Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins [ ˈtɒməs ˈkaʊpəθweɪt ˈeɪkɪnz ] (born July 25, 1844 in Philadelphia , Pennsylvania , † June 25, 1916 ibid) was an American realistic painter .
He made photographs and sculptures, but became famous for his paintings. His best-known pictures include his rowing pictures (see for example Max Schmitt in one ), The Gross Clinic (2006/2007 the most expensive painting by an American from before the Second World War) and Swimming, which is known for its homoerotic charisma . Eakins has painted and drawn over 500 paintings, watercolors, and drawings, but sold very few during his lifetime. However, he found temporary recognition as a teacher. Today Eakins is considered one of the most important American artists.
Thomas Eakins' grandfather Alexander (* 1771; † 1839) came from Ireland to Pennsylvania before 1812, where he built a farm in Valley Forge. In addition to his work as a farmer, he was also a weaver. Presumably on the occasion of his naturalization, he changed his name from Akens or Akins to Eakins. His third of four children was Benjamin (born February 22, 1818, † December 29, 1899). In 1820, Thomas Eakins' mother, Caroline Cowperthwait, was born the tenth child of a Quaker . She married the penmanship teacher and calligrapher Benjamin Eakins on October 19, 1843. The following year Thomas was born the first of five children. Frances ("Fanny") was born in 1848, a son in 1850, who died at the age of 5 months, in 1853 Margaret ("Maggie"). In 1857 Benjamin Eakins bought the house where Thomas would live for most of his life. In 1865 Caroline ("Caddy") was born. The household also included dogs, a monkey and a rat. Through clever investments, Benjamin Eakins was able to build up a small fortune that Thomas Eakins could make a lifelong living on.
Thomas Eakins attended Central High School from 1857 to 1861 . This school did not care about income or parentage, but rather about the abilities of its students. The curriculum emphasized the natural sciences, languages and the arts. Eakins learned Latin, Greek and French. He also learned sign language because he had a deaf friend. He particularly excelled in drawing and solved complex perspective problems. After graduating from school, he assisted his father. An application to teach at his former school was ultimately unsuccessful and he began studying art at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA). At the same time, he attended several anatomy seminars at Jefferson Medical College in order - according to his own statements - to represent people as realistically as possible. He benefited from his father's friendship with two artists: George W. Holmes and John Sartain. Sartain's children, William and Emily , also studied at the academy and became Eakin's friends.
He learned the German language from his friend Max Schmitt. He and Emily taught themselves Italian. His sporting activities included horse riding, cycling, rowing, sailing, swimming, hunting, ice skating and wrestling. He shared hunting and sailing with his father, and rowing with all members of the family.
In 1864 he bought himself free from military service in the civil war . In 1866 Eakins embarked for France on the steamship Pereire . Although there was an admission freeze at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, he achieved his admission in a few weeks, clearing the way for more Americans and retaining a lifelong aversion to bureaucrats. He was accepted into the studio of Jean-Léon Gérôme , whom he admired.
In Gérôme's studio, he soon made friends with Frederick Arthur Bridgman . His friend Harry Humphry Moore also worked here. Eakins visited the Louvre and the Opera. He made friends with the openly lesbian artist Rosa Bonheur and her family. After five months he was allowed to switch from drawing to painting in March 1867, but initially found it difficult. In August he toured Switzerland with his high school comrades William J. Crowell and William Sartain. In late September he set up his own studio. In March 1868 he began to study sculpture with Augustin-Alexandre Dumont . In July Benjamin and Fanny visited Thomas and the three of them toured Italy, Germany and Belgium. In December he went on a two-month home leave.
In August 1869, Eakins studied with William Sartain in the studio of Léon Bonnat , a portrait painter. In November he traveled to Spain, where he studied and admired the work of Jusepe de Ribera and Velázquez in the Prado in Madrid . While the Louvre hadn't thrilled him, he found the Prado a revelation. In his notes he compared Ribera to Rembrandt . He spent most of his time in Seville, where his first painting, A Street Scene in Seville , was created. He learned the Spanish language in a short time from a tutor. He returned to Paris for a short time and then went to Philadelphia, where he arrived on July 4, 1870, never to leave the United States.
