Business transaction

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A business transaction (or business case ) is a transaction in accounting that affects the financial statements or the budget of economic entities.


Organizations ( companies , institutions ) and the state with its corporate bodies ( regional authorities , staff , associations and real bodies ) that are subject to accounting obligations are considered as economic entities . All business transactions have in common that the underlying transactions can be assigned a certain value . As a result, they change the assets or the equity or debt capital of economic subjects. Business transactions therefore affect the balance sheet or budget. The business entities are legally obliged to record all business transactions in their bookkeeping . The principles of completeness and accuracy demand ( economic reality ; material generally accepted accounting principles ) that the transactions are recorded completely and recognized that bookings faked and that all business transactions are posted to the appropriate accounts. Business transactions in accounting in accounting records reshaped and make their way bookings in financial statements down.


Based on the system of account groups in double-entry bookkeeping , business transactions can be divided into inventory-effective and income-effective:

  • The business transaction with an impact on the current situation is not profit or loss. This means that only tangible or monetary values ​​are exchanged for one another, without any value arising or disappearing. An example is the purchase of raw materials, whereby money is exchanged for raw materials of the same value. This increases the company's property, plant and equipment while its financial assets decrease. The net worth remains the same.
  • The business transaction affecting profit or loss causes a change in profit . There are differences between inflowing and outflowing assets, so that the net worth of the company increases or decreases. One example is the sale of goods where the sales value exceeds the purchase value. The difference is effective for the company.

Business transactions affecting the balance sheet result in an asset exchange / liability exchange or a balance sheet extension / balance sheet shortening . Business transactions affecting income , however, lead to a change in the income statement due to higher or lower expenses or income .

Business transactions can be triggered by external transactions from the business relationship with customers (such as the cash sale of goods) and by internal processes such as the writing off of a bad debt or the write-up by increasing the book value .


  • Jörn Littkemann, Michael Holtrup, Klaus Schulte: Bookkeeping: Basics - Exercises - Exam preparation , 4th edition, Gabler 2009, ISBN 978-3834919144
  • Siegfried Schmolke, Manfred Deitermann, et al .: Industrial Accounting IKR. Financial accounting - analysis and criticism of the annual financial statements - cost and performance accounting , 38th edition, Winklers Verlag 2009, ISBN 978-3804566521
  • Günter Wöhe; Heinz Kußmaul: Fundamentals of bookkeeping and accounting technology , 7th edition, Vahlen 2010, ISBN 978-3800636839
  • Michael Griga: Bookkeeping and accounting for dummies: debit or credit, that is the question , 2nd edition, Wiley-VCH Verlag 2010, ISBN 978-3527705542

Individual evidence

  1. Andreas Daum / Wolfgang Greife / Rainer Przywara, Business Administration for Engineering Studies and Practice , 2014, p. 147