Ice hockey goalkeeper
|Ice hockey positions|
Left Wing - Center - Right Wing
|Enforcer - Grinder - Team Captain - Pest - power forward - Rover|
In ice hockey, the goalkeeper (often simply referred to as a goalie or, especially in Great Britain, a netminder ) has the task of fending off the opponent's shots and thus preventing the opposing team from scoring goals. Professional ice hockey is an extremely specialized position that requires both its own training and special equipment.
Area of responsibility and regulations
The main task of the goalkeeper is to ward off the opponent's shots. He is the last link in his team's defense chain and has to fend off around 30 shots in an average game, with the field players supporting him as best they can and trying to prevent the defensive or goalkeeper from being played off. Important attention is paid to the so-called rebounds , i.e. shots that the goalkeeper can fend off but cannot hold on to, and which therefore harbor the risk of a quick second shot on goal. A well-rehearsed defense can quickly bring these rebounds out of the danger zone and ideally even initiate an attack via a so-called counterattack .
Over time, the goalkeeper's area of responsibility has expanded significantly, so that today he often takes on an active role in the game. So he can stop the puck behind his own goal and prepare it for his own field player. In modern ice hockey, he often intervenes actively in the game with passes and can thus initiate an attack with a pass , but this active style of play depends heavily on individual skills and carries the risk of the puck being intercepted by the opposing players can be.
The goalkeeper's game can in some cases also have a psychological effect on the team. A confident goalkeeper enables a more offensive style of play and can provide the necessary support in critical and tight situations.
The goal area
The semicircular area in front of the goal, which is generally referred to as the goal crease (or just crease or in the German speaking area as the goal area ), is specifically assigned to the goalie . Within this area, a goalkeeper must not be hindered by the opposing striker in the performance of his activity or no opposing player must be in this area when a goal is scored. Any violation of this rule is referred to as an offside goal area.
In the North American professional leagues, the goal area is slightly smaller than usual and is delimited on both sides by a vertical line, which makes it a bit narrower overall. In Europe, a semi-circular goal area is used.
In some, especially North American leagues, the goalkeeper's radius of action is limited by two lines to the left and right behind the goal, which together with the goal line and the board behind the goal form a trapezoidal area (the so-called Goaltender trap zone or simply trapezoidal ). The goalkeeper may only actively pass the puck to a teammate within this area. If he does it outside of this room, a small penalty is pronounced. This regulation was tested at the beginning of the 2004/05 season in the North American Minor League American Hockey League in order to support the flow of the game and to put the advantage into perspective for teams with playful goalkeepers. For the 2005/06 season this rule was also included in the statutes of the National Hockey League .
Contrary to the field players, a goalkeeper is allowed to "freeze" the puck and thus interrupt the game. For this purpose, the goalkeeper covers or holds the puck with the glove. However, the goalkeeper also has the option of passing the puck to one of the teammates after a save and thus keeping the game going. In situations where the goalkeeper holds the puck but does not know exactly where it is, he can lie down with his whole body on the puck and thus also interrupt the game.
A goalkeeper must not cross the red center line. In connection with this, he is also not allowed to go to the players bench unless he leaves the ice (see empty net situations ) or he is replaced by another goalkeeper.
In contrast to field players, a goalkeeper may continue to play with a broken stick until the next game interruption. However, he is only allowed to drive to the players bench and replace the club while the game is in progress. If he does this during an interruption, a small bank fine is imposed.
If a goalkeeper receives a small bank penalty, a teammate sits it on the penalty bench for him, but the penalty itself is awarded to the goalkeeper on the game report. If a major penalty is pronounced that results in a game or match penalty, the goalkeeper must be replaced by a substitute goalkeeper or a field player who is given ten minutes to put on equipment.
A goalkeeper may not be appointed team captain under normal circumstances . There was an exception to this rule with Roberto Luongo , the former captain of the Vancouver Canucks from the National Hockey League . However, Luongo was not officially allowed to wear the characteristic "C" on the dress. Instead, he had the letter integrated into the design in the chin area of his mask. He was also prohibited from discussing the game with the referees . His assistants took over this task.