Benjamin Eakins set up a studio on the fourth floor of his house. Thomas Eakins began his work as a painter with portraits of family members and friends. At the same time he turned to the subject of rowing. The first work he exhibited was the portrait of his childhood friend Max Schmitt in one . Over the course of four years, around thirty paintings, watercolors and drawings of rowers were created. Eakin's mother died in 1872, Fanny married William J. Crowell and for the first time a painting was created based on a photo. In 1873 he sent two oar pictures to criticize Gérôme, who was impressed. In 1874, Eakins became engaged to Kathrin Crowell and sold a painting, The Sculler , for $ 80 for the first time .
After that, he never took up the subject of rowing again. But there were still pictures of athletes as well as water scenes. In order to finally achieve financial success, Eakins decided in 1875 to paint Die Klinik Gross .
In April 1874, Eakins began attending classes at the Philadelphia Sketch Club . Soon he criticized the work of his fellow students without pay and thus achieved his first position as an art teacher. In 1876 he began with the painting William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River and found in it a way to express his fascination for the naked body in a picture. In the same year he showed five paintings in the art department of the Centennial Exhibition ; The Gross Klinik was only shown as part of a medical exhibition. When the PAFA started courses again in September, he offered himself as a free substitute teacher and dissection assistant. Eakins met Susan Hannah Macdowell ( 1851--1938 ), who studied at PAFA. In May 1877, the PAFA decided that teaching could not be delegated. Thereupon Eakins became assistant in the anatomy lessons and still unpaid teacher of the Arts Students' Union , which consisted of former students of the PAFA. In March 1878 he was again assistant teacher at PAFA. In April 1879 he was a member of the jury for the annual PAFA exhibition. Susan Macdowell received the Mary Smith Prize for best female painter. Kathrin Crowell died of meningitis. In May, he sold In Grandmother's Time to the Smith College Museum of Art , his first painting in a public collection. In September Eakins was appointed professor of painting and drawing by PAFA with a salary of $ 600 a year. In 1882 he was appointed director with a salary of $ 1,200 and the promise of a further increase to $ 2,500.
From September 1881 to 1885 he also taught at the Brooklyn Art Guild . From 1885 to 1886 he taught anatomy and perspective at the Art Students' League of New York. From 1897 Eakins only taught individual students.
While serving as director of PAFA, Eakins worked on a drawing textbook. The general sounding name A Drawing Manual does not suggest the very specialized content: The book is largely about perspective drawing. The first three chapters are devoted to central perspective, followed by chapters on parallel perspective and isometric drawing. Eakins then turns to the reflections in the water and continues with reflections on shadows and framing. The book ends with a chapter on the relief. He stopped working on this book around 1887 and it was not reconstructed and published until the 21st century. The book shows the importance that Eakins, who lived in a time when the importance of perspective declined more and more, attached to perspective in his work and teaching.
The Afro-American Henry Ossawa Tanner became famous among Eakins' students .
In 1878 Eakins came into contact with the work of Eadweard Muybridge . Muybridge made photographic studies of the movement of animals and humans. In June 1879, Eakins began work on A May Morning in the Park (also called The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand ). In this painting, he translated Muybridge's findings on the gait of horses into a painting for the first time and was criticized for his perception of being wrong. Other criticism was directed against the attempt to depict this gait, which could not be observed with the human eye. In 1880 Eakins bought his first own camera, a Scovill with interchangeable lenses. His students were also the models for Eakin's photographic work. Since Eakins never signed his photographs and his students rarely signed their photographs, most of the photographs that have survived can only be assigned to the Eakins circle . During this time the Naked Series was created , photographs of models and students, which were used for instruction in the academy and for studying anatomy.
In December 1882, Eakins' sister Margaret died. In January 1884, Eakins and Susan MacDowell married. Eakins left his father's house and moved into a studio with his wife. In June, Muybridge began photographic experiments in Philadelphia, in which Eakins initially participated as a consultant and assistant, before turning away and starting his own parallel experiments. On June 14th, his youngest sister Caroline (caddy) married Frank Stephens, one of Eakin's students.
