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In many specialist areas, the budget [ byˈd ineː ] is a balance sheet-like comparison of income and expenditure or costs and income , other values or the funds available to an economic entity for a specific purpose .


Private households , companies , other associations of persons and the state with its public administration as well as public or municipal companies come into consideration as economic entities with budgets . For these economic agents, budgets have different meanings and fulfill different functions. What they all have in common is the goal-oriented and future- oriented orientation of the budget.

Word origin

The loan word budget comes from the "travel sack" ( French bouge ), whose French diminutive "satchel" ( French bougette ) denoted a leather sack or a leather bag used for money . This word "bougette", which comes from Old French , was used in Middle English from 1432 as a budget ([ ˈbʌdʒĩt ]), initially also for a small leather bag. After that, it used the English language for leather wallets in which state records were kept. Since 1733 it is in England as a breakdown of the expected revenues and expenditures for the next year ( English statement of the probable revenue and expenditure for the year Following occupied). The Chancellor of the Exchequer presented his budget to the people, he "opened the budget", as it is called in the English language ( English open the budget ). Then it appeared in 1798 in the government of William Pitt the Younger as a technical term in business and parliamentary language, meaning “budget” or “financial resources of a city or a country”. With the budget for the year 1806 ( French Budget de l'an 1806 ) through the Finance Act ( French Loi sur les finances an XIV ) of April 1806 and a volume of initially 770 million francs, the government under Napoleon Bonaparte officially introduced the term for the first time . After the budget had become the official expression in France in 1806 , the French pronunciation replaced the older English. Since then, the grammatical gender has been determined by the ending "-et".

The word budget appeared for the first time in Germany in August von Kotzebue's carnival skewer “Pachter Feldkümmel von Tippelskirchen” from 1811: “Ey! Concerning secret issues that are not mentioned in the budget ”. In his book "Teutschland und die Revolution", Joseph Görres first mentioned the financial budget in 1819. Goethe used budget and budget ([ eˈta ]) 1830 as synonyms. For Friedrich Julius Stahl , in 1837 “the spirit of the newer estates in the area of ​​the state budget was evident in the institution of the budget”. Today, budget and budget are older nomenclatures for an issue that is described by the term budget.


The term budget, which occurs in many specialist areas, has different content depending on the specialist area:

A state budget is cyclical if it alone neither increases nor decreases the degree of utilization of potential production . The private budget contains the vacation budget as a subgroup . In Germany, spending on main holidays is expected to increase from 2148 euros (2016) to 2313 euros (2017), with the largest budget of 2369 euros (2016) and 2,631 euros (2017) being allocated to 50-59 year olds.

Budget goals

Establishing a budget outside the public sector is part of financial planning . In the public sector, the budget goals are recorded as budget principles in the Budgetary Principles Act (HGrG), whereby the principle of economy and efficiency in drawing up and executing the budget must be observed ( Section 6 HGrG). Outside the public sector, the top budget targets are set as a master plan by the company management ; the other hierarchical levels concretise these step-by-step in more detailed budget sub- plans . The budget makes the future earnings situation transparent by comparing expected costs and revenues and the future liquidity risk by comparing planned expenditure and income . It serves as an internal target for all economic subjects and thus as an upper limit for certain types of expenditure or costs that must not be exceeded. Budgeted revenues or earnings are a lower limit for sales and marketing and a target for future market development . Budget deviations (budget overrun, budget shortfall) must be explained to the budget officer.


Low cost airlines ( english low budget carrier ) are airlines that air travel offer cheaper than conventional airlines. A low-budget film or a no-budget film are accordingly film productions that only have a low budget. The backpacking is in professional circles as low-budget tourism called. In Budget Rent a Car is a car rental company . In the examples in this section, budget is pronounced in English ( ˈbʌdʒ.ɪt ).

Web links

Wiktionary: Budget  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Ursula Hermann, Knaurs etymologisches Lexikon , 1983, p. 83
  2. Walther Busse von Colbe / Nils Crasselt / Bernhard Pellens (eds.), Lexikon des Accounting , 2011, p. 160
  3. Peter F. Ganz, The Influence of English on German Vocabulary 1640-1815 , 1957, p. 49
  4. Hans Schulz / Otto Basler, German Foreign Dictionary , Volume 3, 1997, p. 526
  5. ^ Adolphe Thiers, Geschichte des Consulats und des Kaiserreichs , 1849, p. 371
  6. Hans Schulz / Otto Basler, German Foreign Dictionary , Volume 3, 1997, p. 526
  7. ^ Goethe's works, Zur Morphologie, WA II 7 , 1830, p. 205
  8. ^ Friedrich Julius Stahl, Christliche Rechts- und Staatslehre , 1837, p. 173
  9. Kurt Heinig , Das Budget: Die Budgetkontrolle , Volume 1, 1949, p. 14
  10. Expert Council for the Assessment of Overall Economic Development , Annual Report 1969 , Item 113
  11. Statista, The Statistics Portal of March 10, 2017, The vacation budget is increasing
  12. Julia Künkele, The design of budget control , 2005, p. 10