Empty net situations
Normally, the goalkeeper is the only player on a team who is on the ice for the entire duration of the game. There are two important exceptions to this, however. If a penalty is indicated against the opposing team, the referee does not stop the game until the opponent gains control of the puck. This means that the opponent cannot score a goal on his own during this time. The goalkeeper is therefore temporarily replaced by another field player in order to increase the possibility of scoring his own goal.
In the event of a close deficit towards the end of the game, the goalkeeper is often taken out of the game without a previously announced penalty. In such a case, however, there is a risk that the opposing team could gain control of the puck and thus score another goal. Such goals are called Empty Net Goal .
Since ice hockey goalkeepers also have to stop slap shots at speeds of up to 170 km / h during the game, they have extremely effective protective equipment. In the early days of the game, this was often limited to the so-called leg pads , which regularly resulted in injuries to other parts of the body. Today, goalkeepers' equipment is made of high-tech materials, which on the one hand can absorb the energies released during shots and on the other hand allow the player maximum freedom of movement. The main pieces of equipment are:
- Shin Guards (leg pads): The worn on the lower legs protectors that also serve the stopping the puck. The size of the schooner is now subject to detailed regulations. They should reach at least eight to ten centimeters above the knees, on the one hand to protect them effectively and on the other hand to allow the gap between the legs to close in the butterfly .
- Blocker : The protector worn on the hand of the stick serves on the one hand to protect the hand and the joint, on the other hand it can repel shots or deflect them into the curve behind the goal in order to bring the puck out of the danger zone in front of the goal.
- Catch glove : This is used to catch the puck with high shots and is also used to "freeze" the puck and thus interrupt the game in dangerous situations. The catch glove (also often referred to as glove or trapper in English ) originally developed from a modified baseball glove . Today's models have a net that is incorporated between the thumb and index finger and makes it easier to catch or hold the puck. While the glove used to be held in front of the body with the fingers first, today's players prefer the glove to be held open, that is, with the palm of the hand facing the shooter.
- Ice skates : The goalkeeper's ice skates have flatter blades than those of field players, which are also ground differently in order to enable special movements such as shuffle .
- Goalkeeper sticks (stick): The goalkeeper's sticks are wider on the underside than the sticks of the field players and are held by the goalkeeper in normal play at the point where the stick widens. In addition to the passing game, they mainly serve to cover the five hole between the legs and to deflect the puck into the curves behind the goal. There are clubs for both handedness, but there are exceptions. The Canadian Travis Scott - as a trained and later retrained legal catcher - still uses a racket for legal catchers, for example.
- Goalkeeper mask: The goalkeeper mask is used to protect the head and neck. Modern models are made of fiberglass and have a single opening in front of the eyes and nose, which is protected with a grille. This version of the goalkeeper mask can better dissipate the forces of an impacting puck than the now favored version of a field player's helmet with a grid. The masks are usually designed individually by the goalkeepers and represent an art form of their own within the ice hockey scene.
Martin Gerber wears today's standard mask with integrated grille protection.
The goalkeeper's equipment is subject to strict rules, compliance with which can be checked by the officials during the game . Above all, the sizes of the individual parts of the equipment are precisely specified.
- Goalkeeper's stick : The stick may have a maximum total length of 163 cm, whereby the wider lower part may be a maximum of 71 long and 9 cm wide. The shovel may have a length of 39 cm and a width of 9 cm.
- Blocker : The blocker must not exceed a maximum size of 38.1 in height and 20.32 cm in width.
- Catch glove : This must have a maximum diameter of 46 cm, measured from the wrist to the tip, whereby the total circumference must not exceed 114.3 cm.
- Leg guards : the leg pads may have a maximum width of 28 cm.
These rules issued by the World Federation IIHF generally serve as rough guidelines and can differ in detail in individual leagues or be supplemented by further points. They also apply to adult players. Other standard values can also be specified for youth players.
Over the years a separate vocabulary has developed to describe certain actions or pieces of equipment that are specifically associated with the goalkeeper.
- Backup : substitute goalkeeper
- Big Save : The holding of a dangerous shot, often in a crucial situation
- Lie : The angle between the stick and the blade of the club. The higher the lie, the closer it approaches the right angle.
- Poke check : This describes the attempt to withdraw control of the puck from the player who is leading the target with the help of his own stick and a kind of pushing or shooting movement.
