Super Lig

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Super Lig
abbreviation SL
Association TFF
First edition February 21, 1959
hierarchy 1st League
Teams 21st
master Istanbul Başakşehir FK
Record champions Galatasaray Istanbul (22)
Record player TurkTurk Oğuz Çetin (503)
Record scorer TurkTurk Hakan Şükür (249)
Current season 2019/20
Qualification for Champions League
Europa League
Turkish Football Cup
Turkish Supercup
TFF 1st Lig (II)

The Süper Lig is the top division in Turkish men's football . It was introduced in 1959 following the decision of the Turkish Football Association .

In the Süper Lig, the league system in which every club competes against every other club in back and forth matches, the Turkish football champions and the participants in the European Cup competitions are played. The last three teams are relegated to the TFF 1st Lig .

Of the now 72 participating clubs, six teams have so far won the championship in the Süper Lig: Galatasaray Istanbul (22 titles), Fenerbahçe Istanbul (19 titles), Beşiktaş Istanbul (15 titles), Trabzonspor (six titles), Bursaspor and Istanbul Başakşehir FK (a title). Istanbul Başakşehir FK was the Turkish champion of the past 2019/20 season .


Period Teams
1959 16
1959 / 60–1961 / 62 20th
1962/63 22nd
1963/64 18th
1964 / 65-1965 / 66 16
1966 / 67–1967 / 68 17th
1968 / 69–1980 / 81 16
1981/82 17th
1982 / 83-1984 / 85 18th
1985 / 86-1986 / 87 19th
1988/89 20th
1989/90 19th
1990 / 91-1993 / 94 16
1994 / 95-2019 / 20 18th
since 2020/21 21st
from 2021/22 20th

During a championship year, which is divided into a round-trip round, all 21 clubs of the Süper Lig meet twice on the basis of a game plan set before the season ; once in your own stadium and once in the opponent's stadium. A Süper Lig season with its (currently) 40 game days usually extends from August to May.

The team that takes first place after this double round of points receives the title of “ Turkish Football Champion ” for one year . The three last-placed teams have to relegate to the TFF 1st Lig , the two first-placed teams in turn go straight to the Süper Lig. In addition, play-off games from the third to sixth of the TFF 1st Lig have been taking place since the 2005/06 season. In addition to the Turkish champions and the relegated teams, the participants in the European club competitions are also determined via the Süper Lig. The UEFA five-year ranking determines which national association is represented with how many clubs in the Champions League and in the UEFA Europa League and at which stage the clubs enter the competitions. Due to the current placement of Turkey in the five-year ranking, the champions of the Süper Lig will take part in the Champions League. The runner-up is entitled to participate in the 3rd qualifying round for the Champions League. The championship third and fourth, like the Turkish football cup winner, are qualified for the Europa League. If both finalists of the Turkish Cup are already qualified for the Champions League or the Europa League via the Süper Lig, the fifth in the table will take part in the Europa League. In addition, other teams can qualify via the fair play rating .

After each game, the winning team receives 3 points (since 1987, previously 2 points) and the defeated team receives 0 points, and in the event of a tie, each team receives 1 point. The points achieved in a season are added up and thus result in a current ranking of the clubs for each game day. In the event of a tie, the overall result from the games decides against each other on the order of placement; if the difference is the same, the number of away goals scored does not count. If two teams are still tied after that, the total goal difference from the season decides. If that is the same, a playoff will be played on a neutral seat. However, this has never been the case in the Süper Lig.

The mode of the Süper Lig was changed from group mode to today's league mode after the first season in 1959 , and has remained almost unchanged since then. Only the number of participating clubs (16 to 22) and the number of relegation places (2 to 4) varied. At times, relegation games were also played to determine who was promoted and relegated. The three-point rule has been in place since the 1987/88 season . Before that, there were two points for a win and one point for a draw. A play-off was introduced in the 2011/12 season , but it was only valid for one season. In the summer of 2020, the Turkish Football Association announced that the 2020/21 season will be played with 21 teams. The 2021/22 season should take place with 20 teams.


Founding year (1959)

season Süper Lig champions
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Fenerbahçe Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Beşiktaş Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Galatasaray Istanbul
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Istanbul Başakşehir FK

Before the first joint football league was founded in Turkey , the teams from Istanbul , Izmir , Ankara , Eskişehir , Adana and Trabzon played for championships in their own regions. After the Turkish national football team took part in the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland , the Turkish Football Association decided on a joint league. In 1957 and 1958, the Association Cup (Federasyon Kupası) was organized first ; the winner of this competition took part in the European Champion's Cup the following season . Beşiktaş finished both seasons as winners. At the 1957-58 European Cup Beşiktaş could not attend because of the Turkish Football Federation, the registration period for the UEFA had missed. These two titles were recognized as championship titles for Beşiktaş in 2002, which also entitle them to championship stars, but not as part of the league founded afterwards.

Sixteen teams qualified for participation in the first professional Turkish football league through their placements in the regional leagues: eight teams from Istanbul and four each from Ankara and Izmir .

The 16 founding members of the Süper Lig were:

The first season of the top Turkish football class Millî Lig (German: National League) was played in two groups, each with eight teams: a red group ( Kırmızı Grup ) and a white group ( Beyaz Grup ). In each group the teams played against each other twice. The winner of a game received two points; if there was a tie there was one point. The first in each group competed in the final for the championship. In the event of a tie, the goal difference decided. If this was also the same, the goal rate was taken into account. This was necessary for the red group: Galatasaray and Vefa had 20 points and a goal difference of +11 at the end of the group stage, which was better for Galatasaray with 2.57 than with Vefa with 2.10. In the white group, Fenerbahçe made it into the final with an eight point lead over Beşiktaş.

The final took place in two legs. Galatasaray won the first leg 1-0 with a goal from Metin Oktay in the 39th minute of the game. However, Fenerbahçe decided the second leg clearly 4-0 for themselves and became the first official Turkish football champion. Both games took place in the Mithatpaşa Stadium (now İnönü Stadı ). The first top scorer was Metin Oktay from Galatasaray. At the end of the season, no team was relegated.

