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House dust on a keyboard

Dust (plural dusts , with different types, listening ? / I ) is the collective term for the finest solid particles of various sizes and of various origins that can remain suspended in gases , especially in the air , for a certain period of time (see suspended matter ). There are airborne particles and dust deposition distinguished. Audio file / audio sample

Depending on the need, dust is divided according to the particle size or the type of dust. Dust particles can consist of organic ( bee pollen , bacteria , fungal spores ) or inorganic materials (rock dust, mineral fibers ). House dust is an omnipresent dust made of organic and inorganic material .

Word formation dusts

House dust on a finger
An ICE sands at 300 km / h and leaves a cloud of dust

Grammatically , Staub (from Middle High German stoup ) - as a singular tantum - has no plural form . The majority of dusts mentioned above is the so-called variety plural , which was mainly coined for technical usage . However, there are shapes such as "motes", "dust" ( "scatter") or " Puffball " (a fungus ).

In a technical sense , the word designates dust classes , that is, groups in the total dust that are grouped according to certain criteria, such as “organic and inorganic dusts” or “various respirable dusts <5 µm”. As it is used in environmental protection , it slowly penetrates everyday language .

Coarse and fine dust

Airborne dust becomes visible in sunlight

From a health point of view, besides the pollutant content of the dust, the size and shape of the dust particles are the decisive parameters. Larger particles (coarse dust) stick more or less well to the nasal hairs or the mucous membranes of the nasopharynx. Small and very small dust particles ( fine dust ) can penetrate deep into the lungs via the trachea and bronchi . Therefore, the fine dust is also used as inhalable or as respirable ( respirable hereinafter) dust.

However, there are no generally recognized terms for fine dust. As a rule, the sizes PM 10 and PM 2.5 are used to categorize fine dust . PM x is defined as "suspended dust in the air that passes through a size-selective air inlet that has a separation efficiency of 50% with an aerodynamic diameter of x µm". In application this means that PM 10 captures half of all particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm.

PM 10 thus corresponds to the thoracic fraction according to the EN 481 standard. The respirable fraction for the target group "sick or weak people or children" of the ISO 7708 standard is equivalent to PM 2.5 .

The abbreviated representation that PM 10 and PM 2.5 are dusts with a diameter smaller than 10 µm or 2.5 µm is incorrect.


Figure 1: Important secondary processes of atmospheric particle formation and the estimated annual formation amount (according to Andreae 1994) in millions of tons for various particles

In principle, dust can arise through various processes:

  1. the mechanical processing of solids (crushing, surface processing, abrasion)
  2. physical influences on solids (such as erosion by wind and weather)
  3. through chemical reactions in the atmosphere with particle formation (gas-to-particle conversion (so-called secondary aerosols ); other chemical reactions lead to the formation of smoke )
  4. by swirling up particles (according to the definition of dust)
  5. biogenic especially as pollen

The dust-forming processes can be of natural origin or caused by humans and are divided into primary and secondary processes. In a primary process, the particles are created directly by the process. A primary anthropogenic process is coal burning in a power plant; the power plant is then referred to as the primary source. A primary natural process is the weathering of rock. In the secondary process, the particles arise from the reactions of certain gases (point 3 above), whereby the resulting solid reaction products can easily attach to existing particles (so-called condensation nuclei).

Dust storm in Texas

Important natural sources of dust are:

  • Soil erosion
  • Volcanism
  • Seas ( sea ​​spray )
  • Sandstorms (Sahara dust in Central Europe, Nevada desert)
  • Pollen count
  • Forest and bush fires with a natural cause (lightning strike)

Important anthropogenic dust sources are:

  • Industrial processes
  • Energy generation by burning (power and district heating plants)
  • traffic
  • Agriculture
  • Construction activity
  • households
  • Tobacco smoking, candlelight, smoking
  • Forest and bush fires (also through slash and burn )
Historical representation of the components of the dust

The contributions of the individual sources to dust pollution are different and essentially depend on the local situation. In a rural area, the rock dust (sand, loess) can contribute significantly to the dust load, whereas in a busy road the dust load will consist of a mixture of abrasive material (tires, brake pads, road surface), heavy metal particles, soot, etc. The Federal Environment Agency estimates that the contribution to internal dust pollution can essentially be attributed to three sources:

1) approx. 50% from the emission (of the combustion engine, note) from diesel vehicles ( trucks , small trucks, buses, cars )
2) about 25% of what the (motorized) traffic stirs up (abrasion of brakes , tires , road surface )
3) about 25% due to long-distance particles, i.e. particles that come from more distant sources.

