Ernst Happel

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Ernst Happel
Ernst Happel 1978.jpg
Ernst Happel, 1978
Surname Ernst Franz Hermann Happel
birthday November 29, 1925
place of birth ViennaAustria
date of death November 14, 1992
Place of death InnsbruckAustria
Years station
1938-1942 SK Rapid Vienna
Years station Games (goals) 1
1942-1954 SK Rapid Vienna 177 0(8)
1955-1956 RC Paris 42 0(9)
1956-1959 SK Rapid Vienna 63 (17)
National team
Years selection Games (goals)
1947-1958 Austria 51 0(5)
Stations as a trainer
Years station
1962-1969 ADO The Hague
1969-1973 SC Feijenoord
1973-1974 Sevilla FC
1975-1988 Club Bruges
1978 Netherlands
1979 KRC Harelbeke
1979-1981 Standard Liege
1981-1987 Hamburger SV
1987-1991 FC Swarovski Tirol
1991-1992 Austria
1 Only league games are given.

Ernst Franz Hermann Happel (born November 29, 1925 in Vienna , † November 14, 1992 in Innsbruck ) was an Austrian football player and coach . As a player, the defender reached 3rd place at the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland and became a crowd favorite at Rapid . However, Ernst Happel was able to celebrate his greatest successes as a coach in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and Austria. Because of his idiosyncratic nature, Happel was often referred to as " Grumbler ". He coached the Austrian national team from January 1992 until his death in November 1992.

Ernst Happel as a defender

Memorial plaque for Ernst Happel in the Ernst Happel Stadium

The beginning in Hütteldorf

Ernst Happel was born Ernst Nechida with his mother's maiden name. A year after he was born, she married Franz Happel, a weightlifter who ran an inn in the ninth district and who accepted Ernst as his stepson. Ernst Happel is said to never have met his real father. It wasn't a happy time; From the age of four he grew up with his grandmother, to whom he developed affection in contrast to his parents.

Ernst Happel played in the youth team of Rapid Vienna, where he was coached by Richard Kuthan and Leopold Nitsch , among others . During the war, he was first promoted to the combat team in 1942. When he reached the age of 18, however, he was drafted into the troops, which led him to Belarus.

After the war he soon became a regular at Rapid. Under captain Franz Binder , Happels became champions and cup winners for the first time in 1946 after defeating Vienna 2-1 in the final . Happel had won the first two competitions in post-war Austria. Rapid was very popular at this time - an average of 800,000 spectators wanted to see the club per season.

Ernst Happel soon became a crowd favorite and impressed with his sovereignty as a stopper - the Libero later emerged from this position - with his feel for the ball, his skillful tackling and his tactical maturity. He was soon called "Aschyl" by friends and fans, referring to a Turkish actor whom he looked very similar. His playful qualities also earned Ernst Happel the nickname “the magician”. Ernst Happel made his first appearance in the national team on September 14, 1947, when Austria defeated its "arch-rival" Hungary 4-3. From then on, Happel had a regular place (Austrian: fixleiberl ) with coach Walter Nausch . After the defender had to be satisfied with the runner-up title just behind the Wacker in 1947 , he was able to take the title again with Rapid in the following season from the Meidlingers. For the club's 50th birthday, it went to Brazil after the season, where the opponents were CR Vasco da Gama , CR Flamengo and São Paulo FC , among others . Attempts were made to adopt the Brazilian game system to Hütteldorf, and Ernst Happel also improved his technical skills.

Victory in the Centropa Cup

The 1950/51 season was another high point in Ernst Happel's time with the Green-Whites. The Rapid team, reinforced by the addition of Gerhard Hanappi , could clearly dominate the championship. Among other things, they celebrated an 11: 2 against LASK , beat Sturm with 12: 1 and defeated Vienna 9: 0. Finally, the team was sovereign champions. The Hütteldorfer scored a total of 133 goals in just 24 championship games. That results in an average of 5.54 goals per game. In 1951, however, Ernst Happel was not only successful on a national level; In that year there was also the revival of the Mitropa Cup , which was held in 1951 under the name "Zentropacup". The Rapidler was able to qualify for the final with a 5-0 win against Lazio Rome , where he competed with the team in a purely Austrian duel against Wacker . The Meidlinger controlled the game, Rapid had to equalize twice to 1: 1 and 2: 2. Ernst Happel scored the decisive winning goal to 3: 2 for Rapid in the 90th minute of the game. With the victory in the Zentropacup the defender celebrated his first - Rapid at the same time his last - big international title win.

