Tendon (anatomy)

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Cross-section through a tendon sheath:
1 stratum fibrosum
2 mesotendineum
3 outer sheet of the stratum
4 gliding space with synovia
5 inner sheet of the stratum
6 tendon

A tendon or flesh (Latin: tendo ) is a connective tissue part of the muscle that connects it to a bone (see also origin and insertion ). The intermediate tendons , which connect two or more muscle tummies of a muscle, or the attachment to a fascia are an exception . At sites where tendons joints happen they are often carried Gleithüllen ( tendonitis ) or bursa protected from pressure.


Tendons consist of fixed cells and an intercellular substance in which mainly collagen fibers are embedded and thus give the tendons their strength. They are surrounded by the "tendon skin" ( peritendineum ).

A tendon always consists of connective tissue fibers that run next to each other and are firmly cemented under each other (→ tight connective tissue ) that are united in bundles. There are only a few nerves and blood vessels in the tendons, which results in poor regenerative capacity. Tendons probably also contain a small amount of mesenchymal stem cells .


There are two types of tendons:

  • flat, thin, broad, more skin-like, which are mostly found on flat muscles, the so-called tendon membranes or aponeuroses
  • rounded, cord-shaped tendons

The strongest tendon on the human body is the Achilles tendon ( Tendo calcaneus ). It is the starting point for the three-headed calf muscle ( Musculus triceps surae ) and can withstand over a ton of tensile load. Tendons have different sizes, like the long finger muscles : The muscle bellies are located in the forearm, while the tendons themselves only attach to the end members of the finger bones.

See also


  • Johannes W. Rohen, Elke Lütjen-Drecoll: Functional anatomy of humans . Textbook of macroscopic anatomy according to functional aspects, 11th edition, Schattauer GmbH, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-7945-2440-3 .
  • Bernhard Reichert: Anatomy in vivo. Volume 1, 2nd corrected edition, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-13-142042-1 .
  • G. Arnold, HM Beier, M. Herrmann, H.-J. Kretschmann, W. Kühnel, H. Rollhauser, J. Winckler, E. van der Zypen: Textbook of the entire human anatomy . Third corrected edition, Springer Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH, Berlin Heidelberg 1983, ISBN 978-3-540-12400-9 .

Web links

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