In January 1886, Eakins removed the loincloth from a male model in a class of female students. In February he was then asked to leave his position at PAFA. An investigation was carried out by the PAFA committee. Eakins was also accused of using his female students as nude models and, when asked by his student Amelia Van Buren about the mobility of the male pelvis in front of this, took off the pants and gave the answer by moving her own body accordingly. When Eakins had to leave PAFA, 38 students also left the college and formed the Art Students' League of Philadelphia , which was taught by Eakins. In March, Eakins' opponents, led by Frank Stephens, tried to expel him from the Philadelphia Sketch Club . Caddy also made serious allegations against her brother. In July, Benjamin Eakins Caddy and Frank Stephens kicked out of his home, and Susan and Thomas Eakins moved in instead. In the eighteen months after his discharge from the academy, there were hardly any paintings or photographs.
Eakins met Walt Whitman in 1887 . Eakins spent the months of July through September on a ranch in the Dakota Territory to recuperate. In winter he portrayed Whitman, who was delighted with his portrait.
In 1889 Eakins was commissioned to paint a portrait of Dr. Paint David Hayes Agnew; it was one of only 25 commissioned works in his career. He continued to paint, exhibit, and teach. In May 1896 his only solo exhibition took place, which was a success with the critics but did not result in sales. On July 2, 1897, his niece Ella Crowell committed suicide, which led to a rift between the two families. The relationship with his former student Samuel Murray (1869–1941), now a successful sculptor, intensified.
In 1900 Mary Adeline ("Addie") Williams (1853–1941; childhood friend of Eakins 'sister Margaret) moved in with the Eakins'. It is unclear whether she was a lover of Thomas or a friend of Susan's. In the years that followed, Eakins received various awards and was a member of various juries. The National Academy of Design elected him a full member ( NA ) in New York in 1902 .
No religious ceremony took place after Eakin's death; he was probably an agnostic or an atheist . In 1917 commemorative exhibitions were held, first in New York and then in Pennsylvania. While previous exhibitions had shocked the public, Eakins' paintings were now considered old-fashioned now that van Gogh , Gauguin , Cézanne and Duchamp were known. In 1928 the Philadelphia Museum of Art received a donation of 80 Eakins' works from Susan Eakins and Mary Adeline Williams.
Susan Eakins died on December 27, 1938; the couple remained childless. Charles Bregler, a student of Eakins', saved a large number of works and documents from the now empty house, but kept them until his death in 1958, so that they have only been available for research since 1985.
Eakins' paintings have fetched record prices at auctions since the 1970s and are recognized as masterpieces.
Eakins made models for various of his paintings. One example is A May Morning in the Park , for which various sculptures of horses exist.
However, Eakins also made commissioned work, such as the bronze horses for an equestrian statue. In addition, various reliefs were created. Eakins also made the Whitman death mask.
Stylistic classification and work technique
During his training in Paris, Eakins completely ignored the emerging impressionists. His direction was realism , sometimes also called naturalism. Milton Brown feels at Max Schmitt in a Single Scull to the Luminism recalls, an assessment of Elizabeth Johns contrary. She sees Eakins as an almost pure portrait painter. He was an admirer of Winslow Homer but did not show his romanticism. When asked why he never modeled Eakins, artist Edwin Austin Abbey said:
"For the reason that he would bring out all those traits of my character I have been trying to conceal from the public for years."
"Because it would reveal all the traits of my character that I have been trying to hide from the public for years."
Eakin's knowledge of and use of anatomy and perspective has been a rarity since the time of Leonardo da Vinci .
Eakins used photographs as studies for his paintings, but preferred to make his portraits from the model. The sessions with the model could drag on for a very long time. He transferred perspective studies to the final canvas with pin pricks.
Eakin's first relationship with Emily Sartain broke up during his stay in Paris. The ensuing engagement to Kathrin Crowell lasted until her death. Eventually (when he finally had an income of his own) he married Susan MacDowell, a former student of his who loved him. Although the childless relationship lasted until death, it is not known whether he actually returned their love. His friend Walt Whitman was homosexual, and a number of Eakins' students are also believed to have homosexual inclinations. Many homoerotic references can also be found in Eakins' work, so that his actual sexual inclination remains questionable. Eakins was fascinated by the naked body all his life. He modeled himself and also encouraged his students, friends, and family members to model naked, which was unusual at a time when artists often relied on prostitutes for nude models.