World Cup in Switzerland

Ernst Happel drove with the national team to the World Cup in Switzerland in 1954 after defeating Portugal 9-1 in qualifying . The train on the way to the quarter near Zurich stopped in Innsbruck, where the team was supposed to play a training game against a selection of the Arlbergliga. The team took the lead 14-0, so defender Happel got a bit bored. He grabbed the ball, turned around and scored an own goal from twenty yards for his spec Walter Zeman . The two had constant arguments on the pitch, but remained close friends throughout their lives. At the World Cup, Happel moved into the quarter-finals with the national team after a 1-0 victory over Scotland and a 5-0 victory over Czechoslovakia , where they met the hosts.

The most scoring game in the history of football world championships, the “ Heat Battle of Lausanne ”, Austria won 7-5. Austria's goalkeeper Kurt Schmied suffered a sunstroke at the beginning of the game , but could not be replaced. The Swiss quickly took a 3-0 lead in front of almost 50,000 home fans. Kurt Schmied was cooled by masseur Pepi Ulrich with thrown sponges. Ulrich stood behind the Austrian gate and began to direct Kurt Schmied, who was in a trance-like state, with every attack. Soon after the Swiss lead, the Austrian team tried to escape to the front and ten minutes later they themselves were 5-3 ahead. The game, in which Austria also missed a penalty, was finally won by Ernst Happel's team 7: 5 and was promoted to a semi-final of a world championship for the second time in history. Ernst Happel didn't lose his wit in this match either. When the score was 6: 5 for Austria, he stopped a ball with his bottom and passed it on, which almost led to the 6: 6 equalization for Switzerland.

Ernst Happel played a tragic role in the 1: 6 defeat in the semi-finals against West Germany . He had nothing to oppose the German team players in their rehearsed standard situations, so that he and the goalkeeper Walter Zeman were accused of being bribed by the Germans after the game. Austria won the small final for third place against the then reigning world champion Uruguay , but Ernst Happel and Walter Zeman were so angry about the allegations of bribery that they got out on the way home before the ceremonial reception of the third place in the World Cup in Vienna and for three years not played for the Austrian national team for a long time.

Moved to Paris and returned to Rapid

After countless rumors about Ernst Happel and a possible move abroad in Vienna, he actually left the Hütteldorfer in 1954 and went to RC Paris on the Seine . The defender returned to his old place of work in 1956 and played successfully with Rapid in the European Cup for several years . In 1956, the green-whites met Real Madrid , the best team in Europe at the time. From 1956 to 1960, the Spaniards won all five European Cup competitions, but in 1956, Happel's club proved to be almost a stumbling block. After the Viennese survived the first leg in Spain 2: 4, the Rapidler were already 3: 0 in the second leg in Vienna thanks to a hat trick by defender Ernst Happel, who rarely scored so many goals in a whole championship season. However, the Spaniards were still able to achieve the 1: 3, so that a third game had to be played. At that time there was no away goals rule, otherwise Rapid would have progressed. The seat right for the play-off was sold by Rapid, so it was held in front of 90,000 Spanish fans in Madrid. Rapid lost 0-2 without a chance.

In the 1958 European Cup season, Ernst Happel met AC Milan with Rapid. After a 1: 4 in Milan a debacle threatened. But in Vienna Rapid was able to take a 1-0 lead after a few minutes. The Italians were able to equalize early, but after 78 minutes the first leg result was equalized. AC Milan scored again to make it 2: 4. Shortly before the end of the game, however, Gerhard Hanappi scored the 5: 2, so that, as in the previous year, there was a decider. This time the game took place on neutral ground in Zurich. Rapid was unlucky and had to continue playing with ten men from the 13th minute onwards because Lambert Lenzinger was injured. Substitutions were not allowed at that time. The team fought, but ultimately had to admit defeat 2: 4 after Ernst Happel even managed to equalize in the meantime when they were outnumbered.

World Cup in Sweden and end of career as an active player

After the Austrian national team had remained victorious in the decisive qualifying game against the Netherlands , they drove back to the 1958 World Cup in Sweden with Ernst Happel . However, Austria had bad luck with the group draw: the opponents were Brazil , England and the then strong Soviet Union . Ernst Happel and his team were eliminated in the group stage and should not be used in the last game against England - it would have been his 50th team appearance. His club Rapid reacted quickly, however, and sent team coach Pepi Argauer the Rapid badge of honor, which he was supposed to present to Ernst Happel on the occasion of his 50th assignment in the team. Ernst Happel played and Austria said goodbye to the World Cup with a 2-2 win against England. In the following season, Ernst Happel also said goodbye to active football.

