch in the left area of ​​the desk that clicks into place initiates rapid braking if necessary. In the upper left area, display and operating devices for the train protection systems KVB and RSO have been set up. The display and operating devices of the French train control system TVM were installed in the middle above the driver's desk. Two CAB displays , each with nine light fields, show the information from the two TVM computer channels and are each divided into three three-digit blocks: Maximum permitted speed (Vitesse limite) , announcement speed (Vitesse d'annonces) and execution speed (Vitesse d'exécution) . In control mode are on channel A, left of center, the command variables indicating only in case of failure of the light elements on port A is a display on the center right shown channel B. Further to the right further information is shown, for example, phase separation points . Below these displays there is space for additional control and test elements for the train protection systems. On the right edge of the driver's desk, above the previous control elements and displays of the ATBL, test switches of the TVM and an illuminated pushbutton switch for the SAL warning signal were attached.

The control technology of the train as well as the monitoring of the engine driver's ability to work have also been expanded to include additional functions. In the French network, for example, a so-called Sifa radio emergency call automatically sends an emergency call 30 seconds after the safety driving circuit (Sifa) has responded . At the same time, the SAL warning signal ( Signal Alerte Lumineux ) is activated , also manually triggered by the train driver ; the lower two lamps of the triple peak signal flash cyclically, the upper lamp lights up with idle light. The procedure for possible incapacity of the train driver corresponds to the French Sifa counterpart VACMA .

The TVM train control system also automatically switches off traction at phase separation points, switches off the main switch and lowers the pantographs. After driving through the separation point, reactivation is also carried out by the safety technology. The train protection systems are also given relevant data on the configuration of the train and the status of essential technical systems; conversely, status information and special requirements for the train control (e.g. phase separation points) are transmitted to the central train control unit (ZSG). In the French network, the switchover between analog train radio and GSM-R digital radio is also done automatically by a newly installed balise coordinator .

In France, the pantograph is changed automatically when the driver's cab is changed, if the train is not moving and no power is connected. The maximum permissible speed of 320 km / h can only be driven when the pantograph following in the direction of travel is lifted. If the pantograph leading in the direction of travel is on the overhead contact line, the maximum speed of the train is automatically limited to 300 km / h. Due to the small distance between the four and five pantographs attached to the wagons, travel with both pantographs raised is not possible and is blocked.

Three upper current classes are available in the SNCF network (1.5 kV, 25 kV old network, 25 kV high-speed line). Depending on the train configuration, the selected power system and the class of route traveled (old / new line), an overcurrent limit is set. In the 25 kV network, it is between 160 and 450  amps for a single traction.

In France the eddy current brake may only be used on the LGV Est and is not counted towards the braked weight . It is only available in the 25 kV power system after approval by the train control system TVM for operational or emergency braking. It is only activated from 220 km / h and its effect is reduced by about half.

The outer doors were adapted for low platforms and for emergency openings. In addition to the closure, the complete opening of the doors and steps was also included in the surveillance.


With fully functional brakes, the multiple units have 189 brake hundredths ( brake position R + WB) or 155 brake hundredths (brake position R).