- Rebound : An opponent's shot that cannot be held by the goalkeeper and bounces back into the zone in front of the goal. The rebounds do not include shots that the goalkeeper deliberately deflects into the curves behind the goal.
- Save : The holding of an opponent's shot, although this only applies to shots that would have resulted in a goal in the absence of a goalkeeper. Saving a shot that would not have gone into the goal is by definition not called a save.
- Screen shot : A tried and tested means of attacking players is to take the goalkeeper's view. This tactic is called screening . If the goalkeeper does not have a clear view of the puck, he must anticipate the path of the puck from experience. Some goalkeepers also try to get the necessary view by lightly checking the opponents, but this can also result in a penalty.
- Shutout : A game played to the full (without a backup goalkeeper being replaced) in which no goal was conceded.
- Skate Save or Toe Save : Stopping or repelling the puck with the help of the skates.
- Slot : The area immediately in front of the goal area and therefore the most favorable area to score a goal. The attacking team always tries to position at least one of their players in the slot, as this is where the chances of getting a deflected shot into the goal are greatest.
- Positional play : This describes the goalkeeper's attempt to cover as large a part of the goal as possible through his positioning and thus make it more difficult for the attacking player to score a goal. Ideally, the center of the goal line, the goalkeeper and the puck form a straight line. By moving out of the goal or back to the goal, the goalkeeper can also cover a larger part of the goal, which is generally referred to as shortening the angle . Since this game requires good skating skills, it is specially trained with the goalkeepers. It is often said that the goalkeeper is ideally the best ice skater on the team.
- Stick Save : This means holding up the puck with the help of the stick.
- Zone : A very concentrated goalkeeper can reach a state during the game in which he is so absorbed in the game that, in his subjective perception, the game on the ice is slower. In this phase, a goalkeeper can seemingly surpass himself. You then say that he is in the zone .
As Holes five vacancies are referred Gate, a goalkeeper is not covered in the basic position. The designations do not depend on the side, but on the handedness of the goalkeeper. So right-handed and left-handed goalkeepers are mirror images. The individual holes are:
- Catching hand side up: between the catching glove and the crossbar or the upper body and the post. Shots in this area are held with the glove.
- Palm side deep: between the glove and the ice or the leg and the post. For butterfly players, this area is normally covered by the leg protector.
- Stick side up: The area between the stick hand and the crossbar or the upper body and the post. Shots in this area are held with the blocker (see equipment ).
- Stick side low: between the stick hand and the ice or the leg and the post. As on the opposite side, shots in this area are usually blocked with the leg protector.
- Five Hole: This is the area between the legs. This is protected with the stick or closed in butterfly style with the help of the two leg guards.
Today, the experience of decades of the game is passed on to the next generation by special goalkeeping coaches and is constantly being further developed. First of all, a goalkeeper has to learn the basic skills.
The basic position is called the basic standing position in English . The goalkeeper has spread his legs so far that the blades of the skates are a little further apart than the shoulders. The knees are slightly bent, the body slightly bent forward so that the weight rests on the ball of the front foot. The catch hand is slightly spread apart from the body and positioned with the opening facing forward. With the stick hand, the club is positioned so that the shovel is as flat as possible and in the middle of the ice in front of the player. However, it should have a lateral angle so that the puck can be deflected in the direction of the curves behind the goal in the event of a flat shot. The stick itself is held at the point where it widens, but the index finger is stretched out on the outside while the other fingers encircle the shaft. The two hands are just so far in front of an imaginary vertical surface through the head that they are still at the edge of the field of vision.
The second position is called the basic crouching position ( to crouch roughly means to crouch ). It is similar to the basic position, but the goalkeeper is in a lower crouch and the skates are further apart. The knees and elbows are sharply bent, and the weight is now almost on the toes . This position is taken in the immediate expectation of a shot.
There is also the basic kneeling position . The goalkeeper kneels on the ice so that the leg protectors lie flat on the ice. The upper body is straightened to cover the goal as well as possible, and the catch and stick hands are spread apart from the body. The blade of the club is held in front of the body so that it lies flat on the ground and on the one hand covers the space between the leg guards and on the other hand has a lateral angle so that shots are deflected in the direction of the curves.
