The term culinary art includes all manual processes in the selection and purchase of the ingredients , the preparation of the meal , its preparation , the use of the tools , the cooking methods and the serving . It is a central part of gastronomy . The general process of cooking is distinguished from the art of cooking . Written representations of the culinary art can be found in cookbooks .
History of European Cuisine
For centuries, the art of cooking was mainly reserved for the nobility who employed their own cooks . In the period before the Renaissance , all cultures and regions of Europe had their own dishes, styles and cooking habits, which were mainly based on the locally available food, as well as a limited amount of spices and other commodities . At that time, German cuisine , French cuisine , Greek cuisine , Italian cuisine and Spanish cuisine developed in Europe . They all brought about national idiosyncrasies that were not adopted by other countries until the middle of the 20th century.
With the discovery of new countries, the increase in global trade , the improvement of agricultural production and new ways of preserving and storing food, new dishes emerged and familiar dishes were further developed. Especially in the 20th century , the production, transport and trade, storage and processing of food improved enormously. Since then, dishes, recipes and ingredients have spread all over the world (for example bratwurst , pizza , sushi or doner kebab ).
Other national cuisines
Pioneer of European culinary art
- Guillaume Tirel (~ 1312–1395)
- Chiquart (around 1420)
- Bartolomeo Scappi (~ 1500–1570)
- Caterina de 'Medici (1519–1589)
- François-Pierre de La Varenne (1618–1678)
- François Vatel (1631–1671)
- Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755–1826)
- Marie-Antoine Carême (1784–1833)
- Carl Friedrich von Rumohr (1785–1843)
- Henriette Davidis (1801–1876)
- Carl Ernst von Malortie (1804-1887)
- Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935)
- Paul Haeberlin (1923-2008)
- Paul Bocuse (1926-2018)
- Frédy Girardet (* 1936)
- Eckart Witzigmann (* 1941)
- Joël Robuchon (1945-2018)
- Carme Ruscalleda (* 1952)
- Hervé This (* 1955)
- Harald Wohlfahrt (* 1955)
- Alain Ducasse (* 1956)
- Ferran Adrià (* 1962)
Culinary art museum
- Brockhaus cuisine: international dishes, ingredients, kitchen technology, methods of preparation. Brockhaus, Leipzig / Mannheim 2008, ISBN 978-3-7653-3281-4 .
- Hannes Etzlstorfer: Kitchen art and table culture. Culinaria from antiquity to the present. Brandstätter, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-902510-41-2 .
- Jean-Luis Flandrin, Massimo Montanari : Food: A Culinary History from Antiquity to the Present. London 1999.
- Herta Neunteufl: Cooking in the Baroque. From the world of Styrian cuisine around 1686. Graz and Vienna 1976.
- R. Tannahill: Cultural History of Food. Vienna 1973.
- A. Werlacher (Hrsg.): Culture theme food. Views and problem areas. Berlin 1993 (= Kulturthema Essen. Volume 1).
- Johanna Maria van Winter: Cooking and Eating in the Middle Ages. In: Man and the Environment in the Middle Ages. Edited by Bernd Hermann, 3rd edition. DVA, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-421-06288-9 , pp. 88-100.
- Hans Wiswe: Cultural history of the culinary art. Cookbooks and recipes from two millennia. With a lexical appendix to the technical language of Eva Hepp. Moos, Munich 1970.
- See also Ken Albala: Eating Right in the Renaissance. London 2002.
- Cf. Ken Albala: Food in the Early Modern Europe. London 2003.
- Cf. Marianne Honold: Study of the functional history of the late medieval German-language recipe manuscripts. Würzburg 2005 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 87).