Overview and condition of the multiple units

Multiple unit number
(current status)
Conversions or conversions Accidents or special occurrences
General remarks
Item 4601
Europa / Europe
(since May 22, 2019)
July 25, 2001 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) since May 23, 2019 with a blue instead of a red stripe
Item 4602 g
Euregio Maas-Rhein
(since February 17, 2020)
July 30, 2001 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet)
Item 4603 g
(since February 24, 2003)
August 12, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet)
Tz 4604
Brussel / Bruxelles
(since November 28, 2016)
August 11, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet)
Tz 4605
(from November 20, 2002 to July 17, 2006)
Dissolved November 1, 2000
as of July 17, 2006
Conversion to No. 4680
July 17, 2006
Tz 4606
Limburg an der Lahn
(from January 24, 2004 to November 8, 2006)
December 24, 2002 dissolved
to November 8, 2006
Conversion to item 4683
November 8, 2006
Item 4607 g
(since January 8, 2003)
November 1, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) This multiple unit opened on July 25, 2002 together with multiple unit 318 of the 403 series on the high-speed route Cologne – Rhine / Main .
Item 4608 Dissolved May 3, 2001
on July 18, 2006
Conversion to Item 4681
(July 18, 2006)
First ICE multiple unit, which reached the city of Paris on July 7, 2003 as part of approval runs in Belgium and France. In a symbolic act, it was mechanically coupled with the TGV 509 multiple unit in order to illustrate the growing together of European high-speed traffic.
Tz 4609
(from December 10, 2002 to April 13, 2006)
December 22, 2000
dissolved by April 13, 2006
Conversion to Item 4682
April 13, 2006
Item 4610 g
Frankfurt am Main
(since November 4, 2002)
September 20, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet)
Item 4611 g
(since December 9, 2002)
May 26, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet)
Tz 4612
(from December 9, 2002 to September 17, 2006)
Forbach - Lorraine
(from September 17, 2006 to January 20, 2007)
Dissolved May 25, 2000
as of January 20, 2007
Conversion to Item 4684
January 20, 2007
Tz 4613
Schwäbisch Hall
(from September 16, 2004 to April 28, 2007)
Dissolved May 26, 2000
as of April 28, 2007
Conversion to Item 4685
April 28, 2007
Tz 4651
(since October 6, 2003)
October 20, 2000
March 1, 2019
Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) Owned by Nederlandse Spoorwegen ; was the first and so far only train in the series to receive a redesign
Item 4652 g
(since March 20, 2003)
October 13, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) Ownership of Nederlandse Spoorwegen
Item 4653 June 7, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) Ownership of Nederlandse Spoorwegen
Item 4654 g October 23, 2000 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands The damaged cars  406 554 and 406 654 from multiple unit 4654 were replaced in December 2011 by cars  406 581 and 406 681 from the parked multiple unit 4681. Equipped
with WiFi hotspots (railnet)
On January 11, 2011 in the Netherlands between Arnhem and Emmerich the multiple unit 4654 (used as ICE 123) drove a freight train into the flank , whereupon the leading car of the ICE derailed and the second car was also damaged. The cause of the accident was the theft of copper cables. Since January 1, 2012, it has been owned by DB Fernverkehr AG and no longer Nederlandse Spoorwegen .
Item 4680 g
(since July 17, 2006)
July 17, 2006 (active) Netherlands ( ETCS ) Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) Premiere trip on May 25, 2007 with invited guests via LGV Est européenne to Paris
Item 4681 Disbanded July 18, 2006
after an accident
France , Netherlands On August 17, 2010, the 4681 multiple unit as ICE 9556 (Frankfurt / Main – Paris) on the Ludwigshafen – Saarbrücken railway in Lambrecht near Neustadt an der Weinstrasse collided with a garbage truck that had previously fallen into the track bed. The locally permissible speed is 100 km / h, the collision occurred at about 81 km / h. The two front cars of the multiple unit derailed and were damaged; the leading end car was slit open at the side along its entire length. 18 people were injured. A rough estimate assumed damage of 1.5 million euros. The 406 081 and 406 181 cars were scrapped. In early 2013, the Frankenthal regional court proposed a settlement , according to which the waste disposal company's insurance company would cover half of the € 12 million damage. The liability insurance of the community of Lindenberg is to carry 2.8 million euros, the rest of the liability insurance of the Deutsche Bahn. The lawyers of the three insurance companies agreed to the settlement. The road was rebuilt after the accident. The severely damaged multiple unit is to be replaced by a class 407 multiple unit.
The ICE 3MF 4681 crashed on August 17, 2010 on the morning of June 10, 2007 in Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof before the first scheduled ICE trip to Paris
Item 4682 g
(since April 13, 2006)
April 13, 2006 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) On May 16, 2008, a car of an ICE 3MF, which drove as ICE 9554 on the LGV Est européenne , caught fire near Paris . The approximately 300 passengers had to leave the train on the open route and reached Paris with a delay of around three hours with a TGV replacement train. As a result of the fire, the route was closed for two hours from 16:40. The cause is damage to a traction motor bearing. The affected multiple unit 4682 ( Cologne ) did not go back into operation until the end of December 2008.
Item 4683 g
Limburg an der Lahn
(since November 8, 2006)
November 8, 2006 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet)
Tz 4684
Forbach - Lorraine
(since January 20, 2007)
January 20, 2007 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) On July 8, 2008, at around 4 p.m., the ICE 9555 crashed on its way from Paris to Frankfurt, in the area of ​​the Kennelgarten stop (near Kaiserslautern ) at around 100 km / h with a construction vehicle that had got stuck in the gravel. Six wagons from the 4684 multiple unit were damaged. None of the 400 or so passengers were injured. After a two-hour line closure, the damaged train was able to continue to Kaiserslautern on its own. After this accident, it was briefly considered to assemble an operational set from the multiple units 4682 and 4684.
Tz 4685
Schwäbisch Hall
(since April 28, 2007)
April 28, 2007 (active) Belgium ( ETCS ), Netherlands Equipped with WiFi hotspots (railnet) In October 2010 it was the first ICE multiple unit to travel through the Eurotunnel to London .
Tzxxx = internal multiple unit number, written on the outside above the bogies
Due to repainting, some multiple units run without lettering from time to time, but their names are still marked inside the railway.
The multiple units marked with g have a green decorative stripe on both sides with the inscription "Germany's fastest climate protector" on the cars 406.0 and 406.5


