Ventilation system

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Ventilation towers for outside air or exhaust air

A ventilation system is a technical device for the ventilation of residential, office and operating rooms. Outside air is supplied to the rooms and "used" or polluted exhaust air is discharged. Depending on the application, there are systems with controlled supply air (supply air system) , controlled exhaust air (exhaust air system) or combined supply and exhaust air systems. Ventilation systems are machines that draw in air, transport, filter, heat, cool, disinfect (UV disinfection of the food industry), dehumidify and humidify and also discharge it again. A ventilation system is a technical facility that is adapted to the building structure; the necessary air output and quality are determined as required.

The preamble of air conditioning systems includes not only ventilation systems that serve the supply of fresh air, pure air circulation systems .

Ventilation systems in shelters differentiate between normal and protective ventilation and are equipped with a crank that enables ventilation even in the event of a power failure

Supply air systems

with supply air systems it is possible to supply the air with components such as

to influence. Cooling or humidifying the air is a partial air conditioning system .

If the thermodynamic functions of heating, cooling, humidifying and dehumidifying are fulfilled, it is an air conditioning system or, colloquially, a full air conditioning system.

In order to protect people and machines from air pollution (e.g. pollen , insects , dust ), air intake systems can have coarse and / or fine air filters and possibly an electrostatic precipitator. These parts must be replaced or cleaned regularly. In larger systems, the air filters are equipped with a pressure switch. This switch generates a message if a specified differential pressure is exceeded due to contamination of the filter or the electrostatic precipitator.

Exhaust systems

Non-smoker protection in Japan: Enclosed smoking room in a train station - air extraction on the roof.

Probably the largest area of ​​application for pure exhaust air systems is found in toilet exhaust air systems in residential or commercial buildings. Exhaust air systems for sanitary areas are regulated in the DIN 18017-3 introduced under building law. Typical exhaust systems are the deduction in the laboratory technique using Digestorium, underground car parks or the extractor over kitchen hoods.

In boats and ships, the airflow ensures that the interior is ventilated by Dorade fans or windscreens .

Supply and exhaust air systems

Combined supply and exhaust air systems are often equipped with heat recovery to save energy . Heat recovery systems are required regionally in Switzerland. The savings compared to conventional ventilation correspond roughly to the performance of the heat exchanger and amount to 40–90% of the heating energy used compared to a system without heat recovery.


Supply and exhaust air systems are equipped with various air filter elements to protect the people in the room and the ventilation system itself. In exceptional cases, the exhaust air is also treated with suitable filters to minimize odors or other emissions .

V-belt monitoring is mandatory for fans with V -belts. Monitoring can take place via a pressure monitor. This measures the pressure difference that builds up before and after the fan when it is in operation. If this pressure difference does not build up over a period of approx. 60 s, the fan is deactivated.

The more modern solution is monitoring with a wind vane relay or a cosPhi monitor . This is an electrical component that is inserted into the feed of the electric motor. If the engine is running without load, i. This means that the V-belt is torn, which switches off the engine.

As a rule, ventilation systems are provided with automatic ventilation flaps (in Switzerland via SIA standard 180, which stipulates a tight building), which close when the ventilation system is switched to OFF. Depending on the structural fire protection on site, fire dampers are also installed between individual fire compartments.

Smaller, simpler ventilation systems are controlled by compact controllers. In the case of larger systems, the regulation is carried out by DDC-GA controls. These are then integrated into the building automation and controlled via the building management system ( building technology ).

In systems with outside air admixture and air / water heat exchangers, a frost protection thermostat is provided to protect the heating register if the heating register is operated without glycol. This deactivates the ventilation system if the temperature falls below the preset temperature (variable, usually 5 ° C) on the heating register. In addition, the heating valve is opened to 100% to protect the heating register, the ventilation system is switched off and the pump is switched on. Any outside air flaps that may be present are also closed so that no more cold air can flow in. Furthermore, a water-side frost protection is often implemented by the control, whereby the return temperature is controlled to a minimum temperature via the heating valve. This prevents the air-side frost protection thermostat from responding.

Other key elements: louvres , louvre dampers , muffler , AUL - filters , fans , heat recovery , heating coils , thermostats , SUP - filters , ventilation duct , the fire damper , ventilation flap , flap actuator , ventilation grille .