Tables 1 and 2 summarize emission quantities and the proportions of important sources in the formation of dust.

Table 1: Estimated primary particle emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources in 2000 *
Type and source of dust Particle size
Northern Hemisphere [day / year] ** Southern Hemisphere [day / year] ** Global [day / year] **
POM *** , forest / bush fires 0-2 28 26th 54
POM *** , fossil fuels 0-2 28 0.4 28
POM *** , plant decay > 1 - - 56
Soot, forest / bush fires 0-2 2.9 2.7 5.7
Soot, fossil fuels 0-2 6.5 0.1 6.6
Ash and dust (volcanoes) <5 - - 85
Industrial processes > 1 - - 100
Sea salt 0-16 1,440 1,900 3,340
Rock dust 0-20 1,800 349 2,150
*Sources: and (for volcanic activity); for the formation of secondary particles see Figure 1
** Tg / a = teragram / annum = megatons / year
*** POM: Particulate Organic Matter (particulate organic material)

Of the particle sources listed in Table 1, sea salt (sea spray) and rock dust dominate over the other sources. A large proportion of the sea salt and rock dust particles can, however, be counted as coarse dust and are therefore (usually) not subject to long-distance atmospheric transport , i.e. they are deposited again in relative proximity to their source (excreted from the air).

Of health relevance are the small particles ( fine dust ) and particles that are loaded with heavy metals and organic pollutants (ash, soot), which often come from anthropogenic sources.

Table 1 still lacks dust from burning wood for heating and cooking, as well as tobacco smoke, which smokers suck in themselves and, depending on the legal situation and custom, leave behind especially in interiors used by other people.

Table 2: Shares of various sources of dust pollution in Germany, Austria and Switzerland for the years in brackets
Particle source Total dust particulate matter
Germany ( 2001 ) Austria ( 2002 ) Austria ( 2002 ) Switzerland ( 1997 )
Industry 40.5% 41% 39% 29%
Road traffic 14% 23% 20% 50%
Agriculture k. A. 20% 15% 13%
households 5.3% k. A. k. A. 4%
other sources 40.2% 16% 26% 4%
Total emission 247,000 t 80,000 t 47,000 t 32,000 t
k. A .: no information

A comparison of the values ​​given in Table 2 is only possible to a limited extent, as the sources are sometimes viewed differently. For example, when estimating the dust emissions from road traffic in Austria, whirling up was not taken into account, whereas it was taken into account in the information for Switzerland. With 30% (9,660 t), the resuspension makes up over half of the contribution made by road traffic to fine dust emissions.


Dust storm moves from North Africa to Europe

Processes of dilution, distribution and transport (transmission) lie between emission and immission, the emergence and the impact, i.e. absorption by humans or deposits.

When grinding with a high-speed angle grinder , the particles are clearly visible as long as they are glowing hot, but they can still hit the glass in liquid form a few meters away and fuse with it and thus damage it or even trigger fires.

Vehicle exhaust pipes can be curved towards the floor at the end in order to hurl dust towards the floor as much as possible, but on some trucks, like steam locomotives, they are directed at roof height and upwards in order to minimize the risk of fire for the own vehicle and its cargo.

In any case, vehicles whirl up dust 5 m to 10 m high when driving, which then settles faster, driven by gravity, the larger the dust particles are. Whirling up and settling creates a concentration gradient with more dust at the bottom and less dust higher up. This concentration profile extends further up for finer dust and typically takes 24 hours to descend from a height of 10 m.

