Roller derby

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Competition between the Charlotte Rollergirls and the Cape Fear Rollergirls
Competition of the Minnesota Rollergirls in the 2007 season
Windy City Rollers (Chicago, Illinois)

Roller Derby is a out of the United States originating full-contact sport with roller skates , which is mostly done by women. Men's roller derby is sometimes referred to as merby (men's roller derby) .


In 1935, sports promoter Leo A. Seltzer organized the first roller derby race in Chicago . Inspired by the six-day races, the 25 teams , each consisting of a woman and a man, skated on an oval track. In total, the teams had to drive 57,000 laps. The winning team was the one that lasted the longest and was the last one on the track. At least one member from each team had to be on the track at all times, otherwise the respective team was disqualified .

The high physical strain as well as the sometimes hard jostling among the rival teams meant that many players finally gave up the sport due to injuries or total exhaustion. This led to the end of the first generation of the roller derby.

In the early 1940s, Leo A. Seltzer teamed up with sports journalist Damon Runyon to revise and re-introduce the sport. They established new rules as well as a new point system and placed the focus on jostling and nudging that attracted the public. This spectacular and fast-paced type of roller derby became a crowd puller in the USA for over 40 years. Teams played in sold-out stadiums to over 50,000 fans and were hailed as stars on radio and television. The sport was only practiced by professional actors who, like in wrestling, performed apparently brutal actions and scuffle.

In the early 1970s, Roller Derby was overwhelmed by the breakup into many competing and different derby organizations and companies (RollerJam and Rollermania) as well as the oil crisis, which caused the teams' (travel) costs to skyrocket, and disappeared into the Sinking. It wasn't until 1999 that Roller Derby came back. In contrast to the previous leagues that had focused on marketing a show, this start-up was dominated by female amateurs , many of whom were linked to the punk movement and third wave feminism . The Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA) was founded in 2004 and now has over 14,000 roller girls in total. Since 2007, the WFTDA has held an annual championship consisting of four qualifying tournaments and one final tournament. In other countries too, enthusiasm for the sport has now been aroused for the first time. New teams and leagues were formed worldwide .

In addition to sport, which is clearly dominated by women, more and more men's teams are being formed. In 2007 (originally called the Men's Derby Coalition ) the Men's Roller Derby Association (MRDA) was founded, which hosted championships for the first time in 2011. The men also play on the flat track and according to the same rules as the women (from April 1, 2014), since May 2016 the two associations have had a joint commission, the Oversight Panel.

At the beginning of the 21st century, roller derby finally found its way from the USA to Europe . In 2006 the London Rollergirls and the first German team, the Stuttgart Valley Rollergirls, were founded. In 2007, the second German team followed, Barock City Roller Derby from Ludwigsburg. Another year later, the Berlin Bombshells were added. In the meantime, other German roller derby clubs have been added. In Europe, clubs can be found in Helsinki, Stockholm, Malmö, Copenhagen, Aarhus, Amsterdam, Geneva, Paris, Vienna (since May 2011: Vienna Rollergirls, for the first time in Austria, from 2014: Vienna RollerDerby), Zurich and Lucerne. At the beginning of 2012 there were around 200.

The first competition in Germany took place in Stuttgart in 2007: Stuttgart Valley Rollergirlz vs. London Rockin 'Rollers. The first domestic German competition followed in 2009: Berlin Bombshells vs. North-South Connection Stuttgart Valley Rollergirlz and Harbor Girls from Hamburg, hosted by the Berlin team. In July 2009 the first European competition , "Roll Britannia", took place in London, with a total of twelve teams competing, ten from the United Kingdom as well as Berlin and Stuttgart. The clearly superior team "London Brawling" of the London Rollergirls emerged from the tournament as the first European winner.