The three greats (1960–1975)

The first 16 years of the Süper Lig was dominated by Beşiktaş , Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray . That is why they are called the Three Greats in Turkey . In these 16 years, Beşiktaş was three times, Fenerbahçe eight times and Galatasaray six times Turkish football champions. Until the 1965/66 season , the first three places were made alternately among these three clubs. In 1966, Gençlerbirliği Ankara managed to end this habit with 3rd place. Three years later, Eskişehirspor became the first Anatolian club to be runner-up. In the 1969/70 season Eskişehirspor repeated this success and was again runner-up behind Fenerbahçe. Galatasaray and Beşiktaş were far behind in eighth and ninth.

In the 1960/61 season , an evening game was played for the first time in the history of the league: the game between Gençlerbirliği Ankara and Adana Demirspor on September 13, 1960. Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadyumu was Turkey's first floodlit stadium . With Adana Demirspor came a club from the amateur league, which did not come from the founding cities of the league (Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir). The championship in the 1961/62 season decided Galatasaray for itself.

In the following season 1962/63 with Galatasaray for the first time a master could defend his title. In addition, the winter transfer period and player loan were introduced in the same season. For the 1963/64 season , the league was renamed Türkiye 1. Ligi (German: 1. Turkish League). During the season Karşıyaka SK was suspected of match fixing. Some Kasımpaşa football players were offered money to manipulate the game and the game ended 4-0 for Karşıyaka. The association punished both clubs with forced relegation. Kasımpaşa was already bottom of the table and Karşıyaka SK fourteenth. Karşıyaka SK was the last relegated instead of Beykozspor . Karşıyaka SK appealed against the decision of the Association of Forced Relegation. Two years later, the Danıştay (State Council of the Republic of Turkey) decided that Karşıyaka was not to blame and that it was allowed to participate in the first division again in the 1966/67 season .

On May 1, 1966, Beşiktaş against Fenerbahçe was the first time a game was broadcast live on Turkish radio. The Istanbul Technical University broadcast the game, with commentary from Halit Kıvanç . One season later, the first division clubs were allowed to sign a maximum of two foreign players. Foreign referees were also appointed until the 1970/71 season.

Metin Oktay set a current record during this period. He was six times top scorer in the Süper Lig and held the title as the league's record scorer for a long time.

Fenerbahçe versus Trabzonspor (1976–1985)

It took 17 years for the first non- Istanbul club to become Turkish football champions. Trabzonspor was in his second year ( 1975/76 season ) the Süper Lig champions before Fenerbahçe . This ended the dominance of the Istanbul clubs for the time being. This title was not the last for the Black Sea team . In the following season you could defend the title, again in front of Fenerbahçe. The yellow-blue were able to prevent a title hat trick Trabzonspors in the 1977/78 season . Despite a 1-0 defeat against Trabzonspor on the last matchday, one point was enough for the ninth championship. In the same season, the clubs were allowed to present sponsors on their jerseys for the first time.

Trabzonspor ( 1978/79 , 1979/80 , 1980/81 ) caught up on the previously missed title hat trick . This made them the second club after Galatasaray ( 1970/71 , 1971/72 , 1972/73 ) that had made it. Before the 1978/79 season, the teams were forbidden to hire or employ foreign coaches. Therefore, Fenerbahçe had to part with the Yugoslav master coach Tomislav Kaloperović , which was a major setback for the team. This ban was lifted from the 1980/81 season. From 1979 to 1981 no foreign players were allowed to play for the clubs. Another regulation was added: the winner of the Turkish soccer cup did not have to relegate as a first division team, a second division as a cup winner could automatically advance to the first division. MKE Ankaragücü won the Turkish Cup as a second division team and thus secured promotion for the 1981/82 season .

Beşiktaş became champions in June 1982, Fenerbahçe in 1983 and Trabzonspor was runner-up in both seasons. At the end of the 1983/84 season Trabzonspor was champion for the sixth time. As a result of these successes, the three big ones became the four big ones (Turkish: dört büyükler). Fenerbahçe won the championship in 1984/85 despite being tied with Beşiktaş thanks to a better goal difference.

In 1984 Tarik Hodžić (Galatasaray) became the first foreign player to be the top scorer in the Süper Lig.

The three big ones again among themselves (1986–1996)

Beşiktaş experienced his most successful time in the Süper Lig from 1985 to 1995. The Black Eagles were five times champions and five times runners-up in the following ten seasons. In the 1985/86 season they won the 5th championship title before Galatasaray . For Galatasaray this season did not end with the championship title despite no defeat. Galatasaray coach at the time was Jupp Derwall . The surprises of this season were Samsunspor with 3rd place and Sarıyer GK 4th place . Striker Tanju Çolak played a major role in the success of Samsunspor . With 33 goals this season, he was the second player after Metin Oktay to score over 30 goals within one season. In 1987 Galatasaray won the Turkish championship again after 14 years with one point ahead of Beşiktaş. The special regulation for the winner of the Turkish Cup has been abolished this season. In the same season there was an allegation of match fixing in the game between Zonguldakspor and Bursaspor . Since this could not be proven, both clubs were allowed to stay in the first division after a judgment of the administrative court and were therefore not subject to forced relegation.

The 3-point rule was introduced in the 1987/88 season . Galatasaray signed the best Turkish striker at the time, Tanju Çolak from Samsunspor, which should pay off for the Lions . Çolak scored 39 goals this season and holds the only record for the highest number of goals in a season. He also received the Golden Shoe for this achievement . As in the previous year, Beşiktaş was again runner-up. Malatyaspor surprised the league with 3rd place at the end of the season. In addition, with 1,032 goals, most were scored within a season in league history.

Fenerbahçe did not play a major role during the duel between Galatasaray and Beşiktaş. Before the 1988/89 season they reacted and signed from Sakaryaspor Aykut Kocaman and Oğuz Çetin and from Rizespor Hasan Vezir . All three of them, as well as Rıdvan Dilmen , who had been signed up a year earlier, had an outstanding performance in their first year together and were rewarded with the championship title. 73 of the 103 goals were scored by the four named players, and for the first and so far only time a team broke the "100-goal mark". Beşiktaş managed to become runner-up for the third time in a row. The season was overshadowed by a tragedy. On January 22nd, the Samsunspor team bus collided with a truck on the way to the away game against Malatyaspor . The trainer of Samsunspor Nuri Asan , as well as the players Mete Adanır , Muzaffer Badalıoğlu and Zoran Tomic lost their lives. Many players had to retire from their careers due to the injuries they sustained. After a joint decision by all clubs, Samsunspor was released from play for the second half of the season. The club's games were rated 3-0 for the opposing team. Samsunspor was allowed to participate in the first division again in the 1989/90 season .

