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Mariánské Lázně
Mariánské Lázně coat of arms
Marienbad (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Historical part of the country : Bohemia
Region : Karlovarský kraj
District : Cheb
Area : 5180.8796 ha
Geographic location : 49 ° 58 '  N , 12 ° 42'  E Coordinates: 49 ° 57 '52 "  N , 12 ° 42' 7"  E
Height: 578  m nm
Residents : 12,800 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 353 01
License plate : K (old: CH)
Railway connection: Plzeň – Cheb
Mariánské Lázně – Karlovy Vary
Status: city
Districts: 6th
Mayor : Martin Kalina ( Česká pirátská strana ) (Status: 2014)
Address: Ruská 155/3
353 30 Mariánské Lázně
Municipality number: 554642
Website :
Location of Mariánské Lázně in the Cheb district

Marienbad ( Czech Mariánské Lázně [ ˈmarɪˌaːnskɛː ˈlaːzɲɛ ]) is a spa town in the West Bohemian spa triangle with about 13,000 inhabitants. In administrative terms, it belongs to the Eger district in the Karlovy Vary region .


Geographical location

Marienbad is located 630  m nm in the Imperial Forest ( Slavkovský Les ) in the climatically mild valley of the Úšovický potok , which is open to the south . The Marienbad dam is located north of the city .

City structure

The town of Mariánské Lázně consists of the hamlets Hamrníky (Hammerhäuseln), Chotěnov-Skláře , Kladská (bald head), Mariánské Lázně (Marienbad), Stanoviště (Stanowitz) and Úšovice (Auschowitz). Basic development units are Hamrnický les , Hamrníky , Chotěnov (Kuttnau) Jižní Mesto , Kasárna Hamrníky , Kladská , Lázeňský Area I , Lázeňský site II , Mariánské Lázně-sever , Na Ruské , Panská poles , Rybníky , Skláře (bottles hut), Stanoviště , Stavební Mlýn , U nádraží , Úšovice , Vora and Za nádražím .

The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts of Chotěnov u Mariánských Lázní , Mariánské Lázně , Stanoviště u Mariánských Lázní and Úšovice .


Average monthly temperatures for Marienbad / Mariánské Lázně
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 0 3 8th 14th 19th 21st 23 23 18th 13 6th 2 O 12.5
Min. Temperature (° C) -4 -4 -1 2 7th 10 12 11 8th 4th 0 -3 O 3.5
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 2 2 5 6th 8th 9 9 8th 6th 4th 3 1 O 5.3
Rainy days ( d ) 13 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 10 13 12 13 Σ 150
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Row of houses in the city center
Cross fountain in Marienbad, copper engraving around 1815
Marienbad around 1850
Marienbad with church and Rudolph's spring around 1910
Marienbad, Ferdinandstrasse around 1900
Hotel Nové Lázne
Memorial to General Patton

Late 12th century Bohemian Gaugraf founded Hroznata of Ovenec that in the region in a river valley Teplá , that the Premonstratensian belongs. At that time the area consisted mainly of swamp . In the 14th century, the area, depopulated by the plague, was settled by Germans. The canons of the Teplá Monastery already knew about healing springs in the Middle Ages , which were known as sour or sourling . In 1528 the water in the springs was examined for its components at the behest of King Ferdinand I. Salt was then extracted from the Ferdinand's spring, but this could not be used as table salt because of its laxative effect; it was Glauber's salt . In 1679 a book appeared on six of the healing springs.

In the 17th century, sick people from the area bathed in the healing mud and drank the water from the Auschowitz springs. The monastery doctor of the Teplá Monastery, Johann Josef Nehr, examined the healing effects of the iron-containing, hypotonic and mineralized acid and published a well-known publication. In 1807 and 1808 the abbot of the monastery Chrysostomus Laurentius Pfrogner had a first permanent bath house built in the source area at the Marienquelle, which was also known as the “stink spring” because of its unpleasant smell of sulfur.

In 1813, Pfrogner's secretary Karl Prokop Reitberger became abbot of the monastery and, according to the publications of the monastery doctor Nehr, set up a bathing resort, which was recognized as such in 1818 and was named Marienbad after the Marienquelle. He is considered to be the founder of the spa town of Marienbad. Abbot Ridingberger used shares of the monastery property for the construction of the health resort, commissioned Wenzel Skalnik to drain the swamps and design parks. The architects Georg Fischer and Anton Turner built spa buildings from 1817 to 1823, and Abbot Ridingberger was able to witness the early days of the spa town of Marienbad. His success sparked resistance and resentment among the canons of Teplá Abbey; they accused him of wasting the monastery's funds. He was forced to resign as abbot in 1826. The city of Marienbad had its founder erected a memorial on the Kreuzbrunnen promenade in 1879.