Heat-induced updrafts on house walls heated in winter by house heating and year-round by solar radiation cause dust to rise with the air.

Meteorological winds act horizontally and, in the best case, blow dust from the city or other emission sources into the landscape, where dust accumulates on the large surface of plants and can be washed off into the ground by rain.

Thanks to the condensation of water in clouds and their rise, winds with their weather phenomena swirl through the atmosphere typically only up to an altitude of 10–15 km, within the troposphere.

The fact that dust particles reach the tropopause zone above is due to higher-impact individual events, such as large volcanic eruptions and meteorite impacts , the burning up of meteors (the finest meteor dust ) and atomic bomb explosions, as well as high levels of aircraft traffic, rocket and space flight and solar wind.

One mechanism that has been published since 1932 is gravito photophoresis , ie the movement of dust particles by light irradiation in or against the direction of gravity . A small part of the irregularly shaped particles is stimulated to rotate by irradiation with sunlight on one side. This can result in movement of the particle in (still) air, which in some is directed upwards. Even if it only affects very small parts of the amount of dust, as experiments by Hans Rohatschek have shown, it can explain the migration of particles, including microbes, into the stratosphere and even above it into the mesosphere (> 50 km).

Limits and trends

As for other air pollutants , in most industrialized countries there are limit values ​​for immissions concentrations of anthropogenic dust. Due to the large number of types and sources of dust, there are a number of legal regulations, some of which are listed in Table 3.

On the other hand, clear emission concentration limit values ​​apply to vehicle exhaust gases, which are also checked on vehicles approximately annually. In addition to the same values, approved dust loads per time or production unit also apply to commercial and industrial plants.

Table 3: Limit values ​​for selected types of dust; the respective regulation can be found in the literature cited below
Dust type regulation Limit value (s) Remarks
Total suspended particulate matter RL 89/427 / EEC 150 µg / m³ average Daily mean (valid until December 31, 2004)
Total suspended particulate matter RL 89/427 / EEC 300 µg / m³ may max. exceeded on 18 days (5%) per year (valid until December 31, 2004)
Respirable dust (PM10) RL 1999/30 / EG 40 µg / m³ Annual mean (valid from January 1, 2005)
Respirable dust (PM10) RL 1999/30 / EG 50 µg / m³ Daily mean value, max. 35 exceedances per year (valid from January 1, 2005)
E-dust TRGS 900 10 mg / m³ Occupational exposure limit
A-dust TRGS 900 1.25 mg / m³ Occupational exposure limit (with evidence, compliance with 1.25 mg / m³ is not possible and verification of the effectiveness of protective measures is still temporarily up to 1 January 2019 3 mg / m³)
Fiber dust TRGS 900 250,000 fibers / m³ Fibers (length> 5, D <3 µm, L: D = 3: 1), (valid until December 31, 2004)
Fiber dust TRGS 900 500,000 fibers / m³ certain areas with ceramic fibers (valid until December 31, 2004)
Wood dust TRGS 553 2 mg / m³ Respiratory protection is required above 2 mg / m³
Flour dust TRGS 900 4 mg / m³ recommendation
Glass dust ? ? MAK values ​​due to the risk of silicosis
Asbestos dust ? ? MAK values ​​due to risk of cancer
Tobacco smoke ? ? Smoking ban f. Adolescents; since 2000 different emission bans for example in public Means of transport and buildings, at the workplace (Austria: Employee Protection Ordinance 1985), but only in parts of the catering trade (also workplace)