  • Michael Krische: ICE - InterCityExpress - ICE 1 ICE 2 ICE 3 ICE TD ICE T ICE S , GeraNova Verlag, ISBN 3-7654-7110-0 .
  • Heinz Kurz: InterCityExpress. The development of high-speed traffic in Germany. EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-88255-228-7 .

Web links

Commons : DB Class 406  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d Dieter Eikhoff: Everything about the ICE . transpress-Verlag, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 978-3-613-71277-5 , pp. 41-52.
  2. a b c d e f g Heinz Kurz: ICE 3 and ICE T - New generation of railcars for Deutsche Bahn . In: Railway technical review . 48, No. 9, 1999, pp. 549-559.
  3. Ansgar Brockmeyer, Thomas Gerhard, Edzard Lübben, Manfred Reisner, Monika Bayrhof: High-speed trains: from power car to distributed traction . In: European Railway Review . Vol. 13, No. 3, 2007, ISSN  1351-1599 , pp. 67-79.
  4. ^ A b Frank Panier: New DB high-speed multiple units for international use . In: Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau , Issue 9/2010, September 2010, ISSN  0013-2845 , pp. 520-530.
  5. Deutsche Bahn AG (Ed.): Fact sheet ICE 3MF ( Memento from July 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 295 kB). Three-page document dated May 2007.
  6. BR 406: French approval and ETCS equipment. In: website. "ICE-Treff" blog, January 4, 2017, accessed on July 31, 2017 .
  7. Report of the Dutch ICE 3 in the Wildenrath test center . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 4, 1999, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 116.
  8. Expo premiere for the ICE 3 . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , May 30, 2000.
  9. New times, new trains . In: mobile . May 2000, p. 10.
  10. ^ A b c Georg Wagner: InterCityExpress - The star trains in long-distance transport of the DB . EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2006, ISBN 3-88255-361-8 , pp. 10-12.
  11. ICE acceptance notification is progressing . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 12/2000, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 530.
  12. ^ Message ICE to Amsterdam . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 12/2000, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 531.
  13. a b c Ernst Reuss: The operational use of the ICE 3 - fleet average mileage at world record level . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 1/2004, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 14 f.
  14. News update shortly . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 4/2001, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 355.
  15. ICE 3 high-speed train on a test drive to Switzerland . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 2/2001, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 66–68.
  16. ICE 3, ICE-T and ICE-TD in Switzerland . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 7/2001, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 302 f.
  17. a b c d e Report the final spurt in Europe . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 4/2005, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 174 f.
  18. 80,000 passengers use the ICE . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of September 3, 2002
  19. a b Peter Lankes: The third generation: The ICE2.2 . In: Eisenbahn-Kurier , No. 278, November 1998, ISSN  0170-5288 , pp. 36-41.
  20. ^ Christian Tietze: The premiere of the ICE 3 . In: Eisenbahn Magazin , issue 12/1998, pp. 20 ff, ISSN  0342-1902 .
  21. Message The Netherlands want to buy six ICE trains . In: ZUG , No. 11, 1995, without ISSN, p. 9.
  22. A very quick family . In: ZUG , No. 11, 1995, without ISSN, pp. 16-22.
  23. Report test drives with the German ICE 3 in Belgium . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 4/2002, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 196.
  24. There is a new report for every change to the train . In: DB Welt , September 2009 issue, p. 15.
  25. ICE 3 is supposed to drive through Belgium quickly and coupled . In: DB Welt , December 2010 edition, p. 14.
  26. Heinz Kurz: InterCityExpress: The development of high-speed traffic in Germany . EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-88255-228-7 , p. 223.