On December 11th 2010 the Berlin Bombshells, the Stuttgart Valley Rollergirlz, the Ruhrpott Roller Girls, the Barockcity Rollergirls from Ludwigsburg and the Hanse Connection (Harbor Girls Hamburg + Meatgrinders Bremen) met in Berlin to play the first German championship. In a close final, the Stuttgart Valley Rollergirlz prevailed against the Berlin Bombshells with 128: 124.

28-30 June 2013 the first official German championship took place in Stuttgart: 10 teams competed, the Berlin Bombshells won the final with 243: 84 against the Stuttgart Valley Roller Girlz.

From December 1st to 4th, 2011, the first world championship in roller derby took place in Toronto . The national teams of Argentina , Australia , Brazil , Germany , England , Finland , France , Ireland , Canada , New Zealand , Scotland , Sweden and the USA took part. The final took place between Canada and the United States, with the United States winning by 336 to 33 points.

Under the title "Track Queens - Battle Royal" took place 16.-18. November 2012 another European tournament took place, this time in Berlin. It was organized by the WFTDA. In the final, London Brawling won 448: 47 against the Berlin Bombshells.

February 2017 World Cup in Manchester (UK).

Game types

Roller derby is played in two main ways these days. On the one hand there is the “banked track roller derby” based on the classic roller derby on a steep track, which is only played by a few (mostly professional) teams. The “Flat Track” variant, which is played on a flat, approximately 27 × 17 m track, is now much more widespread.

The overwhelming majority play by the rules of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association . There are also leagues (several teams from the same club) that either follow their own rules, the rules of the Old School Derby Association , the rules of the USA Roller Sports, the rules of the Modern Athletic Derby Endeavor or in some cases even virtually without rules (called Renegade Roller Derby).

As a rule, it is driven to the left, i.e. counterclockwise. This curve direction is the preferred one for right-footed people .


You can ride on roller skates with four cylindrical rollers each (English quad roller skates ), two of which are on the front and rear steering axle on the frame (chassis, frame) made of aluminum or glass fiber nylon. A round rubber stopper (indoors: light) at an angle under the toe of the shoe is used for standing, pushing, braking and turning. A strip of rubber covering lies lengthways across the tip of the shoe. Knee, elbow and hand protectors (also: schooners, protectors ) with sliding plates or shells buffer a fall and allow support and gliding on them. The helmet with the Y-chin strap extends to the ear - the helmet cover is used to mark the team in color, a five-pointed star on each side or a vertical stripe mark the jammer or pivot blocker. A mouth guard protects the teeth.

Each player is marked with a number on the outside of both upper arms, either painted on or on an elastic armband, and also on the jersey. The color of the jersey and helmet cover marks a team.


The roller derby of the 50s to 70s was an entertainment program like wrestling with prearranged fights and excessive actions. Since the rebirth in 2001 and especially the founding of the WFTDA, it has been practiced as an honest amateur sport without show elements in the game. As a remnant of the show idea, the usual battle names remain, under which most of the participants (including officials) compete. Players wear z. B. striking names like Anne Headaway (from Berlin, 2011 one of the founders in Vienna) or Hans-A-Blast . You can sometimes see face paint.


To practice this team sport you need driving skills, especially agility, strength, sociability, pain tolerance and a certain endurance.

Players must pass a test before they can stand on the track. The so-called Minimal Skill Test (MST) is required by the WFTDA and ensures that all players are safe on the skates so that nobody is in danger.

While in the beginning the racing component dominated and both men and women - also mixed - took part, since 2000 the sport has been mainly practiced by women and is more of a contact sport.

Game flow

Blockers versus misery

Flat track

Most flat-track games (also called bouts or games) are based on the rules of the WFTDA or MRDA. A roller derby team consists of up to 14 players, five of whom can take part in the game at the same time. You run counterclockwise on an oval track, the so-called track.


the lead jammer is indicated by a referee

The game is played in two halves of 30 minutes each, in which as many two-minute jams as possible are driven. Each team consists of five people who are on the track at the same time. One person is the so-called jammer (English to jam = "to disturb"), whose job it is to score points by lapping opposing players. The remaining four players on the team, as blockers, have the task of supporting their own wretched task as well as preventing the opposing wailing from progressing. Together, they form the so-called pack (Engl. For Rudel ).

