In soccer , one speaks of man coverage when the game system is based on playing “man against man”. The direct assignment of the player to the opponent is the tactical requirement for the defensive players in historical game systems such as the 3-5-2 system . The defenders are divided into man- marking teams , who guard the opposing striker, and the "free" man in defense, the libero .
The man marking is based on a rather static view of football systems. So the defenders are consistently busy with defensive work. While German teams used man marking until the end of the 1990s (and even beyond), other teams had already started to switch to the back four or the back three in the late 1980s . The man marking is an expression of a "European" orientation in football, which is based on security thinking and the consistent destruction of the opposing game structure . The catenaccio as the most defensive form of man marking is considered the highlight of safe play. While football romantics describe man-marking as boring and too result-oriented, some football statistics speak in favor of man-marking as a successful system. Germany has been world champion three times ( 1954 , 1974 and 1990 ) with man marking . In the meantime, however, a game system with a back four is also practiced in the German national team .
One of the last great successes of a team with this game system was the victory of the Greeks at the European Football Championship in 2004 . The coach of the Greeks, Otto Rehhagel , had his team consistently play with man marking.
More modern game systems are based on space coverage .
Several reasons were considered to be advantages of man marking:
- The clear distribution of tasks.
- One could specifically tune in to the characteristics of only one opponent.
- The “right” opponent - both physically and in terms of playing characteristics - was established as the opposing dribbler, header specialist, playmaker, sprinter.
- Sensitive opponents are more likely to give up when the man is close.
In contrast, there were also known disadvantages of man marking:
- The pace and routes are imposed by the opponent.
- By tactical measures, the opponent can lure players into unfavorable positions or even force them to clear areas that are dangerous for goals.
- If a defender is outplayed, this can lead to disorder in cover; especially when the “Libero” cannot be there immediately.
Man-marking is sometimes used in ice hockey , especially when the same number of players are on the ice.
In handball , the measure of man covering - also called short covering - is mostly used in defense when a particularly strong player is to be prevented from scoring goals on the opposing team. Due to the short cover, this player is more difficult to play for his fellow players and is thus “taken out of the game”.
When Basketball , the "man-man defense" is (MMV) also practiced. If the attacker has the ball, the direct path to the basket must be blocked by the position of the man's marker. The distances to the opponent are variable: With particularly good throwers, the defensive player should defend closer to the body, with very fast players a little more space should be left.
- Sensation: Greece in the European Championship final ( Memento of the original from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (on Fussball.de)
- Gero Bisanz / Gunnar Gerisch: Football. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 1980, ISBN 3499170396 , page 238
- Gero Bisanz / Gunnar Gerisch: Football. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 1980, ISBN 3499170396 , page 239
- BBV - Man-Man Defense. (No longer available online.) In: bbv-online.de. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017 ; accessed on December 22, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Ramy Azrak: Basketball: The Man-to-Man Defense - Basketball, Tactical Training, Training. In: trainingsworld.com. September 27, 2012, accessed December 22, 2017 .