After three years as runner-up, Beşiktaş won the 1989/90 season; Success was made possible by the players Feyyaz Uçar (28 goals), Metin Tekin (13 goals) and Ali giltiken (15 goals). The trio has been called Metin-Ali-Feyyaz by their fans and the media . This trio confirmed this name impressively in the league game against Adana Demirspor on October 15, 1989. The game ended 10-0 after 90 minutes, Metin and Feyyaz each scored three times, Ali even four times. In the two seasons 1990/91 and 1991/92 Beşiktaş was again champion. The game Galatasaray against Boluspor was the first time a game was broadcast live by a private broadcaster on August 25, 1990. The 1991/92 season ended Beşiktaş without defeat.

The fourth championship title of Beşiktaş in a row prevented Galatasaray in 1993 . On the last day of the match, Karl-Heinz Feldkamp's team beat MKE Ankaragücü 8-0 and thus decided the championship. The goals were scored by Falko Götz and Torsten Gütschow , among others . Galatasaray defended the title, trained by Reiner Hollmann . Overall it was the 10th championship and Galatasaray was joint record champions with arch-rivals Fenerbahçe. Tanju Çolak scored his 218th goal in the Süper Lig on September 15, 1992 and became the top scorer in league history.

Beşiktaş brought in Christoph Daum in February 1994 . A year later he won the championship with his team as the third German coach. Trabzonspor was runner-up and achieved its best season result since the championship 1983/84. In the next 1995/96 season , Daum reached 3rd place with Beşiktaş and resigned as a coach. Fenerbahçe won the championship again after seven years. The coach was Carlos Alberto Parreira , who had become world champion with Brazil a year earlier .

Galatasaray (1997-2000)

Before the 1996/97 season , Galatasaray signed Fatih Terim as a new coach. Before joining Galatasaray, Terim had taken part in a European football championship for the first time with Turkey . In addition, the club management managed to sign Gheorghe Hagi . The reigning champion Fenerbahçe signed Jay-Jay Okocha from Eintracht Frankfurt , among others . Galatasaray won the championship with eight points ahead of Beşiktaş. Hagi and Hakan Şükür had a large share in this success with 52 goals scored together this season. In the following three seasons Galatasaray was able to defend the championship title. Thus, the club won the championship four times in a row, this was not achieved by any other club in the Süper Lig.

On May 17, 2000, Galatasaray became the first Turkish team to win the UEFA Cup . There was also the UEFA Super Cup against Real Madrid .

Fenerbahçe ended the red-yellow dominance (2001-2009)

Before the beginning of the 2000/01 season , Fatih Terim left Galatasaray and henceforth coached Fiorentina , Hakan Şükür also went to Italy for Inter Milan . Mircea Lucescu was signed as the successor for Terim and Mário Jardel came to replace Şükür . Arch-rivals Fenerbahçe also renewed their squad and brought in a new coach. Mustafa Denizli became head coach; Prior to his engagement, he had been the coach of the Turkish national team and had reached the quarter-finals of the 2000 European Football Championship . The battle for the championship lasted until matchday 34 and Fenerbahçe became champions with three points ahead of Galatasaray. It was the 14th championship title for the yellow-dark blues and at the same time ended the series of titles from Galatasaray. The following season ended with almost the same scenario, only this time Galatasaray became champions with 3 points ahead of Fenerbahçe. During the season, Fenerbahçe dismissed Denizli on December 24, 2001 and hired Werner Lorant in early January . Galatasaray separated from Lucescu despite winning the championship and brought Fatih Terim back as coach, while Lucescu moved to city rivals Beşiktaş . Under Lucescu, success at Beşiktaş returned after eight years with the championship title of the 2002/03 season. The decision was made on the penultimate matchday in a direct duel between Beşiktaş and Galatasaray, with the only goal of the game in the final minutes by Sergen Yalçın in front of the home crowd.

For the 2003/04 season , Christoph Daum returned to the Bosporus for the third time . After two terms with Beşiktaş (1994–1996 & 2001–2002) he now trained Fenerbahçe. He and his team were Turkish champions both this season and the following season. Trabzonspor was runner-up in both seasons. The 2005/06 season played Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray among themselves. On matchday 31, Fenerbahçe won 4-0 against Galatasaray and became leaders. Up to the 34th matchday, both teams were tied. Fenerbahçe were the better team in direct comparison, so Galatasaray had to hope for a point loss. On the last day of the match, Galatasaray won 3-0 at their own home stadium against Kayserispor and at the same time watched Fenerbahçes' away game against Denizlispor . The game in Denizli ended with 1: 1 and Galatasaray became champions. Daum resigned after this season. His successor was Zico . He was champion in his first season before Beşiktaş.

In June 2007 Karl-Heinz Feldkamp returned from Galatasaray as a coach. 14 years ago he became a master with the lions . This time it was again successful for his team, but he surprisingly announced his retirement as coach five game days before the end of the season. Despite his resignation, Gala became champions for the 17th time at the end of the season. Hakan Şükür scored his 241st goal in the Süper Lig against Manisaspor on September 2, 2007 and became the most successful goalscorer. There were a total of 249 goals at the end of the season and he ended his career. Fenerbahçe signed Roberto Carlos that season and reached the quarter-finals of the UEFA Champions League . Beşiktaş was champion of the 2008/09 season with Mustafa Denizli as coach. He managed to become the first coach with Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray to become champions. Denizli came to the black and whites only on the 7th matchday as the successor to Ertuğrul Sağlam . Sivasspor , this season's runners-up, had a chance of winning the league title until the last day of the match, but lost 2-1 to Galatasaray, while Beşiktaş won their game against Denizlispor 2-1.