This position - with the leg guards spread outwards - represents the basis of the butterfly style (see playing styles ). Less agile or young goalkeepers in the learning process limit themselves to spreading the leg that is in the direction of the shooter. Often this "half" butterfly is also practiced by goalkeepers who have not yet completely cured injuries to the musculoskeletal system (especially in the area of the often stressed adductors ).
In the game
The primary task of the goalkeeper is to repel enemy shots. Therefore, the goalkeeper must always keep an eye on the game while creating the best possible cover. Observing the game under such circumstances is also learned through special exercises. Even if the puck is behind the goal and the goalkeeper is watching what is happening there, he must cover as much space as possible in anticipation of a quick pass into the slot , i.e. into the space in front of the goal, and at the same time be careful to only point his head in the direction to turn the action. The basic posture of the body is retained.
Another important task of the goalkeeper is to hold the puck behind the goal when the opposing team shoots it deep into the defensive third. This is to make it easier for the defenders to pick up the puck quickly. However, the goalkeeper must make sure to return to the goal area as quickly as possible in order to be there in the event of an unsuccessful escape attempt.
Basic ice skating skills
Contrary to popular belief, the goalkeeper in professional ice hockey is one of the team's best ice skaters. This results from the fact that he must be able to follow every possible move by the opponent in a targeted and precise manner. The main techniques are listed here:
- In order to move normally on the ice, the goalkeeper uses the so-called T-push . A skate is positioned at right angles to the desired direction of movement so that the player can push off.
- The shuffle is a special sideways movement that allows the goalkeeper to follow the movement of the opposing player. Both skates are gently moved alternately, but the legs remain as closed as possible to protect the five hole well.
- The Telescoping is the back and forth movement which is mainly used for reducing the angle. The distance between the skates is widened in order to move forward and vice versa. It is important that the skates always remain on the ice while moving.
Stand up style
The oldest style is commonly referred to as the stand-up style . It is characteristic that the goalkeeper completes the majority of the game standing and holds the puck primarily with the stick ( stick save ) or the skates ( skate save ). Until the early 1960s, this was the predominant style in the National Hockey League , which was mainly cultivated by players like Jacques Plante . Although this style is generally a little more prone to shallow shots, the goalkeeper can see what is happening better because the opposing players in front of the goal cannot easily take away his view. Another advantage is mobility, as the goalkeeper reacts very quickly to new game situations with his positional play and can often recognize them more quickly due to the greater overview.
This technique lost more and more importance in the course of the 1960s and 1970s, as the butterfly style generally allowed a more constant game. Nevertheless, there are still players today who rely on this special style, such as Artūrs Irbe or Travis Scott .
- Well-known representatives of the stand-up style
The most widespread style today is called butterfly . The goalkeeper falls on his knees and spreads his lower legs with the leg guards as far away from the body as possible. The protectors are pulled together in front of the body at the same time to close the so-called five hole , the gap between the legs. This, in turn, is additionally protected by the blade of the club. In this way, a kind of “wall” is formed in front of the goal, with which particularly flat shots, which make up the majority of the shots taken, can be blocked. Position play and timing are seen as particularly important. However, since the goalkeeper cannot change position very well in the butterfly, techniques have been developed over time with which a goalkeeper can get up very quickly or slide on the ice in the butterfly. The upper body must always be upright in the Butterfly, with the safety glove and blocker held sideways next to the body and low in order to offer additional protection. The muscles are tense so that you can maintain your posture even during slides (sliding on the ice).
- Well-known representatives of the butterfly style
These goalkeepers use an individual mix of the two major styles. They generally have the advantage of not being as easy to calculate as players who can clearly be assigned to one of the two styles.
- Well-known representatives of the hybrid style
Risk factors and common injuries
Due to the highly specialized sequences of movements and, above all, the enormous mobility that goalkeepers sometimes demand and demonstrate, typical injuries occur again and again, which are usually lengthy and difficult to treat.
This very often affects the adductors in the groin region . Especially goalkeeper who practice the butterfly style, often tend to have wide slide tackle to cover the gate with fast cross passes directly in front of goal as possible the entire width. The result is often muscle fiber tears or similar injuries that sometimes take months to completely heal. In extreme cases, the goalkeeper's performance can be permanently impaired. In addition, injuries to the knees or tendons often occur in this area, which also have a long healing phase. For these reasons, getting enough warm-up and stretching before match and practice is one of the goalkeeper's most important preparations.