In 2005, the art historian Henry Adams published his book Eakins Revealed: The Secret Life of an American Artist . It received numerous positive reviews, but was not well received by experts. Adams calls Eakins a Michael Jackson of his time who not only drank too much milk, but also, in alphabetical order, owed anti-Semitism, bestiality, exhibitionism, incest, lies, sadism, poor writing style, sexism, unattractiveness and voyeurism to let. The book is no longer available from the publisher, an e-book edition is announced for the medium future .
The Hamburg music group Tocotronic uses Eakins' "Portrait of Douglas Morgan Hall" from 1889, which shows a young man staring into nothing with red eyes, as the cover of the 2007 album "Capitulation"
See: catalog raisonné Thomas Eakins
A Street Scene in Seville (1870, oil on canvas, 159.4 × 106.7 cm)
- The first completed painting by Eakins was made in Spain.
Home Scene (1870–1871, oil on canvas, 55 × 45.7 cm), The Brooklyn Museum
- The picture shows Eakin's sisters Margaret and Caroline at the piano.
- Margaret in Skating Costume (1871, oil on canvas, 61.2 × 51 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art
- Elisabeth Crowell with a Dog (1871, oil on canvas, 34.9 × 43.2 cm), San Diego Museum of Art
- Max Schmitt in One (1871, oil on canvas, 81.9 × 117.5 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- John Biglin in a Single Scull (1873–1874, watercolor, 42.7 × 60.9 cm)
- Professor Benjamin Howard Rand (1874, oil on canvas, 152.4 × 121.9 cm), Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia
- Starting Out after Rail (1874, oil on canvas, 60.9 × 50.8 cm), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
- A Negro Whistling [for] Plover (1874, watercolor, 28.6 × 42.4), The Brooklyn Museum
- Sailing (1875, oil on canvas, 81.2 × 117.5 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art
- Baseball Players Practicing (1875, watercolor, 27.5 × 32.6 cm), Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design
- The Gross Clinic (1875, oil on canvas, 244 × 198 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art / Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia
- The Chess Players (1876, oil on panel, 29.8 × 42.5 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- Baby at Play (1876, oil on canvas, 81.9 × 122.8 cm), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
- In Grandmother's Time (1876, oil on canvas, 16 × 12 inches), Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton, Massachusetts
- The Zither Player (1876, watercolor, 30.7 × 26.7 cm), The Art Institute of Chicago
William Rush carving his allegorical figure of Schuylkill River (1877, oil on canvas, 51 × 66 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art
- William Rush (* 1756; † 1833) was a classicist sculptor from Philadelphia. The Schuylkill River was of particular importance to Eakins.
- The Dancing Lesson / Negro Boy Dancing (1878, watercolor, 45.9 × 57.4 cm) The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Der Vierspänner / A May Morning in the Park / The Fairman Rogers Four-in-Hand (1879–1880, oil on canvas, 61 × 89 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art
- Fairman Rogers was a director of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and commissioned this painting.
The Cruxifixion (1880, oil on canvas, 243.8 × 137.2 cm) Philadelphia Museum of Art
- The painting is the only religious one in Eakins' entire oeuvre.
- The Pathetic Song (1881, oil on canvas, 114.3 × 82.6 cm), The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
- Mending the Net (1881, oil on canvas, 81.5 × 114.6 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art
Shad Fishing at Gloucester on the Delaware River (1881, oil on canvas, 30.7 × 46 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art
- Fishermen are the only workers Eakins has ever portrayed.
- The Writing Master: Portrait of the Artist's Father (1882, oil on canvas, 76.2 × 86.9 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- Professional at Rehearsal (1883, oil on canvas, 16 × 30.5 cm), Philadelphia Museum of Art
- Arcadia (1883, oil on canvas, 97.2 × 115.6 cm), The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Swimming / The Swimming Hole (1883–1885, oil on canvas, 69.3 × 92.2 cm), Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth
- The painting was a commissioned work, but was rejected by the client. As in some other paintings, Eakins depicted himself in this one.
- Walt Whitman (1887–1888, oil on canvas, 76.5 × 61.6 cm), The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia
- Cowboys in the wasteland of North Dakota / Cowboys in the Bad Lands (1888, oil on canvas, 83 × 115 cm), New York, Clark Collection
The Agnew Clinic (1889, oil on canvas, 189 × 331 cm) University, Philadelphia
- See here on The Gross Clinic .