Bursaspor and the bribery scandal (2010-2011)

The race for the championship of the 2009/10 season ran between Fenerbahçe and Bursaspor . Christoph Daum trained the yellow-blue team for the second time this season . Fenerbahçe started the final matchday with one point ahead of Bursaspor. Fenerbahçe played against Trabzonspor and Bursaspor against Beşiktaş , both in their home stadium. Bursaspor defeated the reigning champions 2-1. Fenerbahçe, on the other hand, played 1-1 and the chaos began shortly before the end of the game. The announcer announced during stoppage time that the game between Bursaspor and Beşiktaş had ended in a draw. After the final whistle, the Fenerbahçe fans celebrated the supposed championship on the field. The announcer answered again and corrected his false announcement and announced that Bursaspor had become Turkish champions. There were riots on the part of Fenerbahçe fans. Bursaspor celebrated its first championship won. The Championship 2010/11 won Fenerbahçe against Trabzonspor. Aykut Kocaman became a football champion as a player and as a coach with Fenerbahçe, but no one before that. In July 2011 a bribery scandal rocked the Süper Lig. 80 players and officials were arrested. The start of the 2011/12 season has been postponed.

Galatasaray back on top (2012-2015)

Galatasaray became champions of the 2011/12 season . The "yellow-reds" were able to develop a lead of 9 points over 34 games, which was reduced to 5 in the play-off. On the last day of the (one-off) play-offs, coach Fatih Terim's team won the 18th championship in a direct duel for the title against Fenerbahçe with a goalless draw at Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadı . Trabzonspor was third and Beşiktaş fourth. For Galatasaray it was the first championship in four years. With this title Fatih Terim became the record champion as a coach.

The 2012/13 season ended like the previous one, Galatasaray became champions (with a point advantage of 10 points) ahead of Fenerbahçe. They managed to lead the table without interruption from the 3rd to the last matchday.

The following year Fenerbahçe became champions, but were not allowed to take part in the Champions League due to the European cup suspension, which was taken over by their arch-rivals from the other side of the Bosporus.

The next season was chosen by Fenerbahce and Galatasaray as a "duel for the fourth star ", as they both had 19 titles. Beşiktaş was able to play a role in the championship race until matchday 29, but lost the championship lead to eventual champions Galatasaray. This made the yellow and red jersey the first Turkish one with four stars above the club logo.

The black eagles are back (2015-2017)

After seven unsuccessful years, Beşiktaş was able to secure the long-awaited 14th championship in the 2015/16 season . The black eagles were able to repeat this in the 2016/17 season and thus defend their title. The 15th championship gave Beşiktaş the third star in their coat of arms. Istanbul Başakşehir FK was runner-up for the first time .


Since the Süper Lig was founded in 1959, a total of 72 clubs have played in the top Turkish league, with Gazişehir Gaziantep FK being the youngest newcomer in the 2019/20 season . Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray have been part of the league for all of their 62 uninterrupted seasons. This is followed by Bursaspor and MKE Ankaragücü with 50 seasons.

Most of the teams in the Süper Lig came from Istanbul (16). It is followed by Ankara (9) and Izmir (6).

  • since 1959 up to and including 2020/21
  • Teams in bold will play in the 2020/21 season
Clubs of the Süper Lig, since 1959
Clubs from Istanbul , since 1959

Participants of the 2020/21 season

team city founding In the league since Last season Stadion capacity
Alanyaspor Alanya 1948 2016 05. Bahçeşehir Okulları Stadyumu 10.128
Antalyaspor Antalya 1966 2015 09. Antalya Stadyumu 32,537
Beşiktaş Istanbul Istanbul 1903 1959 03. Vodafone Park 41,188
BB Erzurumspor Erzurum 2005 2020 2. 1 Kâzım Karabekir Stadyumu 21,374
Çaykur Rizespor Rize 1953 2018 14th Çaykur Didi Stadı 15,332
Denizlispor Denizli 1966 2019 14th Denizli Ataturk Stadı 18,745
Fatih Karagümrük SK Istanbul 1926 2020 5. 2 Vefa Stadyumu 4,444
Fenerbahçe Istanbul Istanbul 1907 1959 07th Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadı 47,834
Galatasaray Istanbul Istanbul 1905 1959 06th Türk Telekom Stadyumu 52.223
Gaziantep FK Gaziantep 1988 2019 8th. Gaziantep Arena 33.502
Gençlerbirliği Ankara Ankara 1923 2019 13. Eryaman Stadyumu 17,156
Goztepe Izmir Izmir 1925 2017 11. Gürsel Aksel Stadyumu 19,713
Hatayspor Antakya 1967 2020 1. 1 Antakya Ataturk Stadı 5,583
Istanbul Başakşehir FK Istanbul 1990 2014 01. Başakşehir Fatih Terim Stadı 17,156
Kasımpaşa Istanbul Istanbul 1921 2012 10. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan Stadı 13,856
Kayserispor Kayseri 1966 2015 17th Kayseri Kadir Has Stadı 32,864
Konyaspor Konya 1981 2013 12. Konya Büyükşehir Stadı 42,000
MKE Ankaragücü Ankara 1910 2018 18th Eryaman Stadyumu 17,156
Sivasspor Sivas 1967 2017 04 .. Yeni 4 Eylül Stadyumu 27,532
Trabzonspor Trabzon 1967 1974 02. Medical Park Stadyumu 40,782
Yeni Malatyaspor Malatya 1986 2017 16. Yeni Malatya Stadyumu 25,745
1 Placement in the TFF 1st Lig
2 Promotion via play-off victory of the TFF 1st Lig
Clubs of the Süper Lig 2020/21
1 Ankara: Gençlerbirliği, MKE Ankaragücü
2 Istanbul: Başakşehir FK, Beşiktaş, Fatih Karagümrük, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray, Kasımpaşa