The start of a jam is announced by a whistle at which all players start at the same time. The jammers start behind the blockers. Your job is to fight your way through the pack. The jammer who was the first to overtake all blockers without unauthorized actions is the “lead jammer” for the rest of the jam. The lead jammer can also cancel the current jam before the two minutes are up to give his team an advantage. If the lead jammer receives a penalty, he loses this status and the jam ends without a lead jammer.

From the second run through the pack, the Jammers can score points. There is one point for every regularly lapped player of the opposing team. This also applies to players who are in the penalty box. The jam continues until the lead jammer is canceled or two minutes have elapsed.

After each jam, players can be swapped in a 30-second break. The next jam will be kicked off again regardless of the completion of this process. If there are too few players on the track for a team at kick-off, this team will start understaffed. If no one of a team is on the field at the start of the whistle, a time delay penalty is pronounced against the team captain.


Offensive blocking: The blockers in the dark blue jerseys hold the way for their jammer (middle) to score a point

Since roller derby is a full-contact sport, it is not only allowed to hinder other players through positional blocking (e.g. driving in the way or pushing away), but also through direct physical use (e.g. body checks). This is used either to give yourself or other players on your own team a positional advantage by pushing away or randomly bringing opposing players (offensive blocking), or to prevent opposing players from getting past (defensive blocking). However, its use is limited to certain parts of the body. A distinction is made between blocking and hit zones, the former denoting the parts of the body that can be actively used for blocking. The latter are the places where opposing players may be blocked.

Allowed hit zones:

  • Shoulders
  • Arms and hands
  • pages
  • upper body
  • hip
  • Thigh

Irregular hit zones:

  • Head and neck
  • move
  • butt
  • Lower legs and knees
  • Feet

Allowed blocking zones:

  • Shoulders
  • Hips
  • Upper arms
  • Thigh
  • butt
  • upper body

Irregular blocking zones:

  • Elbows, forearms and hands
  • head
  • Knees, lower legs and feet

If a player nevertheless uses unauthorized body parts or hits an opponent in areas other than the permitted hit zones, this counts as a foul. The same applies if a blocker blocks outside the so-called engagement zone. The engagement zone is six meters in front of the first and after the last player in the pack.


If a player commits a foul, he must be in the penalty box for 30 seconds. Not allowed are u. a .:

  • Block away from the body parts allowed for it
  • Overtaking other players outside the track boundaries
  • Leaving the track for no reason or outside influence
  • Block without being in the game and within the permitted areas
  • deliberately destroying the pack
  • Endangering other players

If a player is outside the track, outside the engagement zone, is standing (also inside the track) or driving in the opposite direction, he may neither block nor prevent other players from passing.

Jerseys and markings

Each player is identified by a player number. This must be unique within your own team, whereby the same numbers with different digits are valid (e.g. 30 and 030 ). In addition, certain playing positions are marked by helmet hoods: The Jammer has two five-pointed stars and the so-called Pivot Blocker ( Pivot for short ) has a vertical stripe on the helmet. The pivot moves with the other blockers in the pack. He can become a jammer himself by taking over the Jammer hood (so-called Star Pass ). The previous lament becomes a normal blocker.

Banked track

Banked Track Roller Derby is played on a steep track (the banked track, with elevated curves). However, only a few organizations exist due to the effort involved. The largest association is the Roller Derby Coalition of Leagues with 5 member clubs. The rules also differ in some details, although up to now there is no uniform set of rules for banked tracks. In most variations, a jam only takes a minute. The lead jammer who is currently in pole position is also always the one - regardless of who left the pack first. The lead jammer status can also be gained or lost during a jam.

Another difference to the Flat Track Derby is that penalties do not have to be served immediately, but only at the beginning of the next jam.

