European Football Championship
|European Football Championship|
|Full name||UEFA European Football Championship|
Round-robin tournament (6 groups) knockout system (from round of 16)
|Title holder||Portugal (1st title)|
Germany Spain (3 titles each)
|Record player||Cristiano Ronaldo (21 games)|
Michel Platini Cristiano Ronaldo (9 goals each)
The UEFA European Football Championship ( Engl. : UEFA European Football Championship ), short- EM, is every four years by the European football association UEFA organized football tournament to determine the continental champion at national level. The first two tournaments in 1960 and 1964 were still held under the name of the European Cup of Nations . In 1966, UEFA officially declared the competition the European Football Championship. The European Cup of National Football Teams was the forerunner of the European Cup of Nations . The European champions qualify for the FIFA Confederations Cup .
As early as 1911, the Union Internationale Amateure de Football Association (UIAFA), which briefly competed with FIFA, hosted a European championship in Roubaix. The tournament was won by Bohemia, which was excluded from FIFA for political reasons . Other participants were France and the English amateurs.
The Socialist Workers 'Sport International organized a European Workers' Football Championship from 1932 to 1934, which was played in groups with home and away games. Due to the seizure of power by the National Socialists in Germany and the Austrofascists in Austria, which led to the break-up of the two largest national workers' sports associations, the competition could only be partially completed. A second European or Western European championship in workers' football that was planned afterwards did not materialize.
The idea of a European championship within the framework of FIFA was proposed by Henri Delaunay , the general secretary of the French football association Fédération Française de Football , as early as 1927 and initially implemented in the European Cup for national football teams . There was also a suggestion from the English federation in early 1950 that (in addition to the world championships that only take place every four years) the previous Mitropacup as the only major international European competition had expired.
Shortly after the founding of UEFA, a follow-up tournament called the European Cup of Nations was launched. This tournament was declared a European Football Championship by UEFA in 1966. The qualification for the first European Cup of Nations in France began in 1958. In honor of Delaunay, the winner's cup of the tournament is still called the Henri Delaunay Cup .
The details of the process have been changed several times over the years and adapted for a larger number of participants. Whereas in 1960 four games were enough for the Soviet Union to win the European Cup, a total of up to 18 games are now necessary - except for the organizers.
The reigning European champion has to re-qualify for the following tournament, which Spain 1968, Italy 1972 and France 1988 failed. Up to and including 1992 it was more difficult to qualify for the European Championship than for the World Championship due to the lower number of participants at the time.
The winner of the European Football Championship has been qualified for the next FIFA Confederations Cup since 1992 .
The European soccer championship originally planned for 2020 was postponed on March 17, 2020 by UEFA to summer 2021 in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic .
Set of rules
The competition is divided into a preliminary qualification and a final tournament in the host country. From 1960 to 1976 four national teams took part in the final round, which determined the European champion via semi-finals and finals. From 1980 eight teams took part, which were drawn in two preliminary round groups. In 1980 the group winners determined the European champions, from 1984 semi-finals of the two best teams in each group were interposed. From 1996 16 teams took part in the finals of a European Championship, which had previously been successful in the European Championship qualifying round. They were drawn into four groups with four teams each. The first two teams from each group made it to the quarter-finals.
From the 2016 European Championship, 24 teams will compete in the first round in six groups. Each team plays three games because within a group each team plays each other once. The second round is the newly created round of 16, for which the four best group thirds qualify in addition to the group first and second from each group (12 teams). From the second round, the true knock-out system , the loser of each game is eliminated. A small final for third place between the losers in the semi-finals was held for the last time in 1980.
In March 2014, UEFA decided to introduce the UEFA Nations League . After the 2018 World Cup in Russia, almost all of the national team's friendly matches will be played in the Nations League. Between September and November 2018, three to four teams will compete against each other in four divisions A – D, each with four sub-groups. In 2019, the four division winners will play in a "Final Four tournament" for the title of Nations League Champion. In addition, promotion and relegation within the Nations League is played. For the 2020 European Championship, 20 teams will qualify directly via the conventional European Championship qualification, four unqualified teams will have a chance to participate in the play-offs in March 2020 via the Nations League, so that per division another nation in the European Football Championship 2021 can participate.
