Fashion design

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Catwalk ( Catwalk ) for the presentation of fashion design (for Michalsky StyleNite at the Berlin Fashion Week )

As fashion design the tray is called that deals with the design and the design of fashion , especially the clothing fashions and accessories , busy.

Fashion Designer / in , fashion designer / in or fashion designer / in are not a protected professional titles. After completing an apprenticeship or studying at a state or state-recognized university or school, the professional title can be preceded by the degree title obtained (e.g. Dipl. Fashion designer, fashion designer Bachelor of Arts (BA) or fashion designer Master of Arts (MA), certified fashion designer, state-certified fashion designer, state-certified designer (fashion, etc.). Furthermore, courses of study or training courses are also offered, the degrees of which are imaginary names.

Fashion design is offered as a course of study or a major in design at a university, several art colleges , colleges , technical colleges and vocational schools , as well as at private substitute and supplementary schools. There are around 78 state or private educational institutions to choose from for studying or training. Artistic samples are usually required for admission. The standard period of study at universities, colleges of art, colleges and technical colleges is usually six to eight semesters for a Bachelor of Arts degree and a total of ten semesters for a Master of Arts degree. The students deal with the design of clothing and its representation. For this purpose, life drawing, schematic representation and fashion illustration with and without computer programs relevant for fashion design are practiced. Industrial manufacturing technology , materials science, pattern design, art history , fashion history and marketing are also part of the class.


Probably the first person to use the term fashion designer in today's sense was Charles Frederick Worth (1825–1895), who is also considered the founder of haute couture . Before he founded his fashion house (“ maison couture ”) in Paris, it was mostly nameless tailors who designed clothes. Few of the pre-Charles Frederick Worth fashion designers managed to make a name for themselves. One of these exceptions was Rose Bertin , the milliner of the French Queen Marie Antoinette , who saw herself more as an artist.

Worth succeeded in getting customers to associate a certain style with a couturier and created the tradition of having fashion collections presented through mannequins . After Worth, it was Paul Poiret who stayed true to this concept and influenced everyday fashion through his haute couture . Paul Poiret was also the one who started removing the corset from womenswear.

The next designers in the tradition of Poiret and Worth were Patou , Vionnet , Fortuny , Jeanne Lanvin , Coco Chanel , Schiaparelli , Balenciaga , Christian Dior and Yves Saint Laurent .

The influence of haute couture declined in the 1960s . Under the influence of fashion icons such as Marilyn Monroe , Audrey Hepburn and Jackie Kennedy or mannequins such as Twiggy, as well as the growing emancipation movement , fashion was less and less influenced by haute couture.

During this time, fashion brands (see branded articles ) began not only to produce items of clothing, but also to create an image or create fashion that specifically addressed individual target groups or subcultures . Vivienne Westwood, for example, created a fashion that was related to punk . This led to the development of the OFF-Mode movement in the 1980s, in which young avant-garde artists of fashion, music and art came together. The trend began as anti-chic with an emphasis on individualism , but then quickly became a nationwide movement that caused a sensation across Europe under the flag of the OFF-Line fashion fairs. As in the music of the Neue Deutsche Welle, OFF-Mode ebbed away at the latest with the beginning of German reunification and the opening of borders.

Haute couture and prêt-à-porter

Today's fashion design is roughly divided into two categories: Haute Couture and Prêt-à-porter / Ready-to-wear . A haute couture collection is aimed exclusively at a wealthy class of customers for whom the fashion is tailor-made. In order to be considered an official “haute couture house”, the fashion designer or brand must be part of the haute couture association. This Paris-based organization is part of the French Ministry of Commerce, even though this organization includes designers of various nationalities. To be considered a haute couture house, a fashion show must be held at least twice a year, at which at least 35 different models are presented.

Ready-to-wear collections, on the other hand, are not tailor-made. The “clothes off the rack” are produced in standardized sizes: a finer subdivision differentiates between designer collections and ready-made goods. Designer collections are usually characterized by high quality and more unusual cuts. Nowadays, these designer collections have more influence on everyday fashion than haute couture. Designer collections are also presented as “prêt-à-porter” at the fashion exhibitions.

Ready-to-wear fashion is the one most commonly found in stores. Created for the mass taste, their goal is not to make a fashion statement, but to offer wearable clothing.


Karl Lagerfeld († 2019), one of the most renowned fashion designers in the world. Since 1984 he was u. a. Head designer at Chanel .