Despite today's modern protective equipment, it is also quite possible that the goalkeeper can suffer cuts from the blade of an outfield player's ice skate. Due to the sharpness of the blade, these cuts can be very deep and also cause long injuries.
In the early days of the sport, when players still played without a mask , there were often direct hits to the face and neck, which resulted in lacerations and broken bones. This danger has largely been eliminated today, as modern masks made of fiberglass absorb the forces that occur well. A failure of the mask or the grille in front of the face can never be completely ruled out, but is now extremely rare.
In the early days of ice hockey, it was customary to number players by position from the goalkeeper. Since substitutions during the game were not yet common at that time and the numbers of the players were more associated with the position than with the player himself, it was quite common for the interim substitute to wear the number 1 in the goal in the event of an injury. Only when it became necessary to have a so-called backup goalie in the lineup for individual games did other numbers than 1 become common for goalkeepers. The number 30, which is still in use today, developed more than pragmatism. Since higher numbers were not yet common at that time, the numbers between 2 and 30 were usually worn by the field players, and the second goalkeepers of the teams opted for the following numbers.
One of the first number 30 goalkeepers was NHL legend Terry Sawchuk , which inspired many others at the time to use the same or similar numbers. In the course of the decades these practical reasons became independent and became a tradition. The jersey numbers most commonly used by goalkeepers today - in addition to 1 and 30 - are in the range between 29 and 35 and in the high 30 range up to 40. The 20 is enjoying increasing popularity, based on the Soviet goalkeeper Wladislaw Tretyak .
With Martin Biron there was also a goalkeeper who wore the double zero as his shirt number. This is remarkable because the zero is also referred to as "Oh" in English due to the orthographic similarity and Biron's shirt number was consistently pronounced as "Oh-oh".
- Main article: Ice hockey statistics
As for field players, statistics for goalkeepers are also kept in professional leagues around the world. What started out as a record of victories and defeats was soon expanded to include goals conceded . The statistic most commonly used today to evaluate the performance of a goalkeeper is the so-called catch quota or save percentage. The percentage of the total number of shots fired at the goalkeeper is calculated. There are also various unofficial statistics for the NHL, which also take into account the quality of the shots, i.e. the degree of difficulty for the goalkeeper. However, since these evaluations are usually based on subjective decision-making criteria, they have not yet been officially recognized.
In the National Hockey League in particular, the records that have been set over the decades are very important. Today it has become very rare for an old record to be broken by active players as a lot has changed in the way the game is played and the balance of the league. In his 20 years as a regular goalkeeper for the New Jersey Devils , Martin Brodeur set many of the records set by Patrick Roy and Terry Sawchuk , among others .
Throughout history, some goalkeepers have scored goals themselves. This is essentially based on the rule that in the event of an own goal or a shot deflected by the opposing player, the goal is awarded to the last player on the own team who touched the puck. However, there are also some players who were actually actively involved in their team's scoring. If known, this is noted in the following list.