  27. a b c d e f g h i j k l Frank Panier: Approval of the ICE 3 in France - practical testing . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 11/2005, pp. 514-517.
  28. a b c d e f g ICE-3 approval in France before graduation . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 10/2005, p. 472 f.
  29. a b c d e f Christoph Müller: ICE 3: Now also in France . In: Der Eisenbahningenieur , Volume 56 (2005), Issue 11, pp. 82–84.
  30. ^ Message ICE 3 conversion . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 10/2002, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 443.
  31. ICE 3 report in France . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 1/2003, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 32.
  32. a b ICE 3 report in France . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 10/2003, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 451.
  33. ^ Message ICE 3 on approval run in France until the end of March . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 4/2004, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 178.
  34. Announcement First ICE 3 is being prepared for use in France . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . Issue 4/2006, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 192.
  35. Message celebrities during the last France test drive in the ICE . In: DB Welt , April 2007 edition, p. 15.
  36. a b Race against the aircraft in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of February 13, 2007.
  37. Snap peas for the track . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung , May 20, 2007, p. 28.
  38. a b c Nils Schiffhauer: The snap peas stay in the emergency case . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung online from May 20, 2007.
  39. a b Message Five ICE 3 for France traffic . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , 12/2005, p. 595.
  40. a b c Changes for the use of the ICE 3 in France (part 1). In: VORAUS , member magazine of the union of German locomotive drivers . March 2007 edition, p. 30, ISSN  1438-0099 .
  41. The technology strategy of Deutsche Bahn AG (2nd part) . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , Issue 5/2003, ISSN  1421-2811 , pp. 202-204.
  42. Report TGV Est: International vehicle use unexplained . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , issue 11/2004, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 505.
  43. It's something special ( memento from September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: Frankfurter Rundschau of June 11, 2007.
  44. One year ICE – TGV: DB satisfied despite minor breakdowns . In: DB Welt , May 2008 edition, p. 14.
  45. Electrical operation at Deutsche Bahn in 2007 . In: Elektro Bahnen , Volume 106 (2008), Issue 1–2, p. 33.
  46. ^ Message Deutsche Bahn uses TGV in France traffic . In: DB Welt , April 2009 edition, p. 6.
  47. a b Maintenance work: Bahn leaves Paris lines to the TGV ( memento of January 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). In: Financial Times Deutschland , January 22, 2010.
  48. Rolling stock crisis in DB long-distance traffic . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , 2010, Issue 3, p. 126 f.
  49. a b Deutsche Bahn AG, DB Systemtechnik: Activity Report 2006 ( Memento of July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.6 MB), p. 42
  50. a b Alstom: ETCS for ICE 3 ( Memento of the original from October 11, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Eurailpress , April 29, 2008  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.eurailpress.de
  51. ^ A b c d Jan-Peter Böhm, Werner Geier, Peter Lankes, Jürgen Memke: The equipment of the German ICE high-speed trains with ETCS . In: Railway technical review . tape 63 , no. 5 , 2014, ISSN  0013-2845 , p. 49-57 .
  52. Christoph Gralla, Christian Schunke-Mau, Jean Koulischer, Patrick Zoetardt: ETCS for multi-system ICE 3 EMUs . In: RTR - European Rail Technology Review , ISSN  0079-9548 , issue 1/2010, February 2010, pp. 11-14.
  53. ^ Deutsche Bahn AG: TGV in double traction on the German network . Press release from March 18, 2009.