Section Head

After the end of his active career, Ernst Happel initially took over the position of section head at Rapid and looked after the team together with coach Robert Körner . In these two seasons Rapid became champions, cup winners and made it to the semi-finals of the European Cup, where they lost to Benfica Lisbon, trained by ex- Hakoahner Béla Guttmann .

Coaching career

First years as a trainer in The Hague

Ernst Happel at ADO (1965)

Happels coaching career began in the Netherlands at ADO Den Haag . As a newcomer to coach, however, he first had to earn the respect of the players. During one of the first training sessions in The Hague, it rained heavily, the players wanted to annoy their new coach and refused to practice. Ernst Happel drove his troop out and put a beverage can on the corner of the cross. He shot them down from the sixteen and asked his players to do the same. Those who made it were allowed to take a shower - so all of the training could take place in the rain. Ernst Happel soon became one of the most successful coaches in football history. His recipe for success as a trainer was called “ pressing ” and the total offensive . He demanded from his enthusiastic and fit players that they "impose their style on the opponent and not let him relax". Because of his taciturn nature as a trainer, he was also dubbed the "silent one"; Max Merkel later described him as " Beethoven in the final phase".

Under Happels leadership, ADO developed from a relegation candidate to a title contender. Already in 1963, 1964 and 1966 he and his troops were in the final of the Dutch Cup, where they lost out against Willem II , Fortuna 54 on penalties and against Sparta . In 1968 he was finally able to win his first coaching title with ADO - his team defeated Ajax 2-1 in the fourth attempt in the cup final on June 3, 1968. However, at the beginning of March 1969 - after a cup defeat at NEC Nijmegen  - there was a dispute with club chairman H. J. Choufoer, whereupon Happel terminated his contract, which ran until 1971.
His much-respected coaching qualities finally enabled Ernst Happel to switch to the much better-off league competitor SC Feijenoord (since 1972 "Feyenoord") in the port city of Rotterdam after the cup final .

World Cup winner with Rotterdam

Ernst Happel in conversation with journalists in 1969

The Viennese quickly settled in with the Rotterdamers and is still considered a great coaching legend today. With Franz Hasil , a native of Vienna and ex-Rapidler was also in the ranks of the Dutch. His entry in Rotterdam was hard to beat: Ernst Happel and his team were the first Dutch club to win the European Cup in 1969/70 . Ernst Happel and his team eliminated AC Milan , Vorwärts Berlin and Legia Warsaw on the way to the finals . Feijenoord's opponent in the final was Celtic Glasgow , who were beaten 2-1 by Happel's troops in front of 53,000 spectators in San Siro, Milan, with a goal in the 117th minute by Ove Kindvall .

After his victory in the championship cup , the Viennese also won the world cup with the Rotterdamers. In the final Estudiantes de La Plata were defeated - 2-2 in Buenos Aires and 1-0 in the Netherlands. Ernst Happel trained Feijenoord for two more years, was among other things champion and never placed below the second rank. In 1973 he said goodbye to the Netherlands for the time being and devoted himself to new tasks. Ernst Happel himself said: “We have seen so much, I have to stop. With too many wins, the discipline declines. We become very friends. You suffer and cry, you laugh and win together. And that shouldn't take too long. "

New challenges in Belgium

For the 1973/74 season Ernst Happel went to Spain to the second division Sevilla FC who should finish the season in ninth.

From the beginning of the 1974/75 season he then devoted himself to the Belgian club Club Bruges , from which he was able to form one of the best teams in the world. He coached the club for three seasons, won championships just as often and made it to the European Cup finals twice. The first championship title of Bruges in 1976 was clearly won before RSC Anderlecht .

Via Olympique Lyon , Ipswich Town , AS Roma , AC Milan and Hamburger SV , Happel's new team also made it to the UEFA Cup final in his first year as coach. Bruges, however, had to admit defeat to Liverpool 4: 3. After the double in 1977, Club Bruges again reached for the European Cup in 1978. This time Ernst Happel and his team made it to the final of the European Champion Clubs' Cup. In London's Wembley Stadium , Happel saw his team again face off against Liverpool in front of 92,000 spectators. This time, too, the British were able to win just 1-0 at Wembley Stadium. For the 1978/79 season, the great talent Jan Ceulemans joined the club where Ernst Happel now officiated as vice world champion. The start of the season went very badly. The team settled in midfield and also in the national championship cup came this time in the first round through Wisła Kraków from Poland. At the end of November that year, Ernst Happel and Club Bruges parted ways after Happel initially terminated its contract with effect from the end of the season. Under his Hungarian successor, András Béres , Club Bruges should no longer be sanded off and was sixth at the end of the season. Such a successful time as under Ernst Happel should never come again.