Associations in DACH

Clubs in Germany and the Roller Derby Bundesliga

  • Barockcity Roller Derby (Ludwigsburg)
  • Bashlorettes (Kassel Roller Derby, department of the FSC Dynamo Windrad Kassel )
  • Bashing Battlecats Bielefeld
  • Bear City Roller Derby (Berlin, department of SC Lurich 02 eV)
    • Berlin Bombshells (A-Team)
    • Inglorious Bombshells (B-Team)
    • Breaking Bears (C-Team, level variable)
  • Bembel Town Rollergirls (Frankfurt am Main)
  • Berlin Rollergirls (Department of the Berlin TSC )
  • Blockforest Roller Derby (Freiburg) - At the beginning, until May 2017: Blockforest Roller Girls
  • Cologne Roller Derby (Cologne, department of the TPSK 1925 eV)
    • Graveyard Queens (A-Team)
    • Unbreakabellas (B-Team)
  • Chaos Crushers Coblenz (Koblenz)
  • Deadly Darlings (Düsseldorf)
  • Demolition Derby Dolls (Hanover)
  • Dresden Pioneers (Dresden, department of SV Motor Mickten-Dresden)
  • Harbor Girls Hamburg (Hamburg, department of FC St. Pauli )
    • Harbor Girls A and B respectively
  • Maniac Monsters Mainz (Department of the TGM Gonsenheim)
  • Meatgrinders Bremen
  • Mine Monsters (Miners Oberhausen, department of SC Buschhausen 1912 eV) (renamed from formerly: Jaw Crushers )
  • Munich Rolling Rebels (Munich, department of TSV 1860 Munich )
    • Munich Dynamite (A-Team)
    • Municorns (B-Team)
  • Muscle Cats of Death (Göttingen, Department of TSG Göttingen)
  • Prussian Fat Cats (Potsdam)
  • Rhein-Neckar Delta Quads (Mannheim, Department of ISC Mannheim )
    • Delta Quads F (l) ight Crew (A-Team)
    • Test Pilots (B-Team)
  • Red Lion Roller Derby eV (Wuppertal)
  • Riot Rocketz (Leipzig, department of the Red Star Leipzig )
  • Riot Rollers Darmstadt (Department of RSC Darmstadt )
  • rocKArollers Karlsruhe (Department of the SSC Karlsruhe )
  • Roller Derby Kiel (Department of TuS Holtenau )
    • Smashing Sailorettes (Women's Team)
    • Waterkant Hardcore (CoEd team)
    • DHR (men's team)
  • Roller Derby Wesel
  • Roller Girls of the Apocalypse (Kaiserslautern)
    • The Wreckoning (A-Team)
    • Night Terrors (B-Team)
  • Roller Grrrl Gang (Frankfurt am Main)
  • Roller derby Erfurt
  • Rolling Raptors (Leipzig, Department SC DHfK Leipzig )
  • Rolling Rat Pack (Regensburg)
  • RuhrPott Roller Girls (Essen, department of REV Gruga)
    • Devil Dolls (A-Team)
    • Devil's Rejects (B-Team)
  • S'Käthchen Roller Derby (Heilbronn)
  • Splatter Fairies Marburg
  • Sucker Punch Rollergirls (Nuremberg, department of the DJK Nürnberg-Eibach)
  • Stuttgart Valley Rollergirls (Department of MTV Stuttgart )
    • Hit Girls (A-Team)
    • Bad Seeds (B-Team)
  • Zombie Rollergirlz (Münster)

Associations in Austria

As of November 2016, 4 Roller Derby clubs are registered in the new division of the Austrian Roller Sport & Inline Skate Association.

