Expenses and income are not the same as withdrawals and deposits . The former change the stock of financial assets, the latter the stock of cash. Income and expenses are also not identical to the income and expenses of the profit and loss account . In cameralistics , the term "output" is known with a different meaning that does not coincide with the commercial meaning.
An expense in the business sense reduces the net financial assets of a company . Expenses are made up of payments , the disposal of short-term receivables (including securities ) and the addition of short-term liabilities . The terms income and expenditure belong to the level of financial assets (it considers stock sizes ).
Delimitation of issue / payment
Expenditures and payments only coincide if a transaction changes both the cash position and the financial assets of an economic entity. Thus, the business transaction of a cash purchase leads to both a reduction in cash on hand and a reduction in financial assets.
Zahlungsmittelbestand (-) + Forderungen (0) - Verbindlichkeiten (0) = Geldvermögen (-)
Payments and expenses, on the other hand, do not coincide when credit transactions take place. If the purchase of goods is made with a payment term , this supplier credit increases the creditors (liabilities) and leads to a reduction in financial assets, but leaves the cash balance unchanged. There is then an expense, but no payout. However, the payment will only be made when the goods purchased on target ("on account") have been paid for. The payment of the invoice reduces both the cash balance and the liabilities and thus leaves the financial assets unchanged: payment, but no expenditure.
Zahlungsmittelbestand (0) + Forderungen (0) - Verbindlichkeiten (+) = Geldvermögen (-)
Expenditure-free disbursements reduce the cash balance and liabilities or increase the receivables. Unpaid expenses do not affect the cash balance and only change the financial assets.
Delimitation of expenditure / effort
Expenditure and expense are identical if the cash outflow is offset by an expense item in the income statement . For example, wages / salaries ( personnel costs ) to employees by cash from the cash paid expenses and expenses match. Expenses and expenses are not identical if, for example, depreciation is made on fixed assets due to wear and tear ; it faces no expense.
In terms of budgetary law, expenditure and income in cameralistics correspond to the payments or payments in business administration; they are the basic control parameters in cameralistic public budgets . Expenditures ( government expenditures ) are the cash benefits to be provided by budget-managing bodies that are expected to become cash-effective in the budget year. Expenses include personnel costs , capital expenditures , social assistance , material expenses, or interest and repayment payments . Corresponding regulations apply to federal states and their subdivisions according to the respective municipal budget regulations.
In cameralistics, a distinction must be made between target and actual expenditure and income, depending on whether the budget or the final budget is drawn up. According to Section 11, Paragraph 2 of the Federal Budget Code, the budget must contain all expected income and all expenses to be expected in the financial year. Expenditures are to be assessed according to their purpose, income according to the reason for their origin (Section 17 Paragraph 1 BHO), exceptionally earmarked income and related expenses are to be identified (Section 17 Paragraph 3 BHO).
In the context of the budget, the concept of expenditure has the effect of a commitment authorization, i.e. the power through which the budget legislator authorizes the administration to enter into an obligation to make a payment in the current financial year and to fulfill this obligation by paying out funds (cf. 3 Paragraph 1, Section 34 Paragraph 2 of the Federal Budget Code - BHO as well as the budget regulations of the federal states with the same content). In their entirety, the target revenues in the budget are used to cover the spending authorizations budgeted there (Art. 110 (1) sentence 1 GG, § 2 sentence 1, § 8 BHO / LHO).
Due date and cash effectiveness
Income and expenditure must be due and effective in the financial year (due date principle; see budgetary principles ). In cameralistics, the budgeting and posting of income and expenses are not based on the economic allocation, but on the due date principle (§§ 7, 42 GemHVO). Cash-effective means that expenses have flowed through payment. An expenditure is cash-effective if it is due by the end of the budget year (December 31). Payment transactions that have an immediate effect on cash are to be estimated and booked immediately (Section 7 Paragraphs 1 and 3 GemHVO). Expenditures have the character of expenditure authorizations for the relevant budget year, expenditure that becomes cash effective later is assessed as a commitment authorization.
Only in the case of municipal budgets is there a division of income and expenditure into capital- forming and non- capital-forming and this must be taken into account when drawing up the administrative and property budgets. This division does not exist in the state or federal budget.
According to Section 11, Paragraph 2 of the Federal Budget Code, the budget must contain all expected income and all expenses to be expected in the financial year. Expenditures are to be assessed according to their purpose (Section 17 (1) BHO), earmarked income and associated expenses must be labeled (Section 17 (3) BHO). Expenditures are only to be paid if they are necessary for economical and economical administration (§ 34 Abs. 2 BHO).
In tax law
Expenses are to be deducted for the calendar year in which they were made. Regularly recurring expenses that the taxpayer incurred a short time before the beginning or a short time after the end of the calendar year to which they economically belong are deemed to have been spent in this calendar year.
- Sönke Peters (founder), Rolf Brühl, Johannes N. Stelling: Business Administration. Introduction . 12th revised edition. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Munich et al. 2005, ISBN 3-486-57685-2 ( Google Books ).
- Günter Wöhe / Ulrich Döring , Introduction to General Business Management , Munich: Vahlen 1993, p. 1007: “Financial assets are the sum of cash and cash equivalents ( cash in hand and bank balances available at any time ) and other receivables minus the amount of liabilities . Every business transaction that leads to an increase in financial assets is called income; every business transaction that causes a reduction in financial assets is referred to as an expense. "
- Günter Wöhe / Ulrich Döring, Introduction to General Business Administration , Munich: Vahlen 1993, p. 1006: “The sum of cash in hand and bank balances that are available at any time, ie the amount of liquid funds , is referred to as cash and cash equivalents. Every process in which the cash balance increases is a deposit, every process that leads to a decrease in the cash balance is a payout. "
- Peter Janakiew, Unternehmensführung-Accounting-Controlling , 2009, p. 124
- Frank Kalenberg, Kostenrechnung , 2013, p. 6
- Carl-Christian Freidank, cost accounting , 2012, p. 12
- Robert F. Heller, Budgetary Principles for the Federal, State and Local Authorities , 2010, p. 154
- § 11 para. 2 BHO
- § 17 para. 1 BHO