- The Concert Singer (1890, oil on canvas, 190 × 137 cm) Pennsylvania Museum of Art
- Miss Amelia Van Buren (1891, oil on canvas, 114 × 81 cm), Phillips Collection, Washington DC
- Maud Cook (1895, oil on canvas, 60.9 × 50.8 cm), Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut
- Taking the Count (1898, oil on canvas, 246.3 x 214.1 cm), Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut
- The Wrestlers (1899, oil on canvas, 122.9 × 152.4 cm), Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, Ohio
- The Thinker (1900, canvas, 208 × 107 cm) Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Archbishop William Henry Elder (1903, oil on canvas, 167.9 × 104.4 cm), Cincinnati Art Museum
- Between 1900 and 1903 a number of paintings by church people were created.
William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River (1908, oil on canvas, 92.7 × 123.2 cm), The Brooklyn Museum
- Eakins has taken up the topic from 1877 here again.
Portrait of Rutherford B. Hayes (1912), Philipse Manor Hall State Historic Site, Yonkers, New York
- This painting is the last completed painting that was created with the help of his wife. The whereabouts of an earlier portrait of Hayes is unknown.
- K. Foster: Eakins, Thomas . In: General Artist Lexicon . The visual artists of all times and peoples (AKL). Volume 31, Saur, Munich et al. 2001, ISBN 3-598-22771-X , pp. 480-482.
- Lloyd Goodrich: Thomas Eakins. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1982, ISBN 0-674-88490-6 .
- Goodrich published the standard work on Eakins in 1933 for which he interviewed numerous contemporaries of Eakins. This book is the 2-volume revision from 1982. Goodrich was not yet able to take the Bregler documents into account.
- Elizabeth Johns: Thomas Eakins: The Heroism of Modern Life. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1983, ISBN 0-691-00288-6 .
- The author's central thesis is that Eakins was a portrait painter. She picks out 5 paintings, to each of which she dedicates a chapter of the book: Max Schmitt im Eine , Die Klinik Gross , William Rush Carving His Allegorical Figure of the Schuylkill River , The Concert Singer and Walt Whitman .
- Michael Fried: Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1988, ISBN 0-226-26211-1 .
- In the section on Thomas Eakins, Fried deals with the Gross Clinic.
- John Wilmerding: Thomas Eakins. Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC, 1993, ISBN 1-56098-313-2 .
- John Wilmerding: Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) and the heart of American life. National Portrait Gallery, London, 1993, ISBN 1-85514-095-0 .
- Kathleen A. Foster: Thomas Eakins Rediscovered: Charles Bregler's Thomas Eakins Collection at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 1998, ISBN 0-300-06174-9 .
- Eakins' student Bregler kept numerous works and documents that are dealt with in this catalog.
- Stephan Koja (Ed.): America. The New World in 19th Century Pictures. Prestel: Munich 1999, ISBN 3-7913-2051-3 .
- Martin A. Berger: Man Made: Thomas Eakins and the Construction of Gilded Age Manhood. University of California Press, Berkeley, 2000, ISBN 0-520-22209-1 .
- Alice A. Carter: The Essential Thomas Eakins. The Wonderland Press, New York, 2001, ISBN 0-8109-5830-9 .
- The New York Times writes about the book series The Essential "Be an art expert in 5 minutes." The thin and small-format book provides a loosely written introduction to the life and work of Thomas Eakins. Eakins' important works are reproduced in color and briefly discussed. However, this book does not go into depth.
- Darrel Sewell: Thomas Eakins. Philadelphia Museum of Art and Yale University Press, Philadelphia, 2001, ISBN 0-300-09111-7 .
- The book was written in connection with the exhibition Thomas Eakins: American Realist . The large-format book contains many illustrations of Eakins' works, including some sculptures. The book consists of the following essays: Foreword by Anne d'Harnoncourt, Thomas Eakins and American Art by Darrel Sewell, Chronology by Kathleen Brown, Eakins's Early Years by Amy B. Werbel, Studies in Paris and Spain by H. Barbara Weinberg, The 1870s , The 1880s , The 1900s and Eakins's Vision of the Past and the Building of a Reputation by Marc Simpson, Images of Fairmont Park in Philadelphia by Elizabeth Milroy, Eakins and the Academy and Portrait of Teachers and Thinkers by Kathleen A. Foster, Photographs and the Making of Paintings and The Pursuit of “True Tones” by Mark Tucker and Nica Gutman, The Camera Artist by W. Douglass Paschall, Eakins in the Twentieth Century by Carol Troyen, Eakins as a Writer by William Innes Homer and a bibliography.