  • Vienna Roller Derby (VRD) - first founded in Austria in 2011 as Vienna Oi! Star Rollergirls . Since 2015 member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association (WFTDA).
    • Fearleaders is the name of the 16 men in shorts-strong cheerleading group - choreagraphed floor acrobatics as parody of gender roles and floor acrobatics. Appearances at the World Cup 2018 in England. Publication of a picture calendar. Appearance at the Wiener Festwochen 2019.
  • Linz Roller Derby - Steel City Rollers, since 2015.
  • Roller Derby Graz - Dust City Rollers, since March 2016.
  • Fearless Bruisers - Roller Derby Innsbruck (Ibk), founded in January 2016, training at the University of Education. April 22nd, 2017 first friendly games (scrimmage) in Innsbruck against Alp'n Rockets Bozen, Graz and Unicorns Munich. Meanwhile games against Thunder Augsburg (D), Vicenca (I); March 8, 2019 Midnight performance "Bruisical", a sung self-expression. The team's punk rock anthem: "Bad Reputation" by Joan Jett & The Blackhearts. 2019 games in the Landessporthalle Innsbruck against Rolling Thunder Augsburg (D) and Banshees - Roller Derby Udine (I).

National team and other club:

  • In January 2017 the (Roller Derby) Team Austria was founded with a view to the World Cup 2018 in Manchester, UK. The logo stylizes the Vienna Ferris wheel .
  • On February 19, 2018, SBG KNOCKouts Roller Derby Salzburg announced the founding of the association.

Austrian championships

  • approx. December 3, 2017 final in Vienna after preliminary rounds in Graz, Linz and Innsbruck: 1st Vienna, 2nd Innsbruck.
  • 3rd / 4th November 2018 in Linz, sports hall, Landwiedschule, Landwiedstrasse

Associations in Switzerland

  • Basel Derbygirl collective
  • Bonebreakers Bern
  • Genève Roller Derby United (formerly GVA Roller Derby Girls and Leman'Wheels Roller Derby Genève)
  • Les Devotchkas (Neuchâtel)
  • Les Folles Gèrent (Bienne / Biel)
  • Rolling Furies (Lausanne)
  • The Black Witches (Friborg / Freiburg)
  • The Hellveticats Lucerne
  • Zurich City Roller Derby (formerly Zurich City Rollergirlz)

Clubs elsewhere

  • TheAnguanas - VicenzaRollerDerby (I)
  • Crimson Vipers Roller Derby Bergamo (I)
  • Alp'n Rockets Roller Derby Bozen, since 2012. In Bozen (South Tyrol, I) there is also a men's national team


Both the names of the (mostly female) teams and the player names are often played with with words , reinterpretations through mutated spelling, similar sounds, and repeated sounds occur. With a wink, it alludes - often in English - to violence, eroticism and, in the case of team names, to a reference to the city. Also internationally.

The exclamation Oi! Star sounds like oyster (Engl. Oyster), the shell with the hard shell. Nora Knockout repeats the "no", Demolition Derby Dolls like Deadly Darlings (Düsseldorf) repeats the "D". With Hellveticats an allusion to the designation of Switzerland (Confoederatio Helvetica) is made. S'Käthchen Roller Derby (Heilbronn) refers to the play Das Käthchen von Heilbronn , Dr. Fist on Doctor Faustus . Peter Pan alty, referee, Eve Massive, player in Innsbruck.

On February 23, 2018, the World Flat Track Association (WFTDA) and Roller Derby Germany (RDD) published the first ever gender-sensitive translation of the English rules from December 1, 2017.

World cup


The Roller Derby World Cup (RDWC) was held December 2011 in Toronto , Canada, December 2014 Dallas , USA, February 2018 in Greater Manchester , UK. The number of participating teams rose from 13 to 30, then 38. The first issue was hosted by Blood & Thunder Magazine . The next World Cup is planned for 2022.

In all 3 years the team of the USA won - with an increasingly balanced point relationship. The teams from Australia, Canada and England achieved 2nd, 3rd and 4th place - respectively and in each case.

Germany (first participation in 2011) reached 13th place in 2018, Austria (first participation) 32nd, Switzerland (participating since 2014) the umpteenth.