In 1824 Marienbad consisted of about 40 representative buildings and already had a good reputation as a health resort. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was there for the first time in 1820. In his honor, the city museum was set up in the house of his stay, the former Pension Zur Goldenen Traube. In the square in front of the museum (Goetheplatz) there is a Goethe monument. Richard Wagner found Marienbad's inspiration in the seclusion and tranquility. There he designed two of his most important works, Lohengrin and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg . It was not until 1865 that the place received city rights. The real upswing of the spa business came from 1872 with the connection to the railway, which created a direct connection to Vienna and Prague , and from December 1898 also to Karlsbad .

In 1897, Crown Prince Albert Edward, 1901–1910 King Edward VII of Great Britain, came to Marienbad for a cure for the first time, which greatly enhanced the reputation of the spa. In 1904 the Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I visited him there ; a monument, which shows the two monarchs in life size standing on a park meadow, commemorates this.

The season in Marienbad lasted from May 1st to September 30th. The annual frequency had risen from 16,000 to nearly 25,000 patients since 1893. In addition, about twice as many visitors stayed in Marienbad at short notice each season.

In 1904 Marienbad had 26,410 spa guests.

The First World War was a turning point, but from 1920, after the founding of Czechoslovakia in 1918, the cure revived and in 1929 the record number of 41,000 spa guests was reached. By mid-1931, the Czechoslovak government pushed through its plans to remove the sole power of disposal of the Teplá Monastery for Marienbad. The baths and bath facilities were subordinated to a commission made up of representatives from the state, the city and the Teplá monastery.

Marienbad belonged to the Munich Agreement and the subsequent occupation of the Sudetenland by German troops from 1 October 1938 to the end of the Second World War the district Marianske Lazne , Region of Eger , in the Reich District of Sudetenland the German Reich . The war represented a decisive turning point, as it meant the temporary end of international visitor numbers. The synagogue , which was built in 1884, was destroyed by the National Socialists during the Reichspogromnacht in 1938. The property of the demolished synagogue has remained undeveloped since then. Marienbad was not destroyed in World War II.

Expulsion of the Germans

In 1900 Marienbad had 4,617 inhabitants, of which 4,504 were German and 25 (0.55%) Czech speaking. On December 1, 1930, the city had 7,202 inhabitants (518 (6.7%) Czechs), 7,706 on May 17, 1939 and only 6,027 on May 22, 1947. Due to the Beneš decrees , the centuries-old German population was expropriated and expelled in 1945 . Their property was confiscated by the Beneš decree 108 , the property of the Protestant church was liquidated by the Beneš decree 131 and the Catholic city churches in Czechoslovakia were expropriated . The Czech Republic made no compensation for the confiscated assets. Instead of the German-speaking population, Czechs, mainly from Central Bohemia, were settled in the city.

The spa facilities were nationalized in 1946. After 1948 Marienbad became a health resort for socialist workers. In 1952 a balneological research center was established there. After the Velvet Revolution in 1989 and the collapse of the Eastern Bloc , many state-owned companies were privatized, including all spa facilities, hotels, residential buildings and other businesses in Marienbad. Many buildings, especially those in the spa district, have now been renovated and restored . There is again a strong focus on foreign spa guests, especially Germans and Russians , and continue to rely on domestic spa guests.

Population development

year Residents Remarks
1837 0334 in 67 houses, mostly German residents
1869 1,566
1880 2,480
1890 3 054
1900 4,617 German residents
1930 7.202 including 518 Czechs
1939 7,713
1950 6,700
1961 9,065
1970 8.003
1980 7,315
1991 6,998
1999 18,500 Meyer's Large Pocket Lexicon, Volume 14
2001 6,602
2017 13,042


Town twinning

Culture and sights

Singing fountain
Church of the Assumption of Mary


  • The city ​​museum at Goetheplatz with the adjoining geological park.

Culture and sights

  • The Singing Fountain at the Spa Colonnade.
  • The Roman Catholic deanery church of the Assumption (1848) by Johann Gottfried Gutensohn
  • the miniature park “Boheminium Park” in the east of the city.
  • Anglican Church (Ruská 98/5): it was built in the years 1878–1879 in the style of an English village church by the widow of the spa guest John Scott of Rodono, who died in Marienbad in 1867. The London-born architect William Burges designed the building, which was carried out by the local builder Friedrich Zieckler. A plaque commemorates the British Crown Prince Edward VII, who attended church services during his spa stays between 1897 and 1909.
  • Chopin's House (Hlavní tnda 47): A memorial to the composer Frédéric Chopin has been set up in the building where the tourist information is located . In 1836, Chopin lived in the house that was then called "The White Swan" and is one of the oldest buildings in Marienbad.