Variants of the knockout system
Until 1968 there was a drawing of lots in the semi-finals in the event of a tie after extra time (used once in 1968 when Italy had a lucky draw against the Soviet Union), and final games were repeated in the event of a tie after extra time. In 1976, the penalty shootout was introduced, which had to be used immediately in the final of the same year. In 1996 and 2000 the golden goal rule applied, which also decided the final games. In 2004, the silver goal rule applied, which was only applied once, in the semi-finals between Greece and the Czech Republic, and was immediately abolished after the tournament. Since 2008, games in the finals have again been decided with guaranteed two extra times of 15 minutes and, if necessary, a subsequent penalty shoot-out.
So far (as of EM 2016) there has always been at least one national soccer team that has participated in a European soccer championship final for the first time. Below is a list of the 30 first-time participants, each with the flags and names valid at the time. In addition, six countries are listed in brackets that for the first time only took part in a European Championship under a new name. Even so, these countries are sometimes cited as newcomers in the media. However, these “newcomers” completely adopted the results and titles of their predecessors in UEFA's statistics - and accordingly their debut date. A special case are the Czech Republic and Slovakia, both of which are considered to be the successors of Czechoslovakia at UEFA and both of which took over their titles. This is why UEFA counts 26 countries (more precisely " associations ") in its statistics that have already participated in a European Championship finals at least once. A total of 55 national football associations are represented in UEFA.
- Teams in bold won the tournament when they first entered a final tournament.
- Teams in italics were the hosts when they first took part in a final tournament, but until 1976 the host was not determined until they had successfully qualified.
|year||First time participant|
|1992||( CIS )||Sweden||Scotland|
|1996||Bulgaria||Croatia||( Russia )||Turkey||Switzerland||( Czech Republic )|
|2000||( Federal Republic of Yugoslavia )||Norway||Slovenia|
|2016||Albania||Iceland||Northern Ireland||( Slovakia )||Wales|
- Serbia is rated by UEFA as the successor to the following “three countries”: 1.) Yugoslavia (debut 1960), 2.) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or the rest of Yugoslavia (“debut” 2000 under the name of Yugoslavia ) and 3.) Serbia and Montenegro (name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from February 2003) (unsuccessful “debut” in qualifying in 2004 under the name of Serbia and Montenegro ). The results of all these teams will be allocated to Serbia in UEFA statistics. The year 1960 is considered Serbia's debut. Serbia has been performing under its own name since 2006, but has not yet qualified for an EM.
- Russia is considered by FIFA to be the successor to the Soviet Union (debut 1960). The results of the Soviet Union go into Russia's statistics. The year 1960 is considered Russia's debut at a European Championship. In 1992 the team was named CIS . Russia first appeared under its own name at a European Championship in 1996.
- Both the Czech Republic (“debut” under this name in 1996) and Slovakia are both considered by UEFA to be the successors of Czechoslovakia (debut in 1960). As a result, the results for Czechoslovakia are attributed to both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Therefore, the year 1960 is considered to be the debut at an EM for both countries.
- 1968 the Federal Republic of Germany took part in the preliminary rounds of the European Championship for the first time, but failed in qualifying. After German reunification, the national football associations were also united and, from 1992 onwards, ran again under the name “Germany” at UEFA.
- Croatia was part of Yugoslavia until 1991 and Croatian players took part in the Yugoslav team in the tournaments in 1960, 1976 and 1984. The successes of the Yugoslav team were initially attributed to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , then Serbia and Montenegro and now Serbia. Croatia took part in qualifying for the European Championship in 1996 for the first time.
- Slovenia was part of Yugoslavia until 1991, in 1976 and 1984 Slovenian players took part in the European Championship for Yugoslavia. After the break-up of Yugoslavia, Slovenia first took part in qualifying for the European Championship in 1996.
- After leaving the Soviet Union, Latvia took part in qualifying for the European Championship in 1996 for the first time. Since Latvian football did not play a major role in the Soviet Union, no Latvian players were used in the national football team of the USSR.
- As part of the USSR and the CIS, Ukraine took part in the tournaments from 1960 to 1992. In the 1960s winning team there was a Ukrainian and a player playing in Ukraine. In the teams of the runner-up European champions in 1972 and 1988, many players came from and / or played in the Ukraine. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union into several independent states, Ukraine took part in qualifying for the European Championship in 1996 for the first time, but was only able to qualify as host in 2012 and 2016. In 1996 there were two Ukrainian-born players in the Russian team that was eliminated in the preliminary round. The last goal for the CIS was scored by a Ukrainian player in 1992.
