Official (ice hockey)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Main referee in the AHL

In ice hockey, the officials ensure that the game or tournament runs properly and in accordance with the rules. The term “official” includes, on the one hand, the referees who are on the ice, the so-called “match officials”, and on the other hand the so-called “off-ice officials”, who make up the referee.

Game Official

For many years it was internationally common to play with three game officials, including a main referee, recognizable by red or orange-colored, 8 cm wide armbands on the upper part of the sleeves, as well as two linesmen. In some associations, however, the game was played with two referees, both of whom took on the role of main referee. In the National Hockey League, however, a system with two main referees and two line judges is used. The IIHF also adopted this system, which was introduced in several European leagues such as the DEL and the Austrian Ice Hockey League in the 2000s . However, the complete (worldwide) changeover failed in many countries due to the number of main judges available.

Main referee

The main referee is responsible for the overall direction of the game and decides on differences of opinion between the officials. The recognition of goals and the imposition of penalties is reserved for him, although he can be advised by the line judges.


The linesmen are primarily responsible for offside decisions or icing situations . In addition, they usually carry out the face-offs . In contrast to other sports, in ice hockey a linesman can interrupt the game by whistling if he detects certain rule violations. If the main referee is not present in the third of the game when a goal is scored, the linesman who is present can also recognize the goal.

Special features in lower-class leagues

In lower-class leagues in Germany, for example in the area of ​​the Bavarian Ice Sports Association , as well as in the second to fourth-class leagues in Switzerland, sometimes only two game officials are played. In this case both referees have the rights of the main referee as well as the line referee.

Ice hockey referee during Kelly's All Star Games 2008

Off-Ice Officials

The referee team is supported by the referee jury, which consists of a match and penalty timekeeper, two penalty box attendants and the stadium announcer .

Since the 2004/05 season, players, coaches or other people present on the players bench can be punished by the referee for certain rule violations.

In addition, other off-ice officials are used in international games, including a goal judge, a video goal judge to control contentious goal scenes and judges who decide which player is awarded a goal or an assist .

Professional referee

Most ice hockey referees around the world are amateur referees who have other professions besides their work on the ice.

In North America, on the other hand, professional referees have been used in the National Hockey League for years, who are also organized in their own interest group, the "National Hockey League Officials' Association". Petr Chvatal, the first professional referee , has existed in the German Ice Hockey League since it was founded in 1994 . Chvatal had to end his career after the 2004/05 season because he had reached the age limit. Since the end of October 2005, the DEL has had its first foreign professional referee , the American Rick Looker , who has already directed games at various world championships . For the 2006/07 season , Frank Awizus was appointed a second professional referee, followed by Daniel Piechaczek at the end of 2006 and Georg Jablukov in January 2008. Since January 2011, the former DEL player Lars Brüggemann has also been a professional DEL referee. After Georg Jablukov ended his referee career in 2014, Gordon Schukies received a contract as a DEL professional referee.

In the Swiss National League A there are six professional referees, Brent Reiber , Danny Kurmann and Stéphane Rochette , Daniel Stricker, Stefan Eichmann and Didier Massy, ​​all of whom have also been used several times at an A World Cup . Kurmann and Reiber were also used at the Olympic Games .

Well-known ice hockey officials


Rick looker

North America

In North America, popular referees and linesmen who stand out for their consistently good performance are honored with admission to the Hockey Hall of Fame . So far this has affected the following referees:

IIHF Referee Exchange Program

Main article: IIHF Referee Exchange Program

The seven best European ice hockey associations have been participating in the referee exchange program of the International Ice Hockey Federation IIHF since the 2004/05 season. Since the 2007/08 season, each association has been nominating three - previously two each - of its referees who will then lead games in the other leagues. With this, the World Ice Hockey Federation is trying to standardize the rules in the leagues. Two of the participating referees from each country should whistle at least two games in each other league during the season. You will be supported by two local linesmen and rated by a local observer. The third referee is only used as a substitute.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. DEL starts the 2014/15 season with three professional referees. In: June 2, 2014, accessed February 29, 2016 .