A play on words is a rhetorical figure that is mainly based on ambiguity , twisting, turning (in the sense) or other word changes and is intended to appear humorous and / or witty. For example, copyleft is a play on words about copyright .
There are several categories of word games. The most common are:
- Homonymy : Different words that happen to sound the same, but have different origins and are often spelled differently
- If it rains hides (today), the leather will be cheap.
- Polysemy : the ambiguity of words is used
- "Did you hitchhike?" - "Why?" - "You look so worn out."
- Too many stop signs bring the driver to the lawn.
- Paronomasia : the sound similarity of words is the basis
- Hurry with a while - if you rest, you rust - Urbi et orbi
- Paragraph : a word or a fixed phrase is modified by exchanging individual letters or sounds so that the model remains easily recognizable
- People of poets and thinkers → People of judges and executioners
- A special case of this are spoonerisms - anagrams (also called inverted letters ): letters or sounds are swapped
- A special case of this are again shaking rhymes (for example: "Unfortunately, at this year's Bach festivals, the best in the field were not singing".)
- Hyphenation : The syllables of several words are separated in such a way that these words make a new sense in writing. The new meaning comes from the context, although you don't hear the hyphenation.
- "I'll buy you earrings from Christian Dior ... what happens to them then, honey? ... you Christian Dior" (→ you get them on your ears).
- “In a moment you'll be rid of your head. Then are you headless? And I'll buy you a headless. "
- "I like to listen to music in my Mercedes, I need more CDs for that." (→ Mer-ce-des)
- It is played with the sound of foreign language words that are built into a sentence in one's own language
- Hu Wäng, lang Jäng (is Kölsch and means: high walls, long corridors; sounds Chinese).
- E weng too narrow means: a little too narrow - answer to the joke question: "What does Trabant (car brand of the GDR ) mean in Chinese?"
- Tschann, did the sun seem already? - D 'Sonn' seemed already nice. (A play on words with the Chinese sound of the words: "Jean, was the sun shining? - The sun was already shining beautifully.")
- Situs vilate in isse tabernit. (Looks like Latin, but doesn't eat. An example of kitchen Latin )
The word game is a term from general language and stands for a special way of dealing with language. This use can be witty, witty, sarcastic, but also teasing . The word game makes use of homograph or homonymous words and expressions. A variety of techniques are also used in the word game, such as the dissolving of compositions , the derivation , the "literal", the comparison , the letter rearrangement, the rearrangement of words (see below), accent shifting, slight change in the graphic or phonetic form or the suitcase word .
Word games are common in children because the norms of adult language are not yet internalized. There are also unwanted word games almost every day (see literature: for example "30 kilos of fever").
- Concrete poetry | visual poetry
- Corruption | Nickname | Style flower | Leipogram
- Language acquisition | Interrogator
- Linguistic slip of the tongue theories
- Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo
- Jörg Drews u. a .: The definitive cynical dictionary. An alphabet of hard truths. Haffmans, Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-251-00141-8 (formerly called The Cynical Dictionary ).
- Helmut Glück (Ed.): Metzler Lexicon Language. Metzler, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-476-01519-X .
- Franz Josef Hausmann : Studies on a linguistics of the word game. The pun in the " Canard enchaîné ". Niemeyer, Tübingen 1974, ISBN 3-484-52048-5 (also dissertation, Saarbrücken University 1972).
- Norbert Kühne : 30 kilos of fever. Children's poetry. Children's anecdotes. Ammann, Zurich 1997, ISBN 3-250-10326-8 .
- Norbert Kühne: Children's Anecdotes. In: Ders .: How children learn language. Basics, strategies, educational opportunities. Primus Verlag, Darmstadt 2003, ISBN 3-89678-467-6 , pp. 129-170.
- Dieter E. Zimmer : Talking types. Trends and madnesses in the new German usage. Haffmans, Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-251-00071-3 .
- Oliver Nord: The function of puns in advertisements