Special features of the teams: England, Scotland and Wales compete as separate teams. Ireland as (All-) Ireland . Aotearoa (an indigenous place of residence) is the name of the team from New Zealand, Indigenous an indigenous team IRN represents Iran, ZA South Africa, West Indies , Korea stands for all of Korea.

During the break in the 2018 finals, the Fearleaders from Vienna performed.


Men's Roller Derby World Cup (MRDWC) took place in 2014 with 15 teams in Birmingham, England, in 2016 with 20 teams in Calgary, Canada and in 2018 in Barcelona, ​​Spain.

Germany's men's team reached 11th place in 2014, and 14th place in 2016.


  • Roller Derby Girl (USA, 1949, 10 min, b / w) documents the sport for the first time. A young Native American meets famous fiend Midge "Toughie" Brasuhn, veteran of the Brooklyn Red Devils, in training. Part of the Paramount Pictures series Pacemakers about the world of work and the life of Americans.
  • The Fireball (USA, 1950, 84 min), roller-skating fever (1959 in German) plays on the steep curve track. White Johnny becomes a sports star and is also well received by women, but suffers from polio.
  • Rollerball (1975) and
  • Rollerball (2002), in which violence among (male) players on roller skates and motorcycles on a track with banked curves plays a major role, also tie in with roller derby.
  • Rollergirls (USA, 2006), TV series in 10 one-hour episodes, half is about the private life of female skaters and half is about the game Roller Derby.
  • 16 films from 1971, 1972 and 1999–2012 can be found on the User List Roller Derby In Film from 2013 on IMDb. Most of the films are set in the United States, one in Toronto, Canada.
  • Individual other and more recent films can be found on other lists.
  • Whip It - Be Your Own Hero (USA, 2009, 111 min), German: Roller Girl - Sometimes the wrong path is the right way (2011), a young outsider from the country finds a roller derby team in the city (Austin, Texas).