World championship final with the Netherlands

May 1978: trainer in orange

The Dutch association signed Happel as a new bond coach in August 1977 in order to qualify for the 1978 World Cup in Argentina and then lead the Elftal through the tournament. He should carry out the office in parallel to his obligations at Club Bruges. In the qualifying games in October 1977 against Northern Ireland and against Belgium, however, Jan Zwartkruis had to represent him, as he was indispensable for the Northern Ireland game and the Belgian association warned of a conflict of interest during the game against Belgium. The Netherlands finished first in the qualification group, to which Iceland also belonged, with only one point loss.

In the preliminary round of the tournament in Argentina , Happel with the Oranje Elftal could only narrowly prevail - the better goal difference compared to the Scots , who had defeated the Dutch 3-2, was the decisive factor for promotion to the second round as second in the group behind Peru. The Netherlands also beat Iran 3-0.

In the second round, Ernst Happel and his team met Germany , Italy and Austria . To the chagrin of many Austrian fans, the Viennese managed to prevail with the Dutch national team and shot Austria out of the competition. In the final of the 1978 World Cup, Happels team faced host Argentina . Shortly before the end of the game, it was 1-1 when the Dutchman Rob Rensenbrink hit the post instead of the empty goal. Argentina won 3-1 in extra time - Mario Kempes was the man of the game , who later let his career in the Austrian Bundesliga end. Ernst Happel was "only" vice world champion. In his homeland he was still called “Wödmasta” - a title that Josef Blum gave him . After being made to wait a while at the reception by Queen Juliana in the Netherlands, however, he became a little impatient and said to little Prince Willem Alexander: “When will Grandma finally come? Tell her I have little time, I have to go to the casino in Velden ! "

From Belgium to Hamburger SV

As early as February 1978, Hamburger SV tried to sign Happel as a new coach for the 1978/79 season. However, this was refused by the German Football Association due to a lack of a German coaching license . "We have to protect the coaches who have acquired a license from us," said the German association, so that Branko Zebec was signed as the successor to the coach Rudi Gutendorf and Arkoc Özcan , who were unsuccessful with a tenth place in the table in 1977/78 . The DFB was only to change its attitude to foreign coaching licenses in 1980 in connection with the commitment of the Dutch star coach Rinus Michels by 1. FC Köln . In the same phase, Happel also had talks with Real Madrid , which were obviously unsuccessful.

After leaving Bruges, Happel initially took a long vacation in Velden am Wörthersee before, at the instigation of his friend, politician and carpet magnate Pierre Lano, at the beginning of 1979 he took over the then Dutch second division team KRC Harelbeke , with whom he finished eleventh. After this brief interlude, Standard Liège signed him in the summer of 1979, where he only stayed for two seasons. In Belgium he was able to win the Belgian Cup again in 1981 - Liège won the final 4-0 over Lokeren.

Happels path then led to Germany in the summer of 1981, where he finally became a coach at Hamburger SV as the successor to Zebec, who was dismissed due to alcohol problems and the interim solution Aleksandar Ristić - in the meantime, the DFB had one in 1980 after the commitment of Rinus Michels by 1. FC Cologne Set precedent for foreign coaching licenses, which HSV manager Günter Netzer built on when Happels signed up. In his first season in the Hanseatic city, he was able to build on his successes and lead the team to the championship title. He also reached the UEFA Cup final. In the first final, however, Happels eleven lost 1-0 to Sweden from IFK Göteborg away. The goal came just before the end of the game by Tord Holmgren . The second leg in Hamburg was lost 3-0.

In February, the Austrian association tried to win Happel as a coach for the 1982 World Cup in Spain, similar to the arrangement at the time between Club Bruges and the Netherlands. However, this failed due to the veto by the DFB.