While compliance with the legal limit values ​​for stationary sources ( e.g. industrial plants) is usually not a problem, compliance with the new limit values ​​for fine dust (PM10) that has been in force throughout the EU since January 1, 2005 is often difficult, especially in areas with high traffic volumes or impossible. Although a particle filter can significantly reduce the soot emissions from diesel engines , the thrown up road dust, the abrasion of tires and brake pads can only be reduced by avoiding vehicle traffic, for example by shifting to gentler forms, or even more gentle driving behavior in smaller vehicles. In Germany around 60,000 tons of particles (mainly smaller than 10 µm and therefore fine dust) are released annually by private traffic. For Switzerland, fine dust emissions of 1,610 t from brake wear and 2,415 t from tire wear were determined for road traffic in 1997. The determined particle emission from the exhaust gas is also 2,415 t. In Austria about two thirds of the total traffic-related dust emissions are caused by tire and brake wear. The development of anthropogenic dust emissions in Germany and Austria is different. While anthropogenic dust emissions in Germany fell by almost 87% from 1,858,000 t to 247,000 t between 1990 and 2001, in Austria anthropogenic dust emissions rose from around 72,000 t in 1990 to almost 80,000 t in 2002 . Austrian PM10 emissions have increased by 5% since 1990 to around 47,000 t in 2002.


Dust bunnies

The house dust is omnipresent and represents a mixture of inorganic and organic materials. Conglomerations of dust particles to form larger structures are also referred to as "dust bunnies". A special form of house dust are the so-called black apartments ( black dust , magic dust), the cause of which has not yet been clearly clarified.

Fibers can get into the lungs and cause damage there (for example asbestosis , caused by asbestos fibers ).

Pollen contributes to the natural dust pollution, especially in spring. People who are allergic to pollen ( hay fever ) suffer particularly from this natural dust load.

In sandstorms in particular, huge amounts of particles are thrown into the atmosphere and sometimes deposited back on earth thousands of kilometers from the source area.


Dust can have various influences on people and the environment . In contrast to coarse dust, fine dust can get into the lungs via the respiratory tract . The toxicological effect is mainly based on the content of substances such as lead , vanadium , beryllium and mercury , some of which promote the development of cancer . In addition, other pollutants such as hydrocarbons , sulfur or nitrogen compounds accumulate on the surface of the tiny dust particles , so that their effect is intensified when dust is also present. In general, dust creates an increase in the number of diseases of the respiratory system. For example, bronchitis , asthma or emphysema (caused by ordinary dust, iron or coal dust ) or lung fibrosis ( silicosis due to fine quartz dust and asbestosis due to asbestos dust) or lung cancer (due to quartz and asbestos dust ) or nasal cancer (due to certain types of wood dust). In addition to health-damaging aspects, the influence of particles on the climate is an important aspect of current research.

Inert dusts are particles of a substance that is not known to have any harmful effects on the human body. These include, for example, starch and cellulose .

When taking photographs with flash , so-called ghost spots can be caused by dust .

Mixtures of dust and air are explosive in certain cases, more about this in the article dust explosion . Resin-rich bear moss spores blown and ignited are a popular stage fire effect.

Dusts, among other things, as a separating lubricant: When the dough is processed by hand, the scattered flour prevents it from sticking to the work surface. The finest sugar is called powdered sugar . Starch powder prevents sugar, chewing gum and sugar- coated medications from sticking together . Mineral flow aid is added to table salt as a separating agent to prevent the crystals from growing together. Latex balloons are prevented from sticking together by dusting them with lime powder - before turning them. Talc allows powdered latex gloves to slide easily onto skin that is never completely dry, it also lubricates other rubber surfaces and enables a tire tube to slide in a rolling tire jacket on bicycles and, in the past, even on cars. Red brick or mineral dust limits the grip of the shoes on the tennis court to a level that is easy on the joints. Glossy paper, in particular, is dusted after printing in order to slide permanently so that it can be stacked and processed further. Graphite is used in the form of dusty powder made from flaky particles as a dry lubricant on iron. Aluminum bronze has similar structure and properties, but is not as temperature resistant. The analysis of dust deposits enables geological, biological and criminological knowledge. By brushing with special dust, fingerprints are also made visible. Coal can be burned well as blown dust. For heating purposes, sawdust is pressed into briquettes or - with starch dust as a lubricant - also into pellets. Polishing agents for glass are also processed in powder form.


Industrial dedusting

Dust-containing gas streams that arise in industrial processes are usually to be dedusted close to where they arise. Depending on the nature of the gas and the dust carried along, various methods are used:

These processes differ in particular with regard to the energy requirement, the outlay on equipment, the residues produced, the permissible gas temperature and the minimum separation values.

