As Sprint or short distance running is called in athletics and other sports , where it comes to moving within a range as quickly as possible those disciplines in which the maximum speeds are achieved which allows the human organism.
Sprint in athletics
In athletics, the sprint courses are 50 to 400 meters long. A general distinction is also made between short and long sprints, with distances over 200 meters being referred to as long sprints. The 100 , 200 and 400 meter , 100 meter hurdles (women), 110 meter hurdles (men) and 400 meter hurdles are Olympic disciplines. In addition, 50 and 60 meter hurdles are usually run in indoor competitions. In training, flying sprints over 20 or 30 meters are run, that is, the runner takes a run-up and has already reached full speed when the time measurement starts.
The short distance run is the oldest Olympic discipline. Even as a run over a stadium (approx. 190 meters) it was part of the Greek agonistics and an important part of the ancient Olympic Games .
When it comes to the distinction between medium and long distances , the energy supply is decisive for the athletics running routes : In the sprint, it is mainly achieved through the conversion of energy-rich phosphate reserves ( ATP , creatine phosphate ) and lactic acid fermentation (see the article on energy supply ). The athlete can maintain the speeds achieved here for up to 40 seconds. Because of the energy supply, the sprint is particularly susceptible to doping with anabolic steroids and the use of creatine (which is not doping).
The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt currently holds the men's world record over 100 meters and 200 meters . He needed 9.58 seconds for the 100 meters in Berlin in 2009 and 19.19 seconds for the 200 meters in Berlin.
In swimming , sprint distances are 25 to 200 meters. The 50, 100 and 200 meter distances are Olympic disciplines. For the swimming sprint courses, the delimitation by the form of energy supply only applies to a limited extent; under this criterion, the 200 meter distance is to be understood as an endurance distance.
In track cycling , the last 200 to 250 m are driven at top speed in the sprint (formerly: aviator races). In this race, which is carried out over a distance of 600 m to 1000 m (according to the regulations, over two or three laps depending on the length of the track), what matters most is the top speed and the ability to develop a high Using speed correctly with tactical means. Therefore, the speeds related to the last 200 m - this time is taken in every race - are often well below the maximum abilities of the athletes.
In road cycling , riders are called sprinters who specialize in winning races on flat terrain and scoring points. Often there is a sprint from the field of drivers to the goal or scoring line.
In speed skating , sprint routes of 100, 500 and 1000 meters are run. The 100 meters are currently not run, the other two routes are also Olympic disciplines.
In American football , the so-called 40-yard sprint is the most common indicator of a player's acceleration and speed.
In other sports, such as rowing, canoeing or cross-country skiing ( ski sprint), sprint routes are occasionally used in everyday language. However, these disciplines are clearly endurance disciplines from the point of view of energy supply .