The 18-hole golf course of the Royal Golf Club Mariánské Lázně , three kilometers to the east, above the city center, was opened on August 21, 1905 by the British King Edward VII, who was on site for a spa treatment , making it the oldest golf course in the Czech Republic that still exists. The undulating fairways run through a park landscape , surrounded by spruce forests. With a slope value of 125, the place is considered difficult by Czech standards. The clubhouse is designed in the style of an English country house. The golf course is still occasionally visited by the British royal family.

There is also a sports stadium and swimming pools in the city. In winter there is the possibility to ski in the area of ​​the city of Marienbad, namely on designated cross-country ski trails and on slopes that downhill skiers can reach with the help of a cable car. There is a large hotel complex near the mountain station.

Regular events

  • The festive opening of the course season traditionally takes place on the second weekend in May.
  • In September, the St. Wenceslas Festival is celebrated in a medieval atmosphere.
  • The international folklore festival "Marienbad Autumn" (Mariánský podzim) is held annually.

Economy and Infrastructure

Spa facilities

The city has buildings and spa facilities that are well worth seeing. In the city itself there are 40 healing springs, and around 100 more in the vicinity. The mineral springs are rich in carbonic acid and mineral salts. Drinking cures , mud baths and other treatments for respiratory, metabolic and kidney diseases , tension and pain in the musculoskeletal system are recommended .

The place has, among other things, a large spa park, a monument to the founder Abbot Karl Prokop Reitberger , a Goethe memorial and some hiking routes , for example to the Rozhledna observation tower and a geological nature trail.

Medicinal water sources

Headwaters around Marienbad

Geologically, the source areas around Marienbad are in the Bohemikum, more precisely in the Marienbad complex and the so-called Tepler Kristallin. While metabasites and metaultrabasites , such as amphibolites and serpentinites , occur in the Marienbad complex , gneisses , slate and phyllites are particularly characteristic in Tepler crystalline . These represent the metamorphic equivalents of the Paleozoic and Proterozoic sediments of the Barrandian in the Prague Mulde .

In the Tertiary the Eger Trench, which streaked from northeast to southwest, collapsed . The first tectonic structures appeared in the Eocene (57 to 35 million years ago), but the main activity was in the Miocene (24 to 5 million years ago). The result was active volcanism, which lasted into the Quaternary , which began 1.8 million years ago. In addition, the area is characterized by the Marienbader fault , which runs from north-northwest to south-southeast . At this deep fracture tectonics there are paths for ascending water; Mineral springs and thermal springs were created especially in connection with volcanism . If the sources are naturally enriched with CO 2 , they are referred to as sourlings , if the gas escapes directly, they are mofettes .

Often the springs contain iron, which affects the taste of the spring water on the one hand, and iron hydroxide (Fe (OH) 2 ) precipitates on contact with atmospheric oxygen (O 2 ) due to oxidation of the divalent iron (Fe 2+ ) dissolved in the water . Since the deep waters are oxygen-free, there is no microbial contamination.

In addition to iron, other minerals are usually also dissolved. Usually, metamorphic rocks give off these only to a lesser extent. Due to the flow of water containing CO 2 through the rocks , i.e. an acidic solution, this process is made easier. Kaolinisiertem from albite, a feldspar originate for example sodium and calcium , from serpentinite , however, can increasingly magnesium dissolved and accumulated in the water.

Different types of springs can be found in the area around Marienbad. There are thermal and mineral springs that led to the creation of the spa triangle with Karlsbad , Marienbad, Franzensbad and Sibyllenbad and at the same time explain why there are some mineral fountains in the region. In addition to the springs that promote deep water, there are also sources near the surface and Artesians . Along the faults, springs and mofets often appear in a string of pearls.

Important healing springs

Cross fountain
  • The Alexandrine Spring was taken in 1877/78.
  • The Ambrosius Spring was taken in 1807. It has an iron content of around 39 milligrams per liter. The water is drunk as medicinal water, but is also used for baths.
  • The Ferdinand spring is probably the first medicinal spring to be discovered in Marienbad. The Glauber's salt was extracted from it. It was originally called the Auschowitz Spring. A colonnade was built in 1826/27 and is still preserved. The spring is used for drinking cures.
  • The Karolina spring was named after the wife of Emperor Franz I , Karoline Augusta , in 1870 . At that time a colonnade was also being built there.
  • The Kreuzquelle was first mentioned in 1749 as "Sauerbrunnen". An imposing temple with a dome and golden cross was built over this fountain in the 19th century, which was demolished in 1912 and replaced by a concrete reproduction.
  • The Marienquelle , from which Marienbad owes its name, was the first of the springs to be used for baths. The water contains a particularly large amount of carbonic acid .
  • The forest spring is one of the ferrous sour wells. It is used for drinking cures and for gargling.