German fashion is known for its elegant lines, but also for its unconventional young designs and the wide variety of different styles. Berlin is considered a young and creative center in the European fashion scene. The Berlin Fashion Week (or Berlin Fashion Week), which takes place twice a year, has become one of the world's most important fashion events within a short period of time. Bread & Butter has established itself as the world's leading trade fair for the everyday fashion market. Düsseldorf is the fashion trading center with the highest turnover and for many years was the venue for the world's largest fashion fair, the Collections Premiere Düsseldorf (CPD) organized by Igedo . Other important fashion centers are Munich , where the German Master School of Fashion is also located, Hamburg and Cologne . Smaller cities are also centers for design and production as locations of major brands, such as Herford , Metzingen , Herzogenaurach , Schorndorf , Rottendorf , Chemnitz , Albstadt and Detmold .


Worldwide famous German fashion designers are and were z. B. Karl Lagerfeld , Wolfgang Joop , Jil Sander , Uli Richter , Heinz Oestergaard , Heinz Schulze , Renate Günthert , Michael Michalsky , Tomas Maier , Guido Maria Kretschmer , Sibilla Pavenstedt , Rudolph Moshammer , Torsten Amft , Philipp Plein , Jette Joop , Dorothee Schumacher , Patrick Mohr , Dawid Tomaszewski , Anna von Griesheim , Willy Bogner , Anja Gockel , Harald Glööckler . Well-known textile entrepreneurs, whose companies are now international fashion groups, are and were Hugo Ferdinand Boss , Rudolf Dassler , Adolf Dassler and Wolfgang Grupp , among others .


Well-known fashion brands from Germany include Hugo Boss , Strenesse , Windsor , Bogner , Escada , Etienne Aigner , Joop! , Philipp Plein , MCM , Talbot Runhof , Baldessarini , Seidensticker , Eterna , Hallhuber , Kaviar Gauche , Roy Robson , Closed , Valisere , Lascana , Lala Berlin , Ulla Popken , Roeckl , Buffalo Boots , Rohde , Peter Hahn , Marc O'Polo , Tom Tailor , s.Oliver , Gerry Weber , Esprit , Wunderkind , Bruno Banani , Triumph and Schiesser . Well-known German outdoor and sporting goods manufacturers with their own fashion division include adidas , PUMA , Chiemsee , Reusch and Jack Wolfskin . There are also fashion groups with well-known sub-brands such as Ahlers AG , the second largest men's fashion manufacturer in Europe. In addition, individual German chain stores run their own fashion brands: Zalando , Orsay , Zero , P&C , Breuninger .


There are also a number of models who have achieved international fame, including a. the “supermodels” of the 1990s Claudia Schiffer , Heidi Klum , Tatjana Patitz , Manon von Gerkan and Nadja Auermann . Other models in demand worldwide were and are Diane Kruger , Eva Padberg , Toni Garrn , Julia Stegner , Rebecca Mir , Birte Glang , Amelie Klever , Nico , Eveline Hall , Uschi Obermaier , Nastassja Kinski , Antonia Wesseloh , Vanessa Hegelmaier , Hana Nitsche , Lena Gercke , Sara Nuru , Barbara Meier , Claudia Ciesla , Aslı Bayram , Shermine Shahrivar , Evelyn Sharma , as well as the male models Nico Schwanz and Lars Burmeister .

Of the world's leading modeling agencies include Vivienne model management (Munich, New York) and Louisa Models (Munich, Hamburg). The training of fashion designers in Germany takes place at various universities, colleges and vocational schools.

See also


  • Yuniya Kawamura: Fashion-ology. An introduction to Fashion Studies . Berg, Oxford / New York: 2005, ISBN 1-85973-814-1
  • Yasmin Boeck: Dream Job Fashion Designer - The Guide for Studies and Training . Stiebner Verlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 3-8307-0872-6
  • Barbara Schmelzer-Ziringer: Mode Design Theory . Böhlau Verlag / Uni-Taschenbücher-Verlag, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-8252-4403-3

Web links

Commons : fashion design  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Deutsche Mode  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Berlin Fashion Week Roundup , Vogue, accessed on October 28, 2014.
  2. ^ Berlin Fashion Week ( Memento from December 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), official website.
  3. Marcel Berndt: Berlin has the glamor, Düsseldorf the money , Welt Online, July 26, 2014. Accessed July 17, 2014.
  4. Munich - The stuff dreams are made of , Die Welt , July 17, 2011
  5. The German fashion comes (also) from the province , Brigitte, edition 15/2012, accessed on January 18, 2014.
  6. ^ Deutsche Designer , Vogue, accessed on October 28, 2014.
  7. ^ Deutsche Models , Vogue, accessed on October 28, 2014.