The promoted and relegated

Record climbers in the Süper Lig
society Ascents in the years
1. Samsunspor 7th 1969, 1976, 1982, 1985, 1991, 1993, 2011
2. Antalyaspor 6th 1982, 1986, 1994, 2006, 2008, 2015
Mersin İdman Yurdu 1967, 1976, 1980, 1982, 2011, 2014
Kayserispor 1973, 1979, 1985, 1992, 1997, 2015
Çaykur Rizespor 1979, 1985, 2000, 2003, 2013, 2018
6th Adanaspor 5 1971, 1988, 1998, 2002, 2016
Diyarbakırspor 1977, 1981, 1986, 2001, 2009
Sakaryaspor 1981, 1987, 1998, 2004, 2006
Goztepe Izmir 1978, 1981, 1999, 2001, 2017
Record relegation to the Süper Lig
society Descents in the years
1. Samsunspor 7th 1975, 1979, 1983, 1990, 1992, 2006, 2012
2. Karşıyaka SK 6th 1964, 1967, 1972, 1991, 1994, 1996
Kayserispor 1975, 1980, 1986, 1996, 1998, 2014
Mersin İdman Yurdu 1974, 1978, 1981, 1983, 2013, 2016
5. Adana Demirspor 5 1961, 1984, 1990, 1992, 1995
Diyarbakırspor 1980, 1982, 1987, 2006, 2010
Goztepe Izmir 1977, 1980, 1982, 2000, 2003
Antalyaspor 1985, 1987, 2002, 2007, 2014
Sakaryaspor 1986, 1990, 1999, 2005, 2007
Çaykur Rizespor 1981, 1989, 2002, 2008, 2017
Adanaspor 1984, 1991, 2001, 2004, 2017

Championship titles and championship stars

The first place in the Süper Lig at the end of the season is Turkish football champions . In addition, if a club has won five Süper Lig championships or more, they can wear one, from ten a second, from 15 a third and from 20 championships a fourth master star over the club's crest.

In the 61 seasons of the Süper Lig so far, a total of six different clubs have won the championship title, four of which come from Istanbul. The most successful club since 2012 has been Galatasaray Istanbul with 22 championships. Fenerbahçe, on the other hand, leads the all-time table of the Süper Lig .

rank society Süper Lig championships Master stars
1. Galatasaray Istanbul 22nd 4th
2. Fenerbahçe Istanbul 19th 3
3. Beşiktaş Istanbul 15th 3
4th Trabzonspor 6th 1
5. Bursaspor 1 -
Istanbul Başakşehir FK 1 -


The 1st Turkish Football League has been broadcast on pay TV since 1996 . From 1996 to 2000 the games of Beşiktaş Istanbul, Fenerbahçe Istanbul, Galatasaray Istanbul and Trabzonspor were broadcast on Cine5 . During the 2000/01 season, the Teleon broadcaster owned the broadcasting rights for the live games.

Since the 2001/02 season, the pay-TV provider Digiturk has been responsible for live reporting on the Süper Lig. The games will be broadcast live under the channel name Lig TV . However, only the games of Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Trabzonspor were broadcast. On January 14, 2010, Digiturk extended the cooperation with the league for the next four seasons (2010/11, 2011/12, 2012/13 & 2013/14) plus an option for another season.

Since the 2010/11 season, US $ 321 million has been distributed to the clubs. In addition, all nine games of each match day will be broadcast live for the first time in the Süper Lig. On November 21, 2016, there was a bidding process for the next five years. Digiturk retains broadcast rights for $ 590 million per season. In addition to Digiturk, Türk Telekom , Turkcell , Vodafone and D-Smart were involved in the bidding process.

After taking over the beIN Media Group in July 2015, Lig TV was renamed BeIN Sports on January 13, 2017 .


Name sponsor

Telsim (1999)

In June 1999, the telecommunications company Telsim acquired the naming rights of the top division for the next two seasons, then under the name Türkiye 1. Ligi, for 9.25 million US dollars . The league should be renamed Telsim Türkiye 1.Ligi or Türkiye Telsim Ligi . The Minister of State Fikret Ünlü of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti) , who is responsible for youth and sport, vetoed this decision and later also sued the civil court in Ankara . The court ruled against the name change in July 1999 in order to prevent unwanted advertising and propaganda in connection with the word "Türkiye". As a result, the board of directors and President Haluk Ulusoy of the Turkish Football Association (TFF) decided to rename the league name to Telsim 1. Ligi in the same month . After a decision by the State Cabinet of the Republic of Turkey, the league name was changed back to the old well-known Türkiye 1. Ligi in October 1999 . After that the agreement between the league operator TFF and the name sponsor Telsim ended.

Former logo of the Turkcell Süper Lig

Turkcell (2005-2010)

From the 2005/06 season , the telecommunications company Turkcell owned the naming rights of the top division, which was officially called Turkcell Süper Lig . As in other countries, however, these terms have not yet caught on either in common parlance or in the print media; only television and radio stations use this name more often. The collaboration between the league and the company ended in August 2010.

Spor Toto (2010-2017, 2018-2019)

In August 2010, the sports betting provider Spor Toto secured the naming rights for the Süper Lig and the 3rd and 4th leagues. Spor Toto received the naming rights for the next five years. In return, the Süper Lig is paid 22.5 million US dollars per year.

For the second half of the 2017/18 season, Spor Toto was again a league sponsor.

Ball sponsor

Nike has been the official ball sponsor of the Süper Lig since the 2005/06 season. The following balls were used:

  • 2005/06 season: Nike Total 90 Aerow (red-white) and Nike Total 90 Aerow Hi-Vis (yellow-purple)
  • 2006/07 season: Nike Total 90 Aerow II (blue-white)
  • Season 2007/08: Nike Total 90 Aerow II (blue-white)
  • Season 2008/09: Nike Total 90 Omni (black-white)
  • Season 2009/10: Nike Total 90 Omni (red-white) and Nike Total 90 Omni Hi-Vis (yellow-purple)
  • Season 2010/11: Nike Total 90 Tracer PL
  • Season 2011/12: Nike T90 Seitiro
  • 2012/13 season: Nike Maxim
  • Season 2013/14: Nike Incyte (black-white)

Turkcell fair play rating

The Turkcell Fair Play rating was a rating created by the Turkish Football Association and Turkcell , which recorded all yellow or red cards that a referee shows a team. This rating was evaluated until the last day of the game. The three teams that saw the least warning or other penalty received prize money from league sponsor Turkcell. 1st place in this ranking received $ 500,000, 2nd place $ 300,000 and 3rd place $ 200,000.