Mariánské Lázně railway station

Marienbad is on the Plzeň – Cheb railway line , with the train station three kilometers from the city center. Keep also two pairs of trains daily the fast train SuperCity the directions Cheb and Prague . These continue from Prague in the direction of Ostrava and Bohumín. From the train station you can take the trolleybus lines 5 and 7 to the center. A second train station is on the railway line to Karlovy Vary . Mariánské Lázně město is a bit more central, but is only served by regional trains.

Urban public transport is served by the Marienbad trolleybus operated by the transport company MĚSTSKÁ DOPRAVA Mariánské Lázně sro (MDML) (lines 3, 5, 6 and 7). The same company also carries out urban bus transport with lines 10, 13 and 16. Today's transport network goes back to the Marienbad tram , which ran from 1902 to 1952 and connected the train station with the city center.

Marienbad is located on the Euregio Egrensis cycle path .


Sons of the city

The list contains an alphabetical overview of important personalities born in today's Marienbad. It is irrelevant whether the people later had their sphere of activity in Marienbad or not. Many moved away after their birth and became known elsewhere. The list does not claim to be complete.

In the place worked and lived

  • Karl Joseph Heidler von Heilborn (1792–1866), first spa doctor in Marienbad, a friend of Goethe
  • Maximilian Loewy (1875–1948), Austrian-Czech psychiatrist and neurologist; Holocaust survivor.
  • Jonél Kalinczuk (1856–1934), Austrian-Bukovinian doctor and writer, spa doctor from 1889 to 1934.
  • Hansi Knoteck (1914–2014), Austrian film actress, made her stage debut in Marienbad around 1930
  • Joseph Labitzky (1802–1881), conductor and dance composer, began his career around 1825 in Marienbad
  • Vladimír Páral (* 1932), a contemporary Czech writer, has lived in Marienbad since the 1990s
  • (Eugen) Johannes Riemann (1888–1959), German actor, worked at the theater in Marienbad before 1914
  • Ada Sari (1886–1968), Polish opera singer, stayed between 1929 and 1965 frequently in Marienbad

Died in place

Famous spa guests

Goethe monument in front of the city museum
Goethe with his muse on the Marienbad Goethe hiking trail not far from the forest spring


  • Catherine Sauvat: Back then in Marienbad ... The most beautiful spas in Europe. Knesebeck, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-89660-065-6 . (Illustrated book)
  • Frank Press, Raymond Siever: General Geology , 3rd edition. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-8274-0307-3 .
  • Beate Borowka-Clausberg: Back then in Marienbad ... Goethe, Kafka & Co. - the noble world is healing. edition ebersbach, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-938740-87-3 .
  • Kerstin and André Micklitza: Bohemian Baths Triangle - Around Franzensbad, Karlsbad and Marienbad , 1st edition Trescher Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-89794-302-5 .
  • Gregor Gatscher-Riedl : kuk longing places Karlsbad - Franzensbad - Marienbad. Bubbling elegance in the bath triangle. Kral-Verlag, Berndorf 2018, ISBN 978-3-99024-765-5
  • Marienbad Elegy , cycle of poems by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Web links

Commons : Marienbad  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Marienbad  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. Obec Marianske Lazne: Podrobné informace (Details Marienbad). Retrieved August 4, 2014 .
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. Mayor of Marienbad. Marienbad, accessed on July 25, 2018 .
  4. Casti obcí - Obec Marianske Lazne (Marienbad community parts of the city). Retrieved August 4, 2014 .
  5. Základní sídelní jednotky - Obec Marianske Lazne (basic settlement units of the town of Marianske Lazne). Retrieved August 4, 2014 .
  6. Katastrální území - Obec Mariánské Lázně (Cadastral area of ​​the city of Marienbad). Retrieved August 4, 2014 .
  7. Marienbad. In: Anniversary number of the imperial Wiener Zeitung 1703–1903. Supplement commercial part. Alfred von Lindheim. Druck und Verlag KK Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Vienna, August 8, 1903, p. 41 , accessed on April 30, 2009 .
  8. a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 13, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, pp. 294–295 .
  9. ^ Rudolf Hemmerle : Sudetenland Lexikon Volume 4, page 289. Adam Kraft Verlag, 1985. ISBN 3-8083-1163-0 .
  10. Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 6: Pilsner Kreis , Prague 1838, p. 262.
  11. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Marienbad district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  12. Skiing in Marienbad. Retrieved February 9, 2019 .