Teacher for professional practice
Teachers for professional practice ( technical teachers , subject teachers ) are teachers at vocational schools who specialize in practical aspects of the subjects taught. As a rule, lessons in practical subjects do not take place in the classroom , but in training workshops, school kitchens or practice offices.
The ability to teach in public schools is usually acquired through a scientific university degree. For certain subjects, however, specialists with practical experience are preferred. They teach at industrial-technical , domestic and in some countries also at commercial schools.
The training course to become a technical teacher during the Weimar Republic was a three-year training at a technical seminar with a final examination before a state examination committee with a certificate of qualification for handicraft lessons and home economics lessons at elementary and secondary schools. During the Nazi era , the training course qualified for home economics and physical exercises at elementary, middle and vocational schools . The establishment of this type of teacher in positions from 1937 and in training from 1939 was related to the image of women under the Nazi dictatorship and brought housewife and maternal work into focus. On the one hand, these women were not supposed to be teaching scientific subjects, on the other hand, this was a reference to the future education of girls. The training differed from a regular primary school teacher degree in terms of content and scope, and the school requirements were much lower. Their activity was sometimes contemptuously summarized under "hopping and knotting".
Entry requirements / training
The entry requirements are regulated differently in the individual countries . In addition to a few years of professional experience, an intermediate educational qualification is usually required. The ministries of education in the individual federal states have issued training and examination regulations that differ greatly in some cases.
Activities / opportunities for advancement
The main tasks include the preparation, implementation and follow-up of lessons , correction of schoolwork and the preparation and evaluation of classwork as well as advisory activities.
It is also possible for this group of teachers to become civil servants .
At business schools
In the commercial school system, specialist teachers are trained for the subjects of word processing (successor to the earlier subject of typing) and office management. In a few countries they can even acquire a teaching qualification for the entire IT sector.
Learning to write with ten fingers, the correct design of documents according to DIN 5008 (especially business letters) and the use of the essential performance characteristics of modern text systems are among the fine learning objectives of today's word processing lessons . The shorthand has now been completely removed from the curriculum.
Furthermore, the students are made familiar with common office machines such as photocopiers , dictation machines , folding machines and others. You will learn about organizational office work such as mail processing, travel planning, registration, time management and keeping minutes and gradually understand the necessity of economic action.
At vocational schools
State-certified technicians, industrial and craft masters take on the practical teaching at vocational schools after successful further educational training . Here, too, it is mostly about teaching and practicing skills. In Bavaria, prospective specialist teachers are trained at the State Institute IV in Ansbach. Bavarian subject teachers acquire the teaching qualification in theory and practice, they work very closely (subjects) with colleagues in the higher service. The area of responsibility lies in specialist theory, specialist practice, computer-aided drawing (CAD), as well as in the programming of CAD solutions and the implementation on computer-controlled machine tools. In Bavaria, the "practicing" of practical skills mainly takes place in the so-called BGJ (basic vocational school year), where the first year students are exclusively at the vocational school.
Specialist teachers at vocational schools take on class management and workshop management, the opportunities for advancement go up to salary group A12 of the senior service. In individual cases, subject teachers in Bavaria can also move up to the "higher service" under certain conditions. The training and work at the vocational school, including the number of hours, is therefore essentially different from the so-called "works teacher" in other federal states.
At home economics schools
The students create menus, cook and bake according to recipes and learn how to use common kitchen appliances. Knitting , crocheting , sewing and darning belong to the textile handicrafts that essentially determine handicraft lessons. The teacher must guide the class to work cleanly, taking into account hygiene regulations .