William Innes Homer : Thomas Eakins. His life and art , Abbeville Press, New York, 2002, ISBN 0-7892-0774-5 .
- The author is a professor of art history and was consultant and catalog author for the largest Eakins exhibition to date. Originally published in 1992, the book was reissued in 2002. In addition to an extensive text section, it contains many large-format images of Eakin's paintings.
- Philip Dacey: The Mystery of Max Schmitt: Poems on the Life and Work of Thomas Eakins. Turning Point, Cincinnati, 2004, ISBN 1-932339-46-9 .
- The book of poems depicts the life and some of the works of Eakins in poetry.
- Henry Adams: Eakins Revealed: The Secret Life of an American Artist. Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 2005, ISBN 0-19-515668-4 .
- The author is Professor of Art History at Case Western Reserve University. The extensive book contains relatively small black and white illustrations of Eakins' paintings and photographs.
- Thomas Eakins: A Drawing Manual . Philadelphia Museum of Art and Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10847-8 .
- The book was edited by Kathleen A. Foster, who also wrote an introduction. It also contains an essay by Amy B. Werbel Thomas Eakins: Last of the Art Crusaders . Additional texts by Eakins are attached as an appendix, which deal with the construction of a camera, the muscles and the refraction.
- Sidney Kirkpatrick: The Revenge of Thomas Eakins. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2006, ISBN 0-300-10855-9 .
- William S. McFeely: Portrait: The Life of Thomas Eakins. WW Norton, New York and London, 2007, ISBN 978-0-393-05065-3 .
- The Pulitzer Prize winner is a historian and biographer. His book focuses on the life of Eakins. The book contains a blackboard section with colored illustrations of some paintings. The book was published in 2007, but does not go into Eakins Revealed .
- Thomas Eakins at Google Arts & Culture
Search for "Thomas Eakins" in the online catalog of the Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage . Attention : The database has changed; please check result and
- Thomas Eakins at artfacts.net
- Eakins at The Athenaeum has over 100 reproductions of Eakins' paintings
- Artchives about Eakins
- arthistory.about about Eakins
- PBS via Eakins
- ↑ Laurinda S. Dixon, Weisberg, Gabriel P: In sickness and in health: disease as metaphor in art and popular wisdom . University of Delaware Press 2004, ISBN 0-87413-857-4 , p. 127.
- ^ Henry Adams: Eakins revealed: the secret life of an American artist . Oxford University Press US 2005, ISBN 0-19-515668-4 , p. 116.
- ↑ nationalacademy.org: Past Academicians "E" / Eakins, Thomas NA 1902 ( Memento of the original from August 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed June 20, 2015)
- ↑ 100 Masterworks Volume 1, Milton Brown, p. 320; for Luminism see also en: Luminism
- ↑ Thomas Eakins: The Heroism of Modern Life , Elizabeth Johns, p. 3.
- ↑ The Essential Thomas Eakins , Alice A. Carter, pp. 65f.
- ^ The Essential Thomas Eakins , Alice A. Carter, p. 86.
- ↑ The Essential Thomas Eakins , Alice A. Carter, p. 75.
↑ Reviews of Eakins Revealed , March 23, 2007
- Myth of Great American Painter Overturned in Eakins Revealed
- The Week: Review of Eakins Revealed
- Reviews at the publisher
↑ Critique of Eakins Revealed , March 23, 2007
- Disrobing the artist
- Eakins: revealed and revenged ( Memento of the original from December 17, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ The Week, Review of Eakins Revealed, March 15, 2007.
- ↑ Our Weird Uncle Eakins , John Glassie, March 15, 2007 ( September 29, 2007 memento on the Internet Archive )
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Cowperthwait Eakins, Thomas (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American realistic painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 25, 1844|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Philadelphia , Pennsylvania|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 25, 1916|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Philadelphia , Pennsylvania|