  54. Nikolaus Doll: The train will travel to London from 2013 . In: Die Welt , September 2, 2010.
  55. Deutsche Bahn AG / DB Mobility Logistics AG (ed.): Improving quality - our customers are the focus. Half-yearly press conference 2010 ( Memento of the original from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 1.6 MB). Speech by Rüdiger Grube , Chairman of the Management Board, at the company's half-year press conference on July 28, 2010, p. 19. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www1.deutschebahn.com
  56. a b c Changes for the use of the ICE 3 in France (part 3). In: VORAUS , member magazine of the union of German locomotive drivers . Issue May 2007, p. 24, 26. ISSN  1438-0099 .
  57. Deutsche Bahn: Moving People - Connecting Worlds ( Memento of May 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 9.2 MB), Berlin 2008, without ISBN, p. 60.
  58. a b c Changes for the use of the ICE 3 in France (part 2). In: VORAUS , member magazine of the union of German locomotive drivers . Issue April 2007, p. 24 f., ISSN  1438-0099 .
  59. a b c without author: Changes for the use of the ICE 3 in France (4th and last part) . In: AHEAD . June 2007 edition, ISSN  1438-0099 , p. 26 f.
  60. Technical differences between the ICE trains BR 403/406, 407 and 412 (part 1) . In: Union of German Locomotive Drivers (Ed.): Advance . No. 4 , April 2019, ISSN  1438-0099 , p. 24-26 .
  61. Since the end of October 2002, ICE trains have been given the names of cities that would like to take on a sponsorship. ICE name. (PDF; 513 kB) Retrieved November 20, 2011 .
  62. ^ Heinz Kurz: InterCityExpress. The development of high-speed traffic in Germany. EK-Verlag, Freiburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-88255-228-7 .
  63. ^ Deutsche Bahn . In: Railway courier . No. 7 , July 2019, ISSN  0170-5288 , p. 12 .
  64. ^ Passenger rush in DB long-distance traffic . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International . No. 4 , April 2020, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 179 .
  65. Netherlands: Flanking with ICE ( Memento of the original from August 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Eurailpress , January 12, 2011.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.eurailpress.de
  66. Treinbotsing Zevenaar vermoedelijk door koperdiefstal . NU.nl, January 14, 2011, accessed on February 23, 2012.
  67. a b c Federal Railway Accident Investigation Office (Ed.): Investigation report: Dangerous incident in railway operations ( Memento of the original from February 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 602 kB). Document dated September 5, 2012, file number 60 - 60uu2010-08 / 00047 , pp. 6, 11, 18 f. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.eisenbahn-unfalluntersprüfung.de
  68. FAZ: Ten injured in an ICE accident. August 17, 2010. Retrieved August 17, 2010 .
  69. Without a source
  70. Process after ICE accident: insurance companies agree on a settlement . Spiegel online , January 23, 2013.
  71. Road rebuilt after ICE accident  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: Lampertheimer Zeitung (online edition), August 10, 2012.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.lampertheimer-zeitung.de  
  72. Deutsche Bahn: 16. Velaro D replaces an ICE 3M ( Memento of the original from August 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Eurailpress , April 14, 2011.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.eurailpress.de
  73. ^ Report of the ICE fire in France . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , July 2008 edition, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 351.
  74. Hundreds of travelers had to leave the ICE on the open route . In: Spiegel online , May 16, 2008.
  75. a b ICE traffic Frankfurt – Paris with mixed results . In: Eisenbahn-Revue International , July / August 2008 edition, ISSN  1421-2811 , p. 384.
  76. Pierre Adenis (photo): Presentation of “Germany's fastest climate protector”. In: Design Diary. September 10, 2019, accessed February 19, 2020 . Image from the image gallery for the parent article: Achim Schaffrinna: Deutsche Bahn equips all ICE trains with green stripes. September 12, 2019, accessed February 19, 2020 .