Vehicle technology

Hygiene in ventilation systems

All ventilation systems are subject to certain hygienic requirements. VDI 6022 was created for this in Germany ; it regulates the responsibility of the planner, the installer and the operator. The function of the ventilation system must be checked and maintained by means of preventive measures or later inspections, maintenance and cleaning. Consequences that occur in connection with the building itself, people and the ventilation system in it are also summarized under the term SBS and must be eliminated.

In contrast to air conditioning systems , the air supply in ventilation systems is not additionally exposed to moisture. Reheating even reduces the relative humidity, so that bacteria, viruses and germs do not have a good basis for life and do not pose an increased risk. On the other hand, the exhaust air ducts can be contaminated with dirt and germs from moist, warm exhaust air (e.g. kitchen, bathroom). However, this does not pose a health risk for the residents.

Standards and guidelines

Standards and legal regulations

  • DIN 1946 ventilation technology
  • Machinery Ordinance 9. ProdSV, §2 Paragraph 2, Clause c, [1]
    • Part 4: Ventilation systems in buildings and rooms in the healthcare sector
    • Part 6: Ventilation of apartments - General requirements, requirements for dimensioning, execution and marking, handover / acceptance (acceptance) and maintenance
    • Part 6, Supplement 1: Ventilation of apartments - General requirements, requirements for dimensioning, execution and labeling, handover / acceptance (acceptance) and maintenance - sample calculations for selected ventilation systems
  • DIN 4719 Ventilation of apartments - Requirements, performance tests and labeling of ventilation devices
  • DIN 18017, ventilation of bathrooms and toilet rooms without outside windows
  • EN 12097 Ventilation of buildings - Air ducts - Requirements for duct components for the maintenance of duct systems
  • EN 15251 input parameters for the indoor climate for the design and evaluation of the energy efficiency of buildings - indoor air quality, temperature, light and acoustics
  • EN 15780 Ventilation of buildings - Air ducts - Cleanliness of ventilation systems
  • EN 16798, Energy assessment of buildings - Ventilation of buildings
    • Part 3: Ventilation of non-residential buildings - Performance requirements for ventilation, air conditioning and space cooling systems
    • Part 5-1: Calculation methods for the energy demand of ventilation and air conditioning systems (modules M5-6, M5-8, M6-5, M6-8, M7-5, M7-8) - Method 1: Distribution and generation
    • Part 5-2: Calculation methods for the energy demand of ventilation systems (modules M5-6, M5-8, M6-5, M7-5, M7-8) - Method 2: Distribution and generation
    • Part 7: Calculation methods for determining the air volume flows in buildings including infiltration (module M5-5)
    • Part 17: Guidelines for the inspection of ventilation and air conditioning systems (modules M4-11, M5-11, M6-11, M7-11)

German guidelines

In the federal states of Germany, in addition to the respective building regulations , the ventilation system guidelines also apply as introduced technical building regulations. The sample ventilation system guidelines (M-LüAR) are used as a template for this.

  • VDI 2052, air conditioning systems for kitchens
  • VDI 2050, sheet 4: Requirements for technical centers - air conditioning
  • VDI 2053, Sheet 1: Ventilation and air conditioning - garages - Ventilation
  • VDI 2078, calculation of thermal loads and room temperatures
  • VDI 2081, sheet 1: Noise generation and noise reduction in ventilation and air conditioning systems
  • VDI 2082, ventilation technology - sales outlets
  • VDI 2083, clean room technology
    • Sheet 1: Particle cleanliness classes of the air
    • Sheet 4.1: Planning, construction and initial commissioning of clean rooms
    • Sheet 5.1: Operation of clean rooms
  • VDI 2087, air duct systems - assessment basis,
  • VDI 3803,
    • Sheet 1: Air conditioning - Central air conditioning systems - Structural and technical requirements
    • Sheet 5: Ventilation technology, device requirements - heat recovery systems
  • VDI 6022 , sheet 1: Air conditioning, air quality - hygiene requirements for air conditioning systems and devices
  • AMEV RLT: Information on the planning and implementation of ventilation and air conditioning systems for public buildings

European directives and laws that apply in Germany

See also

Wiktionary: Ventilation system  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Supply air system  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Exhaust system  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b DIN EN 13779
  2. Ionized air in the interior , Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts (PDF), edition 01/2013, accessed June 7, 2013
  3. RLT - Anlagenbau 2018. In: Retrieved May 20, 2020 .
  4. Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health., accessed in 2020 .