The tournaments at a glance
|rank||country||title||Year (s)||2nd place||final||Semifinals|
|1||Germany||3||1972, 1980, 1996||3||6th||9|
|2||Spain||3||1964, 2008, 2012||1||4th||4th|
Soviet Union Russia
Czechoslovakia Czech Republic
Players still active in the national team are shown in bold.
|1||Iker Casillas||5 (3)||2000 , 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|2||Gianluigi Buffon||4 (4)||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Alessandro Del Piero||1996, 2000, 2004, 2008|
|Petr Čech||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Jaroslav Plašil||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Tomáš Rosický||2000, 2004, 2012, 2016|
|Zlatan Ibrahimović||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Andreas Isaksson||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Kim Källström||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Olof Mellberg||2000, 2004, 2008, 2012|
|Lothar Matthäus||1980, 1984, 1988, 2000|
|Lukas Podolski||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Bastian Schweinsteiger||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Cristiano Ronaldo||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Peter Schmeichel||1988, 1992, 1996, 2000|
|Darijo Srna||2004, 2008, 2012, 2016|
|Lilian Thuram||1996, 2000, 2004, 2008|
|Edwin van der Sar||1996, 2000, 2004, 2008|
|19th||Aron Winter||4 (3)||1988 , 1992, 1996, 2000|
|20th||Igor Akinfeev||4 (2)||2004 , 2008, 2012 , 2016|
Years in italics denote the tournaments with no stakes.
|1||Cristiano Ronaldo||21st||2004 (6), 2008 (3), 2012 (5), 2016 (7)|
|2||Bastian Schweinsteiger||18th||2004 (3), 2008 (5), 2012 (5), 2016 (5)|
|3||Gianluigi Buffon||17th||2004 (3), 2008 (4), 2012 (6), 2016 (4)|
|4th||Cesc Fàbregas||16||2008 (6), 2012 (6), 2016 (4)|
|Andrés Iniesta||2008 (6), 2012 (6), 2016 (4)|
|Lilian Thuram||1996 (5), 2000 (5), 2004 (4), 2008 (2)|
|Edwin van der Sar||1996 (4), 2000 (4), 2004 (5), 2008 (3)|
|8th||João Moutinho||15th||2008 (4), 2012 (5), 2016 (6)|
|Nani||2008 (3), 2012 (5), 2016 (7)|
|Pepe||2008 (4), 2012 (5), 2016 (6)|
|Sergio Ramos||2008 (5), 2012 (6), 2016 (4)|
|David Silva||2008 (5), 2012 (6), 2016 (4)|
|1||Michel Platini||9||1984 (9)|
|Cristiano Ronaldo||2004 (2), 2008 (1), 2012 (3), 2016 (3)|
|3||Alan Shearer||7th||1996 (5), 2000 (2)|
|4th||Nuno Gomes||6th||2000 (4), 2004 (1), 2008 (1)|
|Antoine Griezmann||2016 (6)|
|Thierry Henry||2000 (3), 2004 (2), 2008 (1)|
|Zlatan Ibrahimović||2004 (2), 2008 (2), 2012 (2)|
|Patrick Kluivert||1996 (1), 2000 (5)|
|Ruud van Nistelrooy||2004 (4), 2008 (2)|
|Wayne Rooney||2004 (4), 2012 (1), 2016 (1)|
Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia
Soviet Union CIS Russia
Czechoslovakia Czech Republic
|Color legend: European champion Vice-European champion third / semifinals|
- VR = out in the preliminary round, AF = out in the round of 16, VF = out in the quarter-finals, HF = out in the semi-finals (no game for 3rd place)
- Tournament organizer
Eternal finals table
Czechoslovakia Czech Republic
Soviet Union CIS Russia
Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia
|28||Northern Ireland||1||4th||1||0||3||2: 3||3||0.75|
Status: July 10, 2016 (after the final of the European Championship 2016)
The ranking is calculated according to the three-point rule . Games that have been decided on penalties will be counted as a tie.
|competition||places||Stages||Messages 2||Teams||Games||⌀||spectator||viewers ⌀||⌀||⌀||⌀|
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- Archived copy ( memento of the original dated December 31, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Christian Koller: Transnationality: Networks, Competitions, Migration, in: ders. And Fabian Brändle (ed.): Football between the wars: Europe 1918–1939 (= history of football, vol. 5). Münster / Vienna: Lit-Verlag 2010. p. 51. limited preview in Google book search
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