Web links

Commons : Roller Derby  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Men's Roller Derby Association
  2. WFTDA and MRDA Announce new Officiating Certification Oversight Panel, May 6, 2016, accessed on May 9, 2016. May 2016.
  3. Bettina Fernsebner-Kokert, Beastie Toy and Rempelei auf roller-skates, Der Standard, October 26, 2011 (print edition 27 October 2011). Retrieved March 4, 2015
  4. [1]
  5. ^ Website of the Roller Derby World Championship 2011
  6. Match report of the USA – Canada final ( Memento of the original from December 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. Track Queens - Battle Royal , Scores & Photos (accessed February 19, 2013)
  8. WFTDA Rules Appendix A: WFTDA Track Design Specifications
  9. USA Roller Sports Rules
  10. Modern Athletic Derby Endeavor Rules
  11. Matthias Bernold, report in the Wienerin: Where the wild girls live, July 26, 2012. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
  12. 2018 Women's Flat Track Derby Association: WFTDA Flat Track Roller Derby Rules. In: . Women's Flat Track Derby Association, Jan. 1, 19, accessed July 18, 2019 .
  13. Women's Flat Track Derby Association - Rules according to WFTDA (accessed March 17, 2013)
  14. Roller Derby Coalition of Leagues Website ( Memento of the original from June 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. ^ Derby News Network - Roller Derby Rules. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 16, 2013 ; Retrieved on March 19, 2013 (American English): "Because relatively few local leagues play on a banked track, no single standard ruleset has yet emerged." Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  16. Security check required. In: Retrieved July 30, 2016 .
  17. Berlin Rollergirls at Derby Position. Retrieved July 6, 2016 .
  18. The Blockforest Rollergirls are looking for female players and invite you to the Recruiting Day, May 19, 2017, accessed on August 21, 2018.
  19. Cologne Roller Derby at Derby Position. Retrieved July 6, 2016 .
  20. Maniac Monsterz at Derby Position. Retrieved July 6, 2016 .
  21. ^ Riot Rocketz Roller Derby Leipzig. Retrieved July 7, 2018 .
  22. Roller Derby from Frankfurt • Roller Grrrl Gang. In: Roller Grrrl Gang. Retrieved May 27, 2016 .
  23. Rolling Raptors on Facebook. Retrieved September 20, 2018 .
  24. RuhrPott Roller Girls at Derby Position. Retrieved July 6, 2016 .
  25. Stuttgart Valley Rollergirls at Derby Position. Retrieved July 6, 2016 .
  26. What is Roller Derby? Austrian Roller Sports and Inline Skate Association,, accessed on November 18, 2016.
  27. VIENNA ROLLERGIRLS, youtube video (05:25), March 1, 2011, accessed on May 9, 2016.
  28. Matthias Lang: Roller Derby: More than just driving in circles,, February 6, 2016, accessed on May 9, 2016. - Photo report.
  29. Vienna Roller Derby, club website
  30. Fearleaders | Arte TRACKS, video (5:14), published February 5, 2018, accessed April 7, 2018. - Background documentation.
  31. welsty2003: EventcityUK: Fearleaders at Women's Roller Derby World Cup 2018, video (7:23), published February 3, 2018, accessed April 7, 2018.
  32. Female prelude to the festival weeks, May 11, 2019, accessed on May 13, 2019.
  33. Linz Roller Derby, club website
  34. Daniel Grabner: Girl Gang, May 7, 2016 accessed November 18, 2016th
  35. ^ First Innsbruck roller derby friendly game mein, April 28, 2017, accessed on May 13, 2019.
  36. Roller Derby Doubleheader: Fearless Bruisers vs. Rolling Thunder vs. Banshees Tyrolean sports calendar, February 10, 2019, accessed on May 13, 2019.
  37. fearlessbruiser's presence on Facebook
  38. What is Roller Derby and who are the Fearless Bruisers? Freirad , St. Marianna, May 18, 2017, accessed on May 13, 2019 - radio broadcast (5:55) with Kathi Filzer, alias Hell-O-Kitty.
  39. rollerderbyteamaustria, January 22, 2017, accessed on January 28, 2017.
  40. SBG-KNOCKouts-Roller-Derby-Salzburg on Facebook, accessed on April 8, 2018.
  42. Jürgen Affenzeller: Roller derby aces rode in Linz for the championship title, October 16, 2018, accessed on May 13, 2019.
  43. https: //www.faCrimsonVipersRollerDerby Facebook
  44. Eva Kuster: Roller Derby: Competitors on the track, but off the beaten track together for sport!, July 2017, accessed on May 13, 2019. - Developed by Fearless Bruisers Innsbruck.
  45. WFTDA and RDD publish standard translation, February 23, 2018, accessed on April 8, 2018.
  46. The Rules of Flat Track Roller Derby December 1, 2017, accessed April 8, 2018.
  47. WFTDA Flat Track Roller Derby Rules (and Casebook) (German)
  50. Roller Derby Girl (1949) Documentary, Short, Sport. IMDb, accessed May 9, 2016.
  51. Roller Derby Girl (1949) (Youtube)
  52. Rollschuhfieber (1950), (The Fireball), Plot Summary, IMDb, accessed on May 9, 2016.
  53. Gottlieb Florschütz: Sport in Film und Fernsehen: Between Infotainment und Spektakel, DUV, 2005, p. 397 - German version 1959 ( limited preview in the Google book search)
  54. Stock Photo - The Fireball, USA 1950, aka: Roller skating fever ,, image (b / w) from November 9, 1950, accessed on May 9, 2016. - Preview images b / w, formerly color film with b / w elements.
  55. Rollergirls (2006), TV series, IMDb, accessed on May 9, 2016.
  56. Roller Derby In Film, User list, beautymortician, created and last update July 2, 2013, IMDb, accessed May 9, 2016.
  57. Roller Derby, User list, Madstunts, created and last update October 12, 2014, IMDb, accessed on May 9, 2016.
  58. Roller Skate, User list, Peeter Yx, created November 29, 2010, last update December 13, 2014, IMDb, accessed on May 9, 2016.