National Hockey League
|Billy Smith||New York Islanders||Nov 28, 1979||Colorado Rockies||Opposing team's own goal|
|Ron Hextall||Philadelphia Flyers||Dec 8, 1987||Boston Bruins||Goal scored himself|
|Ron Hextall||Philadelphia Flyers||Apr 11, 1989||Washington Capitals||Goal scored himself|
|Chris Osgood||Detroit Red Wings||6th Mar 1996||Hartford Whalers||Goal scored himself|
|Martin Brodeur||New Jersey Devils||Apr 17, 1997||Montréal Canadiens||Goal scored himself|
|Damian Rhodes||Ottawa Senators||Jan. 2, 1999||New Jersey Devils||Opposing team's own goal|
|Martin Brodeur||New Jersey Devils||Feb 15, 2000||Philadelphia Flyers||Opposing team's own goal|
|José Théodore||Montréal Canadiens||Jan. 2, 2001||New York Islanders||Goal scored himself|
|Yevgeny Nabokov||San Jose Sharks||10 Mar 2002||Vancouver Canucks||Goal scored himself|
|Mika Noronen||Buffalo Sabers||Feb 14, 2004||Toronto Maple Leafs||Opposing team's own goal|
|Chris Mason||Nashville Predators||Apr 15, 2006||Phoenix Coyotes||Opposing team's own goal|
|Cam Ward||Carolina Hurricanes||Dec 26, 2011||New Jersey Devils||Opposing team's own goal|
|Martin Brodeur||New Jersey Devils||21 Mar 2013||Carolina Hurricanes||Opposing team's own goal|
|Mike Smith||Phoenix Coyotes||Oct 19, 2013||Detroit Red Wings||Goal scored himself|
|Pekka gutter||Nashville Predators||Jan. 9, 2020||Chicago Blackhawks||Goal scored himself|
American Hockey League
East Coast Hockey League
|Corwin Saurdiff||Hampton Roads Admirals||18 Mar 1995||Charlotte Checkers|
|Olie Sundström||Erie Panthers||1995/96|
|Sean Gauthier||South Carolina Stingrays||Dec 19, 1995||Raleigh IceCaps|
|Nick Vitucci||Charlotte Checkers||6th Mar 1996||Louisville Icehawks|
|Mark Bernard||Toledo Storm||22 Mar 2001||Johnstown Chiefs|
|Mike Smith||Lexington Men O'War||Oct 26, 2002||Dayton Bombers||Goal scored himself|
|Brian Eklund||Pensacola Ice Pilots||Dec 5, 2003||Mississippi Sea Wolves||Opposing team's own goal|
|Trevor Koenig||Atlantic City Brdw. Bullies||2nd Mar 2005||Wheeling Nailers|
|Jonathan Quick||Reading Royals||Oct 24, 2007||Pensacola Ice Pilots||Opposing team's own goal|
|Timo Pielmeier||Bakersfield Condors||Dec. 19, 2009||Utah grizzlies||Goal scored himself|
|Klaus Merk||Berlin Capitals||Nov 1992||Polar bears Berlin||Goal scored himself|
|Klaus Merk||Berlin Capitals||1993||Polar bears Berlin||Goal scored himself|
|Mike Bales||Straubing Tigers||Sep 30 2005||Landshut cannibals||Goal scored himself|
|Jean-Marc Pelletier||Hamburg Freezers||16 Sep 2007||Polar bears Berlin||Opposing team's own goal|
|Gustaf Wesslau||Cologne Sharks||19th Feb 2016||Hamburg Freezers||Opposing team's own goal|
|Dimitri Pätzold||Krefeld penguins||Dec 8, 2017||Düsseldorfer EG||Opposing team's own goal|
|Gus Morschauser||EC VSV||Dec 8, 1991||EC KAC||Goal scored himself|
|Andrew Verner||EC KAC||Jan. 27, 2006||HC Innsbruck||Goal scored himself|
|Jaakko Suomalainen||HK Jesenice||Dec 30, 2010||KHL Medveščak Zagreb||Goal scored himself|
|Thomas Höneckl||EC VSV||Dec 21, 2012||HC Innsbruck||Goal scored himself|
Continental hockey league
|Ilya Proskuryakov||HK Metallurg Magnitogorsk||Jan 25, 2009||Ak Bars Kazan||Goal scored himself|
|Edgars Masaļskis||Dinamo Riga||Jan. 7, 2010||Amur Khabarovsk||Opposing team's own goal|
Slovak extra league
|Marek Čiliak||HK Nitra||Dec 6, 2011||HC Košice||Goal scored himself|
Well-known ice hockey goalkeepers
- See also: Category: Ice Hockey Goalkeeper
Ice hockey goalkeepers are often described as very superstitious, and many of them have set habits for the moments before or during the game.
- Patrick Roy had the habit of reversing towards the goal before every game and only turning around at the last moment before reaching it. He imagined that the gate would shrink. He also talked to the goalposts during the game and never ran over the lines on the ice; instead he skipped it.
- Brian Boucher ate penne with vodka sauce whenever possible before each game .
Quotes from and about goalkeepers
- Gene Ubriaco: “In hockey, the goalkeeper makes up 75% of the game. Unless it's a bad goalkeeper - then it's 100%. "
- When asked why his children aren't afraid of the characters in horror films, Patrick Roy : "They think they're all goalies."
- René Bielke : "Either it's your own fault or it's really the other's fault."