In his second season Ernst Happel was able to repeat his triumph with the red pants in the German championship and again reached for the European Cup. The final of the European Cup against the favorites Juventus Turin around Michel Platini and Zbigniew Boniek ended in front of 75,000 spectators in the Athens Olympic Stadium with a goal by Felix Magath with 1-0 for HSV - the greatest success in the history of the club to this day. The game for the World Cup was lost to Gremio Porto Alegre . Happel stayed in Germany until 1987 and celebrated winning the DFB Cup last year before returning to his homeland. During this time he also came into contact with the German national team when he provided technical support to Franz Beckenbauer when he started his position as team manager .

Return to the Homeland

In 1987 Happel returned to Austria as coach of FC Swarovski Tirol . Happel mainly did endurance and strength training three times a day. However, it paid off, the team won the championship title in 1989 and 1990 and the cup in 1989. Already in late 1981 the then ÖFB president had Karl Sekanina had however intended that Happel to succeed the dismissed summarily on 14 November 1981 Karl Stotz the new team manager of the Austrian national team are and thus should serve the qualified for the World Championships 1982 Spain team. The initially widespread confidence that Happel would be able to take over the office (Happel himself seemed to be of the opinion that he could come to terms with his current club, Hamburger SV), was soon stopped: Happel would have apparently dated according to the FIFA regulations HSV have to be officially dismissed. In response to the team boss question, assistant coach Georg Schmidt had initially announced that he was "not a team boss himself, but was preparing to hand over the farm" and the Carinthian governor Leopold Wagner , who was the well-known Klagenfurt trainer Gerdi , also asked to speak Springer brought into the discussion. Happel had arrived in Vienna on December 18, 1981 - and an agreement initially seemed to have been reached, a few procedural questions still had to be clarified. Happel had not seen any problems in the dual role as HSV and ÖFB coach, had wanted to integrate "old greats" like Robert Körner into his supervisory staff. At the beginning of January, however, the news came that Happel could not be available as an interim coach for the ÖFB until May 29, the end of the German Bundesliga season at the earliest . What had been thwarted ten years earlier was ready at the beginning of 1992: Happel took over the national coaching position, but after only eleven months he died of lung cancer . In the game against Germany four days after his death (0-0 on November 18 in the Franken-Stadion in Nuremberg , where assistant coach Dietmar Constantini had been assigned with the temporary care of the Austrian team), his cap was during the 90 minutes in the dugout.

Personality and honors

Grave of Ernst Happel in the Hernals cemetery

Ernst Happel's parents were innkeepers in Vienna, but, as he himself said, he lived for football all his life. His last title as Austrian champion in 1990 followed almost half a century after his first championship in 1946. In the course of this career he managed to make a lasting mark on Austrian football history. No other footballer from the Alpine republic can boast a comparable collection of titles.

His great popularity in Austria is not only nourished by his successes, in particular his character and his “sayings” play a large part in it. As a defender, he embodied the Viennese football style with insult par excellence. His “duels” with Walter Zeman - the two were linked by a lifelong friendship - are still fondly told to this day. Own goals, which he occasionally scored on purpose, he acknowledged with well-known sayings such as “Be glad I didn't wipe my head, otherwise you would have died” or “Heast, Bohemian, I would have shot out with my cap. skin". As a trainer, he was noticed by his somewhat idiosyncratic approach to the media: “Take it easy in the snow!” It was said in summer, “Take it in coke!” In winter. His statements about individual players ("When you want to talk, you have to be a vacuum cleaner representative, I only need footballers" - as Tyrol coach to Hansi Müller, who asked for a conversation) and footballers in general are well known in Austria to this day.

Ernst Happel received the newly created football Oscar on February 27, 1989 and in 1990 was honored by Federal Chancellor Franz Vranitzky with the Silver Medal for Services to the Republic of Austria.After his death, Austria's largest and most important stadium, the Prater stadium in Vienna, was in The Ernst Happel Stadium was renamed and a street in Rotterdam was named after him in 1997. He also won the election of Austria's coach of the century. But the player Happel also received great honors: As an active player, he was appointed to the world selection in 1953, and the IFFHS selected him as one of the 100 most important players of the 20th century.

In private, Happel is described by his bereaved relatives as a loving family man. Known as Grantler, the private person Happel had a completely different face. Narrated by his son Ernst Happel jr. The following event: During a visit with his grandchildren to Hagenbeck's zoo in Hamburg, Happel was recognized by a school class of around 30, children aged 10 to 11, and asked for autographs. Attempts by the teacher to call the students to order failed. Instead, Happel said to the teacher that he should let the children go. Then he gave each of the children an autograph.

Ernst Happel rests in an honorary grave in the Hernalser Friedhof (group 1, number 238) in Vienna .