With this rating, the association pursued the goal of making football in the Süper Lig more attractive.

Winner of this rating



Record player: Oğuz Çetin
Record scorer: Hakan Şükür
Record player in the Süper Lig
player Period Club 1 Games
01. Oğuz Çetin 1981-2000 Fenerbahçe Istanbul 503
02. Rıza Çalımbay 1980-1996 Beşiktaş Istanbul 494
03. Hakan Şükür 1987-2008 Galatasaray Istanbul 488
04th Hami Mandıralı 1984-2003 Trabzonspor 476
Umut Bulut 2001–0000 Trabzonspor 476
06th Kemal Yıldırım 1976-1995 MKE Ankaragücü 475
07th Mehmet Nas 1997-2014 Samsunspor 447
08th. Recep Çetin 1984-2001 Beşiktaş Istanbul 437
09. Müjdat Yetkiner 1979-1995 Fenerbahçe Istanbul 429
10. Bülent Korkmaz 1988-2005 Galatasaray Istanbul 428
Record scorer of the Süper Lig
player Period Club 1 Gates
01. Hakan Şükür 1988-2008 Galatasaray Istanbul 249 (Ø 0.51)
02. Tanju Çolak 1982-1993 Galatasaray Istanbul 240 (Ø 0.85)
03. Hami Mandıralı 1985-2002 Trabzonspor 219 (Ø 0.46)
04th Metin octay 1959-1969 Galatasaray Istanbul 217 (Ø 0.88)
05. Aykut Kocaman 1984-2000 Fenerbahçe Istanbul 200 (Ø 0.56)
06th Feyyaz Uçar 1981-1997 Beşiktaş Istanbul 191 (Ø 0.51)
07th Serkan Aykut 1993-2009 Samsunspor 188 (Ø 0.56)
08th. Burak Yılmaz 2006–0000 Galatasaray Istanbul 185 (Ø 0.58)
09. Umut Bulut 2001–0000 Trabzonspor 160 (Ø 0.34)
10. Necati Ateş 1997-2015 Galatasaray Istanbul 138 (Ø 0.38)
1 The club for which the player has completed the most Süper Lig appearances is given.
Player with the most championship titles
Bülent Korkmaz , Suat Kaya , Hakan Şükür (8 championships, all Galatasaray Istanbul )
Record player in the Süper Lig
Oğuz Çetin (503 games)
Record scorer of the Süper Lig
Hakan Şükür (249 goals)
Most often top scorer
Metin Octay (6)
The first foreign top scorer
Tarik Hodžić (Galatasaray Istanbul, with 16 goals in the 1983/84 season )
The longest time without a goal for a goalkeeper
Şenol Güneş , 1112 minutes
The fastest goal in the Süper Lig
Darryl Roberts (for Denizlispor , in 11 sec on November 29, 2008 against Eskişehirspor )
The youngest player in the Süper Lig
Fehmi Koç (15 years, 3 months and 26 days in Antalyaspor )
The youngest goalscorer in the Süper Lig
Emre Demir (15 years, 9 months and 25 days, Kayserispor )
Most goals in a game
Tanju Çolak (6, for Fenerbahçe Istanbul on December 6, 1992 in a 7-1 win against Karşıyaka SK )
Most goals in a season
Tanju Çolak (39 goals, 1987/88 season (Galatasaray Istanbul))
The top scorer with the fewest goals
Metin Oktay (11 goals, season 1959 (Galatasaray Istanbul))
Best foreign goalscorer in the Süper Lig
Alex (136 goals)
Most goals scored by a foreign player in one season
Mbaye Diagne (30 goals, in the 2018/19 season for Kasımpaşa Istanbul and Galatasaray Istanbul)


Coach with the most championship titles
Fatih Terim (8 championship titles, all with Galatasaray Istanbul )
The longest tenure of a foreign coach
Kemal Omeragić , 13 years old (six years for Altay İzmir , five for Bursaspor and two for Adana Demirspor )
The longest term of office of a foreign coach for a club
Gordon Milne , 6½ years with Beşiktaş Istanbul
Winning the championship as a player and as a coach
Ertuğrul Sağlam (1995 / Beşiktaş Istanbul - 2010 / Bursaspor),
Aykut Kocaman (1989, 1996 / Fenerbahçe Istanbul - 2011 / Fenerbahçe Istanbul),
Hamza Hamzaoğlu (1993, 1994 / Galatasaray Istanbul - 2015 / Galatasaray Istanbul) ,,
Şenol Güneş (1979 / Trabzonspor - 2016 / Beşiktaş Istanbul) ,,
Okan Buruk (1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2008 / Galatasaray Istanbul - 2020 / Istanbul Başakşehir FK )


