For the transparency of cost and performance accounting , it is necessary to know not only the amount and course of the costs, but also the type of costs. The breakdown into individual cost types is important for cost type accounting , the first of three levels of cost and performance accounting. The second level examines the costs according to what they were incurred for ( cost unit accounting ), while the third level asks where the costs were incurred ( cost center accounting). A certain cost type is the set of all costs for which a certain characteristic is equally pronounced. When creating cost types, the principles of complete recording, needs-based subdivision, avoidance of superfluous classification criteria, subdivision according to their further charging and the identification of imputed types of costs must be observed.
Classification criteria of the types of costs
Depending on the underlying criterion, there are 4 categories into which the types of costs can be divided:
- A distinction is made according to the type of production factors used
- According to the functional area there is
- A distinction is made according to the type of settlement on the products
- According to the behavior of the costs in the event of fluctuations in employment there are
If one examines the production factors used in the production process, then cost types can be divided into the four main criteria mentioned. A further refinement (e.g. the cost of capital in equity and debt capital costs ) brings more transparency to cost type accounting. When choosing classification criteria for the scope and depth of the breakdown of the types of costs, however, the principle of economic efficiency must be observed. The additional information obtained through a finer breakdown must be in a reasonable proportion to the administrative costs that it triggers.
For legal reasons, certain detailed structures are required. For example, certain types of costs according to German Commercial Code ( HGB) may not be taken into account in production costs, while others can be capitalized . In order to be able to identify these types of costs, every company needs appropriate transparency in accounting .Paragraphs 2 and 3 of the
|Cost type||Section 255 HGB||§ 203 UGB||IAS 2|
|Special direct costs of production||mandatory||mandatory||mandatory|
|Material overheads , provided there are no idle costs||mandatory||Suffrage||mandatory|
|Production overheads , provided there are no idle costs||mandatory||Suffrage||mandatory|
|voluntary social costs, expenses for social institutions, expenses for company pension schemes (production-related)||Suffrage||Suffrage||mandatory|
|voluntary social costs, expenses for social institutions, expenses for company pension schemes (not production-related)||Suffrage||Suffrage||Prohibition|
|General administrative costs attributable to production||Suffrage||Prohibition||mandatory|
|General administration costs that are not allocated to production||Suffrage||Prohibition||Prohibition|
|Interest on borrowed capital that was taken out for the production of the asset (qualified asset)||Suffrage||Suffrage||mandatory|
|Commitment interest for borrowed capital||Prohibition||Prohibition||Prohibition|
|Sales tax insofar as the company is entitled to deduct input tax||Prohibition||Prohibition||Prohibition|
In(2) of the German Commercial Code (HGB), it is also required that the cost of materials is divided into at least the cost of raw materials and supplies and the cost of goods and services , and the cost of personnel in wages and salaries and social security contributions and expenses for Pension plan and break down for support . The depreciation is to be subdivided into intangible assets of the fixed assets and tangible assets and assets of the current assets, as far as these exceed the depreciation usual in the corporation .
Cost element plan
The cost type plan contains all the cost types incurred. The costs are divided according to the above criteria. As part of the internal accounting , the structure and level of structure of the cost type plan is only required by law in the above exceptional cases, otherwise it is largely left to the company .
One example of a cost type plan is DIN 276 for the building industry. This DIN divides the total construction costs of buildings into seven types of costs or numerical cost groups from one to seven. A distinction is made between the costs of land, preparation and development, building construction, building services, outdoor facilities, facilities and ancillary construction costs.
Chart of accounts
In order to be able to record the finely structured cost types in operational accounting and cost accounting , the chart of accounts must provide a corresponding structure. Then, for example, when assigning credit interest incurred, the expense account “Interest expense for loans taken out” can be addressed directly.
- Ossadnik, Wolfgang: cost and performance accounting, Springer Berlin Heidelberg; Edition: 1 (September 22, 2008), pp. 54–117.
- Johann Steger, Cost and Performance Accounting , 2010, p. 142
- Lothar Hans, Fundamentals of Cost Accounting , 2001, p. 70
- IAS 23.8; Coenenberg, et al. a .; Annual accounts and annual accounts analysis, 2012, page 109; IDW statement on accounting: Individual questions on accounting for borrowing costs in accordance with IAS 23 (IDW RS HFA 37), No. 2
- IDW statement on accounting: Capitalization of production costs (IDW RS HFA 31), No. 22
- IDW statement on accounting: Capitalization of production costs (IDW RS HFA 31), No. 26