  • Participation in the soccer world championship 1954 : 3rd place
  • Participation in the 1958 World Cup : group stage (the best 16)
  • 51 international matches and 5 goals for the Austrian national soccer team from 1948 to 1954 and from 1957 to 1958

Section Head

  • 1 × Austrian champion: 1960
  • 1 × Austrian Cup winner: 1961
  • 1 × European Cup semifinals: 1961


  • 1 × World Cup finalist: 1983 (Hamburger SV)
  • 3 × European Cup finalists: 1976 (UEFA Cup), 1978 (National Champions Cup), 1982 (UEFA Cup)
  • 3 × Dutch runner-up: 1970, 1972, 1973
  • 1 × Belgian runner-up: 1980
  • 2 × German runner-up: 1984, 1987
  • 1 × Austrian runner-up: 1991
  • 3 × Dutch Cup finalists: 1963, 1964, 1966
  • 1 × Austrian Cup finalist: 1988
  • 2 × Austrian Supercup finalist: 1989, 1990


Happel was the first coach to win the UEFA Champions League or the European Cup with two different clubs.

Record as national coach

National team Term of office SP S. U N
Dutch national soccer team Logo.svg Netherlands August 31, 1977 - June 24, 1978 12 8th 2 2
Logo ÖFB.svg Austria January 1, 1992 - November 14, 1992 (†) 09 2 3 4th

ÖFB international matches under team boss Ernst Happel


  • H = home game
  • A = away game
  • green background color = victory of Austria
  • yellow background color = tie
  • red background color = defeat
Games Victories draw Defeats Gates TD
9 2 3 4th 18:17 +1
No. date Result opponent venue occasion comment
533 03/25/1992 1: 2 HungaryHungary Hungary A. Budapest ( HUN ) First international match under Ernst Happel
534 04/14/1992 4-0 Lithuania 1989Lithuania Lithuania H Vienna First international match against Lithuania
535 04/29/1992 1: 1 WalesFlag of Wales (1959 – present) .svg Wales H Vienna
536 05/19/1992 2: 4 PolandPoland Poland H Salzburg
537 05/27/1992 2: 3 NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands A. Sittard ( NED )
538 08/19/1992 2: 2 CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia Czechoslovakia A. Bratislava ( TCH )
539 09/02/1992 1: 1 PortugalPortugal Portugal H Linz
540 10/14/1992 0: 2 FranceFrance France A. Paris ( FRA ) 1994 World Cup qualification
541 10/28/1992 5: 2 IsraelIsrael Israel H Vienna 1994 World Cup qualification Last international match under Ernst Happel

See also


Web links

Commons : Ernst Happel  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Clemens Zavarsky: Happel: Where the eternal grumble was cuddly . Kronen Zeitung , Vienna, November 12, 2007.
  2. ^ Eddy at the audition in Innsbruck. In: Arbeiter-Zeitung. June 9, 1954, p. 8. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
  3. «Happel leaves ADO The Hague» . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna March 15, 1969, p. 10 ( - the open online archive - digitized). Columns 3 and 4, below.
  4. Zebec is the favorite. Hamburger Abendblatt , March 23, 1978.
  5. Tobias Escher: From Libero to Double Six: A Tactical History of German Football. ISBN 978-3-499-63138-2 , p. 186.
  6. "Will Happel be released?" In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna December 3, 1981, p. 9 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  7. «“ I'm not a team boss ”» . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna December 17, 1981, p. 11 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  8. ^ "Curiosity: Wagner for Gerdi Springer" . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna December 18, 1981, p. 8 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  9. «From E to S everything is open» . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna December 19, 1981, p. 8 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  10. «With the“ World Champion ”to the World Cup» . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna December 21, 1981, p. 9 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  11. «Happel sets up“ spy network ”» . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna December 23, 1981, p. 10 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  12. «Not before May 29» . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna January 5, 1982, p. 11 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  13. ^ A b Reinhard Krennhuber: Grumpy magician. ( Memento from February 10, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) At: May 8, 2008, accessed August 23, 2016.
  14. Middle: "Football Oscar for Happel" . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna February 28, 1989, p. 22 ( - the open online archive - digitized version).
  15. Copy of the decision of June 10, 1997 ( memento of August 4, 2012 in the web archive ) in the Rotterdam administrative archive , accessed on May 29, 2011.
  16. ^ NDR documentation Ernst Happel.
  17. The grave of Ernst Happel.