The most scoring game
Fenerbahçe Istanbul (8: 4, against Gaziantepspor on May 16, 1992)
Biggest win in a game
Beşiktaş Istanbul (10-0, against Adana Demirspor on October 15, 1989)
Biggest away win
MKE Ankaragücü - Galatasaray Istanbul on May 30, 1993 (0: 8)
Most penalties for a team in a game
Fenerbahçe Istanbul (four penalties, against Eskişehirspor on February 1, 1987. All penalties for Fenerbahçe and each one was taken and converted by Zafer Tüzün (final score: 4: 1)).
Most red cards for a team within a game
Beşiktaş Istanbul (five red cards, on January 25, 2004 against Samsunspor )
The longest time without defeat
Beşiktaş Istanbul, 48 games (from the 26th matchday of the 1990/91 season to the 13th matchday of the 1992/93 season )
Most top scorer from one team
Galatasaray Istanbul, 17 players
Most goals in a season
1,032 in 380 games ( 2000/01 , average 2.72 per game)
The fewest goals in a season
405 in 240 games ( 1973/74 , average 1.69 per game)
Most goals on a matchday
43 goals (8th matchday 1995/96 and 30th matchday 1997/98 )
The fewest goals on a matchday
4 goals (29th matchday 1981/82 )
Most wins in a row
Beşiktaş Istanbul, 13 match days ( 1959/60 from matchday 10 to 22)
Most consecutive defeats
Zeytinburnuspor, 10 match days (1996/97 from 25 to 34 match days)
Most consecutive away wins
Fenerbahce Istanbul, 12 wins ( Süper Lig 2010/11 )
The longest time without victories
Adana Demirspor, 29 match days ( 1994/95 , from 6 to 34 match days)
The longest run without an away defeat
Galatasaray Istanbul, 40 games (1997/98 from Matchday 19 to Matchday 31 of the 1999/2000 season)
Finished the season without defeat
Galatasaray Istanbul ( 1985/86 ), Beşiktaş Istanbul ( 1991/92 ) (Beşiktaş Istanbul won championships that season, Galatasaray failed)
Most wins in a season
Beşiktaş Istanbul ( 1959/60 ) and Fenerbahçe Istanbul ( 1988/89 ), 29 wins
The fewest wins in a season
Diyarbakırspor ( 1981/82 ), Konyaspor ( 1992/93 ), Zeytinburnuspor ( 1996/97 ), Adanaspor ( 2000/01 ), MKE Ankaragücü ( 2011/12 ) (all two wins)
The poorest teams
Samsunspor ( 1971/72 ) and Beşiktaş Istanbul ( 1972/73 ), each with 14 goals
The fewest goals conceded
Fenerbahçe Istanbul, 6 goals conceded, ( 1969/70 )
Most goals conceded
Adanaspor, 91 goals conceded, ( 2000/01 )
Most tied games
MKE Ankaragücü , 18 draws ( 1982/83 )
The best goal difference
Fenerbahçe Istanbul, +76 ( 1988/89 )
Worst goal difference
Zeytinburnuspor , −60 ( 1996/97 )
Won all home games in one season
Fenerbahçe Istanbul, ( 2000/01 ), Galatasaray Istanbul ( 2001/02 )
Highest score in a season
Fenerbahçe Istanbul (with 3-point rule): 93, ( 1988/89 )
Lowest score in a season
Zeytinburnuspor (with 3-point rule): 11, ( 1996/97 )

Championship records

The record champion
Galatasaray Istanbul (22 titles)
The record runner-up
Fenerbahçe Istanbul (22)
The greatest point advantage a master has
Galatasaray Istanbul with 12 points ahead of Beşiktaş Istanbul , ( 1987/88 )
Most defeated champions
Trabzonspor ( 1980/81 ), 7
Champion with the fewest defeats
Beşiktaş Istanbul ( 1991/92 ), 0
Master with the fewest goals
Trabzonspor ( 1979/80 ), 25
Champion with most goals conceded
Galatasaray Istanbul ( 1997/98 ), 43
Champion with the fewest goals conceded
Fenerbahçe Istanbul ( 1969/70 ), 6
Masters with the fewest points
Trabzonspor ( 1979/80 , 1980/81 ), 39 (two-point rule), Galatasaray Istanbul ( 2018/19 ), 69 (three-point rule)


Highest audience
Beşiktaş Istanbul against Galatasaray Istanbul 76,127 spectators in the Ataturk Olympic Stadium in the 2013/14 season
Most of the season tickets sold
Galatasaray Istanbul, 47,200 tickets (2012/13)
Most of the teams in a city
Istanbul , 17 teams
Transfer records
rank player donating club receiving club Transfer fee (in million ) year
1 TurkeyTurkey Cenk Tosun Besiktas JK.svg Beşiktaş Istanbul Coats of arms of None.svg Everton FC 22 + 2 (bonus payment) 2018
2 Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina Elvir Baljić Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu.svg Fenerbahçe Istanbul Real Madrid Logo.svg real Madrid 21.0 1999
3 SpainSpain Daniel Güiza Rcd mallorca.svg RCD Mallorca Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu.svg Fenerbahçe Istanbul 17.4 2008
4th BrazilBrazil Mario Jardel FC Porto.svg FC Porto Galatasaray Sports Club Logo.svg Galatasaray Istanbul 16.8 2000
5 TurkeyTurkey Yusuf Yazıcı Trabzonspor.svg Trabzonspor Coats of arms of None.svg Lille OSC 16.5 + 1 (bonus payment) 2019
6th North MacedoniaNorth Macedonia Eljif Elmas Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu.svg Fenerbahçe Istanbul SSC Napoli.svg SSC Naples 16 + 3 (bonus payment) 2019
7th SenegalSenegal Moussa Sow Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu.svg Fenerbahçe Istanbul Coats of arms of None.svg Al-Ahli Club Dubai 16 2015
7th SenegalSenegal Papa Alioune Ndiaye Galatasaray 4 stars Logo.svg Galatasaray Istanbul Stoke City.svg Stoke City 16 2018
9 NigeriaNigeria Jay-Jay Okocha Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu.svg Fenerbahçe Istanbul Paris SG Logo.svg Paris Saint-Germain 15.4 1998
10 NigeriaNigeria Emmanuel Emenike Spartak Moscow.svg Spartak Moscow Fenerbahce Spor Kulubu.svg Fenerbahçe Istanbul 13 2013
9 SenegalSenegal Demba Ba Besiktas JK.svg Beşiktaş Istanbul Shanghai Greenland Shenhua logo.png Shanghai Shenhua 13 2015

UEFA five-year ranking

Placement in the UEFA five-year ranking ( previous year's ranking in brackets ). The abbreviations CL and EL after the country coefficients indicate the number of representatives in the 2019/20 season of the Champions League and the Europa League .

  • 08. +1( 9 ) Belgium ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 39,900 - CL: 2, EL: 30BelgiumBelgium 
  • 09. −1( 8 ) Ukraine ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 38,900 - CL: 2, EL: 30UkraineUkraine 
  • 10. ± 0( 10 ) Turkey ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 34,600 - CL: 2, EL: 3TurkeyTurkey 
  • 11. +3( 14 ) Netherlands ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 32,433 - CL: 2, EL: 3NetherlandsNetherlands 
  • 12. −1( 11 ) Austria ( league , cup ) - coefficient: 31,250 - CL: 2, EL: 3AustriaAustria 

Status: end of the European Cup season 2018/19

See also


  • Tobias Schächter: Süperlig - The untold story of Turkish football . 1st edition. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-462-03992-4 , pp. 185 .