- Jacques Plante answers the question whether his job is stressful: “Stressful? Do you know many jobs where every time you make a mistake a red light comes on over your head and 15,000 people start whistling? "
- The same when asked whether it was cowardice to wear a mask: "Is it a proof of courage when you jump out of an airplane without a parachute?"
- Gump Worsley : "Being a goalkeeper is not a job for a normal, straight-thinking person."
- Glenn Hall about playing without a mask: "Survival was the top priority, then holding the puck."
- When John Vanbiesbrouck asked if he would like to get 51 shots in one game: "Yes, I like jumping out of very tall buildings just as much."
- Official Rulebook of the International Ice Hockey Federation , PDF file, (English), Rule No. 471, valid from 2006 to 2010
- NHL Rulebook Section 1.7 (Goal Crease / Referee Crease), (English)
- Official Rulebook of the International Ice Hockey Federation , PDF file, (English), Rule No. 119, valid from 2006 to 2010
- Rulebook of the NHL Section 1.8 (Goalkeeper restricted area), (English)
- NHL Rulebook Section 28.8 (Restricted Area), (English)
- Official Rulebook of the International Ice Hockey Federation , PDF file, (English), Rules No. 590–595, valid from 2006 to 2010
- Official Rulebook of the International Ice Hockey Federation , PDF file, (English), Rule No. 556, valid from 2006 to 2010
- Official Rulebook of the International Ice Hockey Federation , PDF file, (English), Rule No. 511, valid from 2006 to 2010
- NHL Rulebook Section 6.1 (Captain), (English)
- Chara's record shot
- Official Rulebook of the International Ice Hockey Federation , PDF file, (English), Rules No. 230–235, valid from 2006 to 2010
- Hockey Glossary of Terms. In: hockeyschoolonline.com. Retrieved July 5, 2017 .
- Article at www.hockeyplayer.com (English)
- François Allaire : Hockey Goaltending for young players , Key Porter Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55013-895-5 , pp. 36-37
- François Allaire : Hockey Goaltending for young players , Key Porter Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55013-895-5 , p. 39
- François Allaire : Hockey Goaltending for young players , Key Porter Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55013-895-5 , pp. 41-42
- François Allaire : Hockey Goaltending for young players , Key Porter Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55013-895-5 , pp. 54-55
- François Allaire : Hockey Goaltending for young players , Key Porter Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55013-895-5 , pp. 56-57
- François Allaire : Hockey Goaltending for young players , Key Porter Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55013-895-5 , pp. 23–31
- The Stand-Up Myth ( Memento from February 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ); Discuss the style in an article on www.goaliestore.com
- Article by goalkeeper Sean McKnight on www.qnhl.com (English)
- Studying Butterflies, article on www.hockeyplayer.com (English)
- Ice hockey injuries (English)
- Hockeygoalies.org: Why do must goaltenders wear # 1 and # 30? (English)
- Shot Quality (PDF file; 172 kB) on Hockey Analytics (English)
- nhl.com, Binghamton goalie Holt scores goal in AHL game
- echl.com, Reading Rookie Goaltender Scores Goal Quick Gets Win, Shutout, Goal At Pensacola ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- nhl.com, Goalie Timo Pielmeier scores empty-net goal for Bakersfield Condors
- Welt online: Freezers already in fifth place after goal keeper hit
-  , page on Gus Morschauser on the Carinthian Derby Site
- Match report on www.eishockey.at ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Report on hockeyfans.at
- Jesenice wins against Zagreb with a goal keeper , report on hockeyfans.at from December 30, 2010
- VSV surely beats Haie, Höneckl with goalie goal , report on hockeyfans.at of December 21, 2012
- en.khl.ru, match report from January 7, 2010
- eurohockey.com, Goal by a goalie in Slovak Tipsport extraliga
- 10 Most Superstitious Athletes. In: mensfitness.com. Retrieved August 9, 2017 .
- Brian Boucher at hockeygoalies.org (English)
- Quotes on the homepage of the Ice Cold Cardinals (support for the disabled)
- François Allaire : Hockey Goaltending for young players , Key Porter Books, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55013-895-5 (English)
- Jim Corsi, John Hannon: The Hockey Goalie's Handbook , McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8092-9746-7 (English)
- Brian Daccord: Hockey Goaltending , Human Kinetics, 1998, ISBN 978-0-88011-791-3 (English)