Dust- binding machines are often used to dedust non-guided gas flows , which try to bind the dust by generating fine water droplets.

Air purification

With air cleaning, the air to be cleaned is fed to a cleaning device by means of a conveyor unit. This can lead to undesirable noise development in its environment.


In the most common form of air purification - filtration - the dust-laden air - for example the indoor air in a living room - is passed through a fabric filter in which a large part of the particles are separated. These fabric filters can be impregnated with an adsorbent in order to remove undesired gaseous substances by means of adsorption . The filter must be changed at regular intervals.

Electrostatic separation

In the case of electrostatic separation , the dust in the air to be cleaned is positively charged by means of a spray electrode, in order to then be separated on a negatively charged precipitation electrode. A disadvantage of this process is the possible formation of ozone . If terpenes are present, this can lead to an increase in particulate matter pollution.

Dust in the broader sense

There is also "dust" in a figurative sense:

  • The so-called Cantor dust in mathematics - also called Cantor set or wiped set,
  • the "dust raised" by a careless word, a careless (sometimes also planned) message or action , etc.
  • the "dust of yesterday" and the "dust that settles on something" when the situation has calmed down or enough time has passed; in the sense of “out of date” or “old-fashioned”, opinions and world views can be described as “out of date”;
  • the "dust" in the excess pressure of powder snow - avalanches
  • the technical dusts, which are usually very fine, are often mixed with artificial or natural microfibers or with aerosols and are in principle "dust-like", but are not subsumed under it in everyday language ,
  • the dust and dust tail of comets ,
  • the interplanetary dust of zodiacal light and micrometeorites ,
  • the interstellar dust
  • other types of cosmic dust (such as intergalactic dust )
  • "(Earth to earth,) ashes to ashes, dust to dust" is a formulation from the 1892 German edition of the Book of Common Prayer of the American Episcopal Church. In the chapter "The order for the burial" (English: The Burial of the Dead) it says: "After it has pleased Almighty God according to His wise providence to take the soul of our brother who has fallen asleep out of this world, we lay his Body in God's field - earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust - in anticipation of the general resurrection on the last day and the life of the future world through Jesus Christ our Lord, at his glorious return for judgment the earth and the sea will be theirs To reproduce the dead, and the perishable bodies of those who sleep in him are to be changed and resemble his transfigured body according to the effect by which he can also make all things subservient to him. "
  • In culinary art , binding a sauce that is too thin with flour or potato starch is called "dusting the liquid"
  • in Rotwelsch "dusting off" is synonymous with "stealing"

On the Salzach - between Oberndorf and Laufen - there is even a Museum of Dust (catalog, public space). It is a border house that has been declared a 'white cube' (a place where art is shown) by the museum curator Dieter Buchhart . On the pavilion, Buchhart attached a sign with the inscription: Museum of Dust 'not without irony'. This is to draw attention to the otherwise unpleasant dust. Dust becomes an 'art object in a museum'.

The Cologne artist and art historian Wolfgang Stöcker is building a German dust archive .