Web links

Commons : Süper Lig  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Beşiktaş Istanbul won the Federasyon Kupası (Federation Cup) in 1957 and 1958. Both titles were subsequently recognized as championship titles for the club in 2002, but not as league titles.
  2. Bakan Kasapoğlu, Başkan Özdemir ve Mehmet Sepil, açıklamalarda bulundu , accessed on August 3, 2020.
  3. ^ TFF: All Süper Lig champions since 1957
  4. Federation Cup 56/57
  5. Galatasaray 1-0 Fenerbahce (June 10, 1959)
  6. Fenerbahce - Galatasaray 4-0 (June 14, 1959)
  7. The first evening game of the Süper Lig
  8. Karsiyaka - Kasimpasa: Match manipulation
  9. 1963-1964 1st Lig (English)
  10. 1963/64 season
  11. Besiktas - Fenerbahce: First TV broadcast of a Süper Lig game
  12. 1986/87 season
  13. Besiktas - Adana Demirspor 10: 0
  14. MKE Ankaragücü - Galatasaray 0: 8
  15. Fenerbahce - Bakirköyspor 4: 2
  16. Coach carousel: Lorant and Fenerbahce agree (from January 2, 2001)
  17. TFF .org: Match statistics: Beşiktaş 1-0 Galatasaray from May 25, 2003 (accessed on May 22, 2014)
  18. Feldkamp leaves Galatasaray. Berliner Morgenpost , April 6, 2008, archived from the original on December 14, 2013 .;
  19. Fenerbahce sinks into chaos (from May 17, 2010)
  20. star: Initially no penalties in the Turkish fraud scandal  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  21. n-tv: The Süper Lig is paralyzed (from July 22, 2011)
  22. Osmanlıspor FK played under the name Ankaraspor in the Süper Lig before 2014
  23. as Hacettepe GK
  24. as Adalet SK
  25. TFF Süper Lig ve TFF 1st Lig Medya Hakları İhalesi yapıldı
  26. TFF, Kulüpler Birliği ve Digitürk toplantısı gerçekleşti
  27. "Süper Lig: Digitürk acquires TV rights" (accessed on November 21, 2016)
  28. a b c d Hürriyet (archive): Nereye kadar para? dated July 25, 1999 (accessed May 23, 2014)
  29. a b c d Hürriyet (archive): Ligin yeni adı 'Telsim 1. Ligi' from July 30, 1999 (accessed on May 23, 2014)
  30. a b c Hürriyet (archive): Bakan Ünlü gürledi of October 7, 1999 (accessed on May 23, 2014)
  31. a b c Hürriyet (archive): 3 Bomba karar from October 16, 1999 (accessed on May 23, 2014)
  32. Hürriyet (archive): Ulusoy'a 250 milyarlık dava from October 23, 1999 (accessed on May 23, 2014)
  33. Süper Lig'in isim sponsoru Spor Toto oldu
  34. Dev anlasma imzalandi ( Memento from August 15, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  35. Süper Lig ve TFF 1. Lig'in isim sponsoru Spor Toto , from February 1, 2018.
  36. 2012-2013 sezonunda Nike Maxim kullanılacak
  37. a b Süper Lig… - Tarihçe → Oyuncular → or for record goal scorers the symbol: football (click) in the database of (Turkish). Retrieved May 3, 2020.
  38. Youngest players used , accessed on December 25, 2018.
  39. Match report MKE Ankaragücü - Galatasaray Istanbul
  40. Olimpiyatta rekor (accessed on September 22, 2013)
  41. Vatan: Galatasaray rekor kırdı! (accessed on May 4, 2013)
  42. Bildirim: Cenk Tosun from January 6, 2018.
  43. LaLiga .com: What became of… Elvir Balic -… in the summer of 1999 under the guise of Lorenzo Sanz and John Toshack as a star, and at the time was Real Madrid's most expensive ever signing at 3,500,000,000 pesetas,… (English) from May 25, 2015
  44. Currency Converter , accessed March 24, 2019
  45. : Vicente Grande Mallorca kulübüne başkanlık ettiği dönemde 2008 yılında Guiza'yı Fenerbahçe'ye 17 milyon 400 am avro ya satarak büyük bir başarı elde etmişti ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) from November 12, 2013 .
  46. Portuguese Securities Market Commission: Futebol Clube de Porto - Futbol, ​​SAD Announces Mário Jardel's release clause is $ 16 million (.PDF) - (Portuguese) dated June 30, 2000.
  47. Portuguese Securities Market Commission: Futebol Clube de Porto - Futbol, ​​SAD announces the transfer agreement with the Turkish club Galatasaray of the player Mário Jardel, based on the release clause (.PDF) - (Portuguese) of July 4, 2000.
  48. Transfer Görüşmelerin Sonuçlanması veya Sona Ermesi - Özet Bilgi: Yusuf Yazıcı'nın transferi hakkında (Turkish) from August 6, 2019.
  49. Transfer Görüşmelerinin Sonuçlanması veya Sona Ermesi - Özet Bilgi: Eljif Elmasın İtalyan kulübü SSC Napoliye transferi konusunda anlaşma sağlanmıştır (Turkish) from July 23, 2019.
  50. Bildirim: Moussa Sow from August 31, 2015.
  51. Bildirim: Papa Alioune Ndiaye from January 31, 2018.
  52. : Jay-Jay Okocha, former Bundesliga professional (Eintracht Frankfurt) and Nigerian national player, moves to the French first division club Paris St. Germain on July 28, 1998 for a transfer fee of the equivalent of 30 million marks .
  53. Hürriyet Daily News : Fenerbahce sells Okocha to PSG - ... Turkish club Fenerbahce said it had sold Nigerian international Jay Jay Okocha to French side Paris St Germain for $ 17 million ... ( Memento from June 22, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) from July 30, 1998.
  54. Bildirim: Emmanuel Emenike from August 7, 2013.
  55. Bildirim: Demba Ba from June 30, 2015.
  56. UEFA rankings for club competitions. In: UEFA. Retrieved July 14, 2019 .