Educational method

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An educational method (also: educational technique ) is understood to be a systematic method of using educational resources that is oriented towards educational norms .

During method term for example in philosophy or in the medicine exactly defined and comprehensive theory has been founded, which has teaching a comparably precise determination of this for them axiomatic previously spawned term. As a result, the term “educational method” is used inconsistently in educational literature. It is often used synonymously with the term means of education ; just as often it is equated with parenting style or even with parenting concept . On the other hand, however, there are also many educational specialist texts in which the authors' need to differentiate between these terms is clearly evident. The following distinctions are made implicitly:

Definition of terms and examples

Education methods vs. Means of education

Educational methods are more complex than educational tools and can organize several educational tools for a specific purpose.

As an example, here is a method recommended by psychologist John N. Marr to counter habitual tantrums in children and which is an example of the negative practice method used in behavioral therapy : As soon as the tantrum begins, the parents tell the child: " You are having a tantrum now. You can't have a tantrum in this room. You have to go to your room for that. ”The parents then run the child into his room. There they tell him: “You have a tantrum and you can only have it in your room. Tell me when you have finished the tantrum. ”To prevent the child from leaving the room, the parents block the way through the door or even close the door. When the child has exhausted itself, the parents say that it is only allowed to leave the room when it is certain that nothing is left of the tantrum: "You can only come out of the room when you have another tantrum." The child now has no choice but to deliver another tantrum or pretend. Then he is told that he can now leave his room, but that the same procedure will be followed the next time he has anger. Parents who practice this method over a long period of time find that the tantrums actually become milder and less frequent. The purpose of negative practice is to tire the child of their problematic behavior.

This method combines a number of different educational means, such as communication, prohibition and arrest, and organizes them in such a way that a certain educational effect (see: Successful education ) is achieved.

Education methods vs. Education concepts

Education concepts are comprehensive theoretical concepts based on supra-individual value principles that are oriented towards overarching educational goals, such as B. on independence, academic and professional success, a good character or internalization of religious (e.g. Christian ) values.

Educational methods, on the other hand, are geared towards smaller, less long-term goals that may or may not be part of an overall educational concept. In the western world, different methods are propagated and practiced to get small children to sleep. B. Richard Ferber (director of the Center for Pediatric Sleep Disorders at Boston Children's Hospital ) recommends training children to sleep alone, attachment parenting apologists like William Sears advocate co-sleeping . Bedtime training represents only a small part of the overall process of bringing up a young person . Neither Ferber nor Sears claim to use their method in the service of a certain major educational goal, i.e. to locate it in a specific educational concept. (Attachment parenting, advocated by Sears, is not an educational concept, but an educational theory .)

Education methods vs. Parenting styles

Upbringing styles are typical culture patterns of behavior that adults reveal in their upbringing activities; they are less based on a deliberately thought-out pedagogy, but primarily on the personality of the educator. One example is the neglectful upbringing style in which the parents are emotionally distant from the child - often due to addiction problems or for various psychosocial reasons - and hardly concern themselves with the child beyond basic physical care.

Parents who practice a neglectful parenting style often forego the use of educational tools because they cannot do otherwise. A renunciation of educational action can, however, also take place consciously and even systematically within the framework of comprehensive educational concepts, for example if the education aims at resilience and independence (such as Wendy Mogel's concept of character education ), but also in anti- education .

There are also educational methods that rely on educational inaction. They are used as needed and are not necessarily part of a large educational concept. One example is the concept of logical consequences developed by Rudolf Dreikurs (known in German as: “letting logical consequences work”), which consists in letting children experience the consequences of undesirable behavior based on the natural consequences of this behavior. According to this method, a child who does not obey the call to dinner receives - instead of instruction, reprimand, punishment, etc. - e.g. B. a cold meal. This method is based on the pedagogical thesis that a child learns to take responsibility for his own behavior more easily if the feedback it receives on this behavior is not in the form of a sanction from a - possibly capricious or even envious - educator, but in a there is a natural consequence that the child can accept without taking it personally. Because the logical consequences in many cases are neither acceptable nor instructive for the child in the short term (e.g. if the child refuses to brush their teeth), the method is only suitable for selective use.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Gustav Adolf Lindner: Encyclopaedic Handbook of Education . 2nd + 3rd Edition. A. Pichler's widow & son, Vienna / Leipzig 1884, p. 254 ( limited preview in Google Book search). Gustav Adolf Lindner, Hermann Schiller: Education method . In: Joseph Loos (Hrsg.): Enzyklopädisches Handbuch der Erziehungskunde . 1st volume [A-L]. A. Pichler's widow & son, Vienna / Leipzig 1906, p. 368 ( limited preview in Google Book search). Wilhelm Jacob Georg Curtmann: Textbook of education and instruction . 7th edition. Wintersche Verlagshandlung, Leipzig / Heidelberg 1866, p. 94 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  2. ^ John N. Marr: Manual of Behavior Modification. A Guide for Parents . Xlibris, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4568-2701-4 , pp. 40 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  3. Michel Hersen, George Sugai, Robert Horner (Eds.): Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy . Sage, Thousand Oaks 2005, ISBN 0-7619-2747-6 , pp. 915 ( limited preview in Google Book search). Ronald C. Martella, J. Ron Nelson, Nancy E. Marchand-Martella, Mark O'Reilly: Comprehensive Behavior Management. Individualized, Classroom, and Schoolwide Approaches . Sage, Los Angeles et al. a. 2012, ISBN 978-1-4129-8827-8 , pp. 205 f . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  4. Uninvolved Parenting Style. Retrieved January 5, 2015 .
  5. Jeanne Machado, Helen Botnarescue: Student Teaching. Early Childhood Practicum Guide . 7th edition. Wadsworth, Belmont CA 2011, ISBN 978-0-495-81322-4 , pp. 128 ( limited preview in Google Book search). Rudolf Dreikurs, Vicky Soltz: Children challenge us. How do we educate them in a contemporary way? 13th edition. Klett-Cotta, 2005, ISBN 978-3-608-94277-4
  6. ^ Robert T. Tauber: Classroom Management. Sound theory and effective practice . Praeger, Westport CT 2007, ISBN 978-0-275-99670-3 , pp. 158 ( limited preview in Google Book search).