See also


Literature cited

  1. DIN ISO 4225: 1996-08 air quality ; General considerations; Terms (ISO 4225: 1994) (Air quality; General aspects; Vocabulary (ISO 4225: 1994)). Beuth Verlag, Berlin, p. 9.
  2. ^ Günter Baumbach: Air pollution control . Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2nd edition 1992, ISBN 3-540-55078-X , p. 161.
  3. see Duden
  4. ^ Günter Baumbach: Air pollution control . Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2nd edition 1992, ISBN 3-540-55078-X , p. 149.
  5. a b Markus Mattenklott, Norbert Höfert: Dusts at workplaces and in the environment - comparison of definitions. In: Hazardous substances - cleanliness. Air . 69, No. 4, 2009, ISSN  0949-8036 , pp. 127-129.
  6. DIN EN 12341: 2014-08 outside air; Gravimetric standard measuring method for the determination of the PM 10 or PM 2.5 mass concentration of the airborne dust; German version EN 12341: 2014. Beuth Verlag, Berlin, p. 9.
  7. ^ Franz Joseph Dreyhaupt (ed.): VDI-Lexikon Umwelttechnik. VDI-Verlag Düsseldorf 1994, ISBN 3-18-400891-6 , p. 474.
  8. a b DIN EN ISO 23210: 2009-12 Emissions from stationary sources; Determination of the mass concentration of PM10 / PM2.5 in the exhaust gas; Measurement at low concentrations with impactors (ISO 23210: 2009); German version EN ISO 23210: 2009. Beuth Verlag, Berlin, p. 6.
  9. Klaus Rödelsperger, Stefan Podhorsky, Egon Roth: Particle concentration measurements for environmental pollution by fine dust. In: Hazardous substances - cleanliness. Air. 65, No. 11/12, 2005, ISSN  0949-8036 , pp. 463-466.
  10. ^ MO Andreae: Climatic effects of changing atmospheric aerosol levels. In: World Survey of Climatology. (ed. HE Landsberg), Vol. XVI: Future Climates of the World, A. Henderson-Sellers (ed.), Elsevier Publishers, Amsterdam 1994, ISBN 0-444-89322-9 .
  11. Umweltbundesamt Berlin (Ed.): Background paper on the subject of dust / fine dust (PM) ( Memento of the original from April 22, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.umweltbundesamt.de archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Federal Environment Agency, Berlin, March 2005.
  12. JT Houghton, Y. Ding, DJ Griggs, M. Noguer, PJ van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, CA Johnson (Eds.): Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis . Table 5.3. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) 2001, ISBN 0-521-01495-6 .
  13. Wilfrid Bach : Our Threatened Climate . D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht (The Netherlands) 1984, ISBN 90-277-1680-3 .
  14. a b Umweltbundesamt Berlin: Umweltbundesamt Deutschland online - table emissions by emitter group ( memento of the original from September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.env-it.de archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (As of September 2003)
  15. ^ A b Peter Schmid, Christoph Hügelien, Robert Gehrig: Contribution of tire wear to dust emissions from road traffic: Determination by lead substances .
  16. DIN ISO 4225: 1996-08 air quality ; General considerations; Terms (ISO 4225: 1994) (Air quality; General aspects; Vocabulary (ISO 4225: 1994)). Beuth Verlag, Berlin, p. 13.
  17. ^ Hans Rohatschek, Johannes Kepler University Linz: The Role of Gravitophotophoresis for Stratospheric and Mesospheric Particulates. In: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. Volume 1, 1984, pp. 377-389, submitted October 7, 1983, revised January 16, 1984, print accessed online on February 9, 2014.
  18. a b RL 89/427 / EEC: Directive 89/427 / EEC of June 21, 1989 amending Directive 80/779 / EEC on limit values ​​and guide values ​​for air quality for sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter (Official Journal of the European Communities L201, p. 53 ff.)
  19. a b RL 1999/30 / EG: Council Directive 1999/30 / EG of April 22, 1999 on limit values ​​for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides, particles and lead in the air (Official Journal of the European Communities L163 (June 29, 1999) , Pp. 41–60)
  20. a b c d e TRGS 900: Technical rules for hazardous substances 900 - limit values ​​in the air at the workplace "air limit values"
  21. TRGS 553: Technical rules for hazardous substances 553 - "Wood dust"
  22. Ulrich Klenk, Eberhard Schmidt : Use of water mist to reduce airborne fine dust. In: Hazardous substances - cleanliness. Air . 68, No. 1/2, 2008, ISSN  0949-8036 , pp. 43-45.
  23. a b c Hartmut Finger, Ute Schneiderwind, Christof Asbach: Evaluation of mobile room air purification devices. In: Hazardous substances - cleanliness. Air. 75, No. 11/12, 2015, ISSN  0949-8036 , pp. 497-502.
  24. VDI 3678 sheet 2: 2010-12 electrostatic precipitator; Process air and indoor air cleaning (Electrostatic precipitators - Process air and indoor air cleaning) . Beuth Verlag, Berlin, pp. 8–9.
  25. justus.anglican.org: The General Prayer Book
  26. justus.anglican.org: The order for the burial
  27. ^ Art Perfect: Dieter Buchhart CUT; Two people, nine lives, one film. An interactive video story
  28. guggenberger-verlag.at: Documentation of all exhibition and symposia projects 1995–2002

Dust in general

particulate matter

  • Joachim Heinrich, Veit Grote, Annette Peters, Heinz-Erich Wichmann: Health effects of fine dust: Epidemiology of long-term effects. In: Environmental medicine in research and practice. Volume 7, No. 2, 2002, pp. 91-99, ISSN  1430-8681
  • Working group "Effects of fine dust on human health" of the Air Pollution Control Commission in VDI and DIN: Evaluation of the current state of scientific knowledge on the health effects of particles in the air - Working group "Effects of fine dust on human health" of the Air Pollution Control Commission VDI and DIN. In: Environmental medicine in research and practice. Volume 8, No. 5, 2003, pp. 257-278, ISSN  1430-8681
  • J. Junk, A. Helbig: The PM10 dust pollution in Rhineland-Palatinate. New legal regulations for fine dust and first measurement results. In: Hazardous substances - keeping the air clean. 1/2 / 2003, p. 43, ISSN  0949-8036
  • T. Pregger, R. Friedrich: Investigation of fine dust emissions and reduction potentials using the example of Baden-Württemberg. In: Hazardous substances - keeping the air clean. 64 (1/2), 2004, pp. 53-60, ISSN  0949-8036
  • M. Struschka, V. Weiss, G. Baumbach: Fine dust - emission factors and emissions in small and medium-sized combustion plants. In: Immissionsschutz. (Berlin) 9 (1), 2004, pp. 17-22, ISSN  1430-9262

House dust

  • Hans Schleibinger, Detlef Laußmann, Henning Samwer, Angelika Nickelmann, Dieter Eis, Henning Rüden: Differentiating mold and non-mold apartments on the basis of spores from house dust samples - results of a field study in the Berlin area. In: Environmental medicine in research and practice. Volume 9, No. 4, 2004, pp. 251-262; 9 (5), 2004, pp. 289-297; 9 (6), 2004, pp. 363-376, ISSN  1430-8681
  • Regine Nagorka, Christiane Scheller, Detlef Ullrich: Plasticizers in house dust. In: Hazardous substances - keeping the air clean. Volume 65, No. 3, 2005, pp. 99-105, ISSN  0949-8036
  • Regine Nagorka, André Conrad, Christiane Scheller, Bettina Süßenbach, Heinz-Jörn Moriske: Plasticizers and flame retardants in house dust. Part 1: Phthalates. In: Hazardous substances, keeping air clean. Volume 70, No. 3, 2010, ISSN  0949-8036 , pp. 70-76.
  • Regine Nagorka, André Conrad, Christiane Scheller, Bettina Süßenbach, Heinz-Jörn Moriske: Plasticizers and flame retardants in house dust. Part 2: Phthalate substitutes and flame retardants. In: Hazardous substances, keeping air clean. Volume 71, No. 6, 2011, ISSN  0949-8036 , pp. 286-292.
  • Björn Kempken, Werner Butte: Concentrations of lead, cadmium, manganese and zinc in fractions of house dust. In: Hazardous substances, keeping air clean. Volume 70, No. 3, 2010, ISSN  0949-8036 , pp. 98-102.

Special dust

  • M. Poppe, B. Detering, J. Neuschaefer-Rube, W. Woeste, B. Wüstefeld, J. Wolf: Wood dust pollution in work areas of the German wood industry. In: Hazardous substances - keeping the air clean. 06/2002, p. 247, ISSN  0949-8036
  • Gerhard Soltys, Franz Gredler: Respiratory disease due to flour dust. In: Safe Work. (Vienna) 3/2004, pp. 18-21.

Web links

Commons : Dust  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Dust  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations