Avatar - Departure for Pandora

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German title Avatar - Departure for Pandora
Original title Avatar
Avatar lettering.jpg
Country of production United States
original language English , Na'vi language
Publishing year 2009
length Theatrical Version: 162 minutes
Adult Theatrical Version: 170 minutes
Extended Cut: 178 minutes
Age rating FSK 12
JMK 12
Director James Cameron
script James Cameron
production James Cameron,
Jon Landau
music James Horner
camera Mauro Fiore
cut John Refoua ,
Stephen E. Rivkin ,
James Cameron

Successor  →
Avatar 2

Avatar - Aufbruch nach Pandora (Original title: Avatar , also known as James Cameron's Avatar ) is an American science fiction film directed by James Cameron , which was released worldwide on December 17 and 18, 2009. The film mixes real shot and computer-animated scenes. Large parts of the film were shot in a virtual studio and with newly developed digital 3D cameras.

Avatar grossed over $ 2.78 billion worldwide, making it the world's most successful film by grossing by July 2019 .

Also the DVD - and Blu-ray -Sales of the film is very successful; it broke the record for the best-selling DVD-Video in North America within days of its release, with sales of 2.7 million Blu-ray in four days. From the start of sales to the end of April 2010, more than 6.7 million DVDs and Blu-ray discs were sold.


In the year 2154, the earth's raw materials are exhausted. The group Resources Development Administration mines the coveted raw material Unobtainium on the earth-like , distant moon Pandora in the Alpha Centauri system and comes into conflict with a humanoid species called Na'vi , which is defending itself against the destruction of its environment. Pandora is inhabited by earth-like life forms (green plants and animals reminiscent of terrestrial mammals), but has an atmosphere that is lethal to humans.

Former US Marine Jake Sully, who has been paralyzed from the waist down since a combat mission, is sent to Pandora to replace his deceased twin brother on a diplomatic mission: with the help of man-made Na'vi bodies, so-called avatars , that can survive Let the transfer of consciousness be controlled, it should establish contact with the indigenous people and convince them to give up their home and the resistance to the mining of the raw material. While the responsible team around Dr. Grace Augustine primarily pursues scientific goals and is out to mediate, the military leader of the base, Colonel Miles Quaritch, wants Sully to provide him with information regarding the defense strategies and weaknesses of the Na'vi. Quaritch promises that the Navy will pay for spinal surgery for his covert operation, and Sully agrees.

During an expedition in his avatar, Sully is separated from the group and is left on his own in the dense jungle of Pandora. There he is attacked by predators, but saved by the Na'vi Neytiri, who lead him to their tribe, the Omaticaya. After initial concerns, the leaders of the clan decide to familiarize Sully with their way of life and culture, also in order to get to know the people better through him. Despite initial problems, the Na'vi and especially Neytiri, the chief's daughter, trust Sully, and a love relationship develops between the two. Sully undergoes warrior training and is eventually accepted into the tribe. The former Marine realizes that the Na'vi will never give up their homeland, as their existence is closely tied to their sacred sites, which emanate a tangible, spiritual force. When it comes to the military escalation, Sully runs over to them. With the taming of the mighty giant flying lizard Toruk he succeeds in conjuring up an ancient myth and uniting all the Na'vi tribes. After a losing battle, the invasion troops can be defeated and have to leave the strange moon Pandora. Sully leaves his human body with the help of the " neural network " Pandoras and becomes a Na'vi, finally reunited with his avatar.


Substance development

In the script for the film, Cameron processed numerous ideas, some of which go back to his earliest youth. Even as a schoolboy he was interested in scientific topics and also read many science fiction works. Many of the ideas that arose from this tension can be found in his early scripts, such as the template for Xenogenesis from 1978 , which was only partially realized as a short film . Cameron formulated further topics in the scripts Chrysalis (1974), Mother (1981) and Wind, which were never filmed Warriors (1988), partly in collaboration with his friend Randall Frakes .

In August 1996, Cameron officially announced for the first time that he would film Avatar with a mixture of computer-animated and real actors. The project will cost around $ 100 million and star six actors "who appear real but don't exist in the physical world." Cameron's early script drafts were available on the Internet for years. In 2006 they were deliberately removed from all websites.

The final 152-page script was written from January to April 2006. In July 2006, Cameron announced that Avatar would hit theaters in the summer of 2008 and was scheduled to start shooting in February 2007. In August 2006, the New Zealand visual effects company became Weta Digital engaged to help create Avatar . Effects specialist Stan Winston was also involved in the design process .

In September 2006, Cameron announced that he would use a novel camera system to film the film in 3D, which Fox officially confirmed two years later. These are two synchronized HD cameras in one housing (2 optics and 2 sensors). Cameron describes the film as a hybrid of real and computer animation film. According to the director, around 60 percent of the film was generated on the computer and 40 percent was filmed in real life.

The name of the moon Pandora ( Πανδώρα ) comes from the Greek and can be translated as “the one who brings forth everything”. The namesake of his planet Polyphemus ( Πολύφημος , loosely translated as "The Famous") is a one-eyed giant in Greek mythology. Polyphemus is represented similar to the planet Jupiter with its characteristic eye-like red spot.

The linguist Paul Frommer of the USC developed the culture and language of the Na'vi . Frommer created a new language with over 1000 words.

References to other works

The mountains of the
Huang Shan Mountains served as a model for the floating Hallelujah Mountains of Pandora .

Cameron said he was inspired by many science fiction novels he read as a child when writing the script. The story is clearly similar to Poul Anderson's short story Call Me Joe , in which the paraplegic Ed Anglesey telepathically takes control of a specially bred being (Joe) to conduct research on the surface of Jupiter. Anderson's story goes into greater depth on the psychological ramifications for Anglesey , who suffers from his disability and is so drawn to Joe and his strength and mobility that his consciousness ultimately merges with Joe .

Further similarities exist with the science fiction series John Carter vom Mars (first published: 1912) by Tarzan author Edgar Rice Burroughs . The rise of Carter within the Martian population as well as the love affair with a local princess show clear parallels to Avatar .

Other works were also used as inspiration. His first script was about a highly developed civilization threatened by intruders. Allusions to the story of Pocahontas are no coincidence. There are also similarities between Pandora and the works of record cover artist Roger Dean . Dean was neither involved in the development nor in the production and did not take an explicit position on the question.


Matt Damon or Jake Gyllenhaal was originally intended for the role of Jake Sully . Cameron then decided on the then relatively unknown actor Sam Worthington . Dr. Grace Augustine was originally intended to be played by Jodie Foster .

To prepare the actors as best as possible for their roles, Cameron took them to Hawaii and went hiking through the local forests during the day.

Main production

The cinema release was initially postponed to summer 2009. In December 2006, Cameron justified the delay in filming with the need for new technical developments for the realization of the film, which included, among other things, a significant improvement in the performance capture scene and the realistic representation in partly completely computer-generated scenes.


The German dubbing comes from Interopa Film GmbH from Berlin. The dialogue book was written by Klaus Bickert , while Dietmar Wunder was responsible for the dialogue .

role actor German voice actor
Jake Sully Sam Worthington Alexander Doering
Neytiri Zoë Saldaña Tanja Geke
Dr. Grace Augustine Sigourney Weaver Karin Buchholz
Col. Miles Quaritch Stephen Lang Klaus-Dieter Klebsch
Trudy Chacon Michelle Rodríguez Anke Reitzenstein
Parker Selfridge Giovanni Ribisi Michael Deffert
Norm Spellman Joel David Moore Rainer Fritzsche
Mo'at CCH pounder Almut Zydra
Tsu'Tey Laz Alonso Markus Pfeiffer
Dr. Max Patel Dileep Rao Olaf Reichmann
Lyle Wainfleet Matt Gerald Matti Klemm
Private Sean Fike Sean Anthony Moran Tommy Morgenstern

Production costs

According to the production company, the cost of producing the film was $ 237 million. According to the official figures , Avatar was the fourth most expensive film ever to appear after Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End (estimated at 300 million), Spider-Man 3 (258 million) and Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (250 million) was filmed. In addition to the production costs, there are also 150 million US dollars in marketing costs, which in turn is the highest marketing costs of all time before Spider-Man 3 at 100 million US dollars.

Hollywood insiders suspect, however, that the production costs were more in the range of $ 300 million.

Production engineering

Film technology

The film was shot in stereoscopic 3D and was therefore released in 3D ( D-Cinema ) and 2D ( 35 mm film ). James Cameron had redeveloped the camera technology for this over a period of seven years with his partner Vince Pace from Pace Technologies . Techniques and procedures from Sony and Fujinon were used in the development process for the new camera technology. The result ultimately produced the most technically sophisticated stereoscopic camera system in the world to date and made it possible to film the real scenes in three dimensions. This enabled the real scenes shot to merge harmoniously with the digital ones.

Performance capturing

The film contains large proportions of photo-realistic , computer-generated figures that were animated with the motion capture process. This required technical innovations such as the performance capture stage, with which the actors' facial expressions and emotional reactions could be recorded using markings on the face and on the full body suit, processed on the computer and finally transferred to the computer-generated figure. To record the movements of the face and eyes, the actor wears a cap with a small camera that is approximately at mouth level a few centimeters in front of his head. So Cameron was able to transfer more than 95% of the acting to the digital characters.

Virtual camera

A virtual camera system was developed for the film, which enabled both the real-time observation of the environment in performance capture scenes and the recording of camera movements for scenes created entirely on the computer. This consisted of three components:

  1. a screen on which a real-time version of the motion capture data just recorded can be seen live in a simplified three-dimensional environment;
  2. Markings with which the exact position of the virtual camera with the infrared cameras in the recording room can be determined at any time;
  3. a support frame with which the virtual camera can be moved similarly to a conventional camera.

With this technique, Cameron and the actors were able to assess the end result and the environment as soon as the performance capture data was recorded. In addition, Cameron hoped that the system would produce camera movements in the computer-generated scenes that would come very close to those in a conventionally filmed action scene and thus do not appear computer-generated. Of particular importance was the development in scenes in which human actors were supposed to interact with avatar or navi bodies that were not visible to them (without the virtual camera).

Hardware and software

High-performance hardware was required for these new technologies : 35,000 - 40,000 water-cooled processor cores , 105 terabytes of RAM and 2 petabytes of hard disk space. Despite this performance, individual scenes took up to 48 hours to render , with 17.3 gigabytes of data being generated for one minute of film. The server farm was connected to a 10 gigabit network . For the render farm that came on Linux -based free operating system Ubuntu used. Avid software was used to edit the film .

Visual effects

The visual effects of Avatar were created under the direction of the New Zealand company Weta Digital . The manager ("SFX Supervisor") was Joe Letteri from Weta. Nine other special effects companies (including Framestore in Reykjavík , Hybride in Piedmont , Prime Focus and ILM ) were involved in individual sequences of the film . The motion capture footage for the film was shot on a stage in Playa Vista, California; the Mocap technology used for this comes from Giant Studios .


Marketing and theatrical release

Cameron at Comic-Con in San Diego 2009

On August 20, 2009, the first teaser trailer went online at 4 p.m. German time . Due to the numerous requests, the site had to be temporarily closed due to overload. On the first day, the trailer was viewed or downloaded 4 million times, more than any trailer before.

On August 21, 2009, around 16 minutes from the film were presented to the public in cinemas around the world for so-called Avatar Day . Scenes from the first half of the film were shown. Entry for it was free. At times, the website on which tickets were available for the performances in the United States collapsed under the onslaught.

This preview was shown in 101 IMAX cinemas in the United States and in 238 cinemas in other countries, including 26 in Germany and 2 in Austria.

At the pre-premiere on December 16, 2009, many screenings in 3D cinemas across Germany had to be canceled due to a technical breakdown. The reason was the lack of keys in the DRM system.

Press reviews

Avatar received mostly positive reviews. The film effects were particularly praised. According to the Rotten Tomatoes film website , 83 percent of the 293 film reviews examined left a positive rating . Cinema .de compares the basic structure with Kevin Costner's Dances with Wolves and certifies that the film is a “revolutionary design” that “redefines the technical standards of cinema”. The moviereporter calls the film "Bombastkino", "a film for which cinema was invented" and technically a "real feast for the eyes". In addition to the “committed pro-environment” and “anti-war message”, Roger Ebert emphasizes a “technical breakthrough” and the “visual richness of detail”. Carsten Baumgardt from Filmstarts.de thinks that Cameron is changing the world with this "intoxicating technology demonstration" and the "optically groundbreaking work", but also criticizes the low level of complexity in terms of content. And the movie pilot also misses new ideas and real feelings. The work is a patchwork quilt of set pieces from romanticism, Indian film and criticism of colonialism.

The lack of depth of the characters compared to the diversity and differentiation of the Avatar cosmos prevents the work from becoming film of the year or even of the decade, but it is at least a spectacle worth seeing, says Peter Körte from the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung . The Austrian Falter calls it an “old school spectacle cinema” . The Süddeutsche Zeitung believes that the film will find all the topics that moved the world, stories in which we would find our longings and fears and Na'vi as better people - in harmony with each other and everything around them. She speaks of a never moving, touching and stirring escapism . Director James Cameron fell into the trap of letting a white cultural imperialist use his technical means to lead the natives to victory, criticizes Die Zeit , which finds "a condescending, even racist message" in the film . The bow to the noble savages reduces them to addicts.

Some conservative circles in the United States made negative comments about Avatar because of the plot . For example, John Podhoretz wrote in the weekly political magazine The Weekly Standard that the film was one of "the stupidest films" and, as in many Indian films, shows "brutal US military in the fight against noble savages " and thus takes the side of anti-Americanism because it make the audience long for the defeat of American soldiers.

The left-liberal American journalist Naomi Wolf makes exactly the opposite assessment . It projects psychological processes, i.e. injured collective egos and repressed feelings of guilt in the Freudian sense from people onto nations. The “irrational dream work” of a nation reflects its actual state more truthfully than its “I” determined by official announcements or diplomatic statements. Bored technocrats, while sipping coffee, dropping bombs indiscriminately on enemy warriors and defenseless women and babies under the protection of countless technologies, which helps to expose American mythology.

Grossing results

The film grossed $ 77.03 million on its opening weekend in the United States and came in second in the top December starts in the United States. The film I Am Legend , which grossed $ 77.2 million, remains in first place . Worldwide the film fetched 233 million US dollars on the opening weekend and thus almost recouped its production costs within a weekend.

Avatar passed the one billion dollar mark faster than any other film before and reached an international box office of 1.025 billion US dollars in early January 2010. As of January 26th, worldwide box office revenues were approximately $ 1.859 billion, making it the financially most successful film ahead of Titanic (about $ 1.842 billion).

Total global revenue is approximately $ 2.782 billion.

In the list of the world's most successful films of all time, Avatar - Departure for Pandora is currently number 2 (as of August 8, 2020).

In Germany , the film grossed around 9.3 million euros on the opening weekend, which corresponds to around 13.3 million US dollars. So far, 11,278,980 German moviegoers have seen the film. It is 10th in the all-time cinema charts and is the most successful science fiction film in Germany to date. Avatar was number one in the German cinema charts for a total of eleven weeks.

The box office result only suggests the number of visitors in connection with the performance prices of the cinemas. This results in significant differences , especially with 3D films such as Avatar compared to older films such as Titanic (3D cinema: 10–15 US dollars; average price: 7.95 US dollars (as of June 2010)) and is therefore a reflection not the lower number of visitors (95.82 million visitors / USA) again, measured against films as in the original showing of Titanic (128.35 million visitors / USA). The consumption of the film on DVDs, Blu-Rays or the Internet, for which the number of viewers cannot be measured, is not taken into account.

more publishments

In the United States, the DVD and Blu-ray were released on April 22, 2010. According to James Cameron, this date is intended to coincide with Earth Day . The film was released in Germany on April 23rd on DVD and Blu-ray.

On September 2, 2010 there was a rerun of Avatar - Aufbruch nach Pandora , which was only shown in 3D cinemas and IMAX 3D. A theatrical version that is nine minutes longer can be seen in this revival. The new scenes are scenes that contain CGI ; According to Cameron, new scenes without CGI are not included in the extended version. The new release also has to do with the fact that, according to Cameron, several hundred million dollars of cinema revenue in 3D theaters was lost due to the theatrical release of the 3D film Alice in Wonderland .

On November 15, an Extended Collector's Edition of Avatar - Departure for Pandora was released on DVD and Blu-ray, which includes three versions of the film. First the theatrical version, then the special edition and the collector's extended cut; the latter contains an alternate beginning and is 16 minutes longer than the original theatrical version. In addition, the Extended Collector's Edition has extensive bonus material.

Cameron also announced that he would like to release a 3D Blu-ray version when the technology is mature. However, this was not published as originally planned in November 2010, as the technology for it was still in the concept phase according to 20th Century Fox and the sale was not worthwhile due to fewer customer devices. A freely available 3D Blu-ray has been available since October 2012.

On April 8, 2012 the film was first broadcast on RTL . At its premiere the film reached 6.96 million viewers, with the advertising-relevant target group this led to 35.1 percent.


For the film music , the producer James Cameron hired the American James Horner , as in their joint global success Titanic . He wrote an orchestral score including numerous instruments from the field of world music and with solo and choir passages. Percussion instruments of all kinds are particularly emphasized, which is why the music in the action-packed film passages is very rhythmic and dynamic . The film music was received by the critics with mixed judgment. They underline the exotic scenery of Pandora quite simply with ethnic influences . The choir passages in particular had a strong African flair, the solo voices brought back memories of Middle Eastern and Far Eastern singing traditions. The online magazine Original Score writes : “Unfortunately, Horner falls into the same trap that many composers have fallen into: They equate extraterrestrial with exotic and thus with ethnic. In their eyes, the musical imagination of the cinema-goers only goes so far that every extraterrestrial setting is adequately accompanied by terrestrial convention in the music. "

Both the score by James Horner and the soundtrack title I See You by Leona Lewis have been nominated for a Golden Globe Award . The score also received an Oscar and a BAFTA nomination.

  • Avatar - Music from the Motion Picture . Atlantic Records 2009 (UPN 0-7567-89576-1-1). Film music recorded under the direction of James Horner.

Soundtrack list

  1. James Horner - “You Don't Dream in Cryo. … ”
  2. James Horner - Jake Enters His Avatar World
  3. James Horner - Pure Spirits of the Forest
  4. James Horner - The Bioluminescence of the Night
  5. James Horner - Becoming One of "The People" Becoming One with Neytiri
  6. James Horner - Climbing Up "Iknimaya - The Path to Heaven"
  7. James Horner - Jake's First Flight
  8. James Horner - Scorched Earth
  9. James Horner - Quaritch
  10. James Horner - The Destruction of Hometree
  11. James Horner - Shutting Down Grace's Lab
  12. James Horner - Gathering All the Na'vi Clans for Battle
  13. James Horner - Was
  14. Leona Lewis - I See You (Theme from Avatar)

On the Avatar Soundtrack's official website , it is possible to listen to the bonus track “Into the Na'vi World”, which cannot be found on the Soundtrack CD or MP3 album.

The music in the Avatar trailer comes from Steve Jablonsky and Audiomachine .

computer game

The third-person shooter James Cameron's Avatar: The game was released on December 3, 2009 on all major gaming platforms and has sold 2.71 million times so far (as of March 16, 2011, without the PC version).


Academy Awards 2010



Golden Globe Awards 2010



British Academy Film Awards 2010



Saturn Award 2010


Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards



Box Office Germany Award

  • 2009: 3D bogey for more than 1000 visitors per copy on the starting weekend (3D version)
  • 2010: Titan for over 10 million moviegoers within 100 days

Curt Siodmak Prize

  • 2010: Best Science Fiction Film

Golden canvas

  • 2010: Golden screen with 2 stars for over 9 million moviegoers in 18 months


  • 2010: Best International Film

Video champion

  • 2010: audience award

Further awards

The American Producers Guild of America nominated Avatar for their Association Award in January 2010.


Chinese government response

In China , the success of the film called the media authority on the scene. After the film had been shown in Chinese cinemas since the beginning of January, it was originally only supposed to be shown in the 3D version since January 22nd. In the People's Republic, however, only a good eighth cinema auditorium is equipped with 3D technology, which ultimately led the Chinese government to a special regulation for cities without 3D cinemas, in which the film can now continue to be shown.

Since there are parallels in the plot of the film with the forced resettlement of the residents of Pandora to the Chinese practice in large-scale construction projects in the country, those responsible in China may fear unrest among the people or even saw the film as an incitement to violence. The Chinese columnist Hung Huang wrote in the China Daily : "All the forced relocations of old neighborhoods in China make us the only people on earth who can really relate to the suffering of the Na'vi." However, the late date of the speaks against this motive Regulation almost three weeks after the film was released, when a large number of people had already seen the film. Another reason for the partial censorship of the film could have been to prevent Avatar from reducing the success of the Chinese-produced film Confucius , which was released on January 28, 2010 .

Intellectual Property Litigation

After the huge success, various people sued Cameron for intellectual property theft . In the legal dispute with Gerald Morawski in 2012, Cameron signed a 45-page affidavit in which he goes into detail about the development of the story for Avatar and extensively quoted from the script for his first film Xenogenesis (1978). There are already references to planets with wild flora and fauna, bioluminescent trees connected to one another via a network or small flying beings. Not least because of this evidence, Morawski's lawsuit was finally dismissed in 2013.


James Cameron confirmed in an interview in early August 2010 that he was writing the novel for the film, which was scheduled for release in late 2010 or early 2011.

In August 2013, Cameron reached an agreement with Steven Gould for four Avatar-based novel continuations.


The plot of the film was parodied in the animated series The Simpsons in the episode Treehouse of Horror XXII .

Another very successful parody of the plot showed the American cartoon series South Park .

Planned sequels

In June 2006, James Cameron announced that he would like to bring Avatar out as a trilogy if the first part is successful. Due to the great success of the film, Cameron announced in mid-December 2009 that he was now working on a trilogy. The scripts have not yet been written, but he already has a concrete idea of ​​the plot.

In March 2010, James Cameron reiterated his interest in making a sequel to Avatar . Since Jake Sully no longer needs a human body, Cameron has already announced a title change and brought up the name Na'vi . Cameron also dispelled rumors of an imminent sequel in March 2010. He would like to allow as much time as possible to pass before the next film appears in the cinemas, he believes that a realization period of four years from the start of production is realistic.

Although Cameron always spoke of a trilogy at the beginning of the production of Avatar - Aufbruch nach Pandora , he is now no longer so sure about the number of films and also said that theoretically more than two sequels are possible because many elements from the first Film had been saved for later.

After the theatrical release for the sequel was originally planned in 2015 and FOX announced the theatrical release in 2016 in April 2014, Cameron finally announced in January 2015 that the release of the sequel would be postponed until the end of 2017, as all sequels will be produced together. This is because the story is closed between all films, said Cameron.

In April 2016, Cameron announced at CinemaCon that they are now working on four sequels. In doing so, he confirmed that the film series will now be a pentalogy . Avatar 2 has been postponed to Christmas 2018 as part of this new announcement. The other sequels had been announced for Christmas 2020, 2022 and 2023. However, in March 2017, James Cameron announced in an interview with the Toronto Star that Avatar 2 would no longer be released in 2018. At the end of April 2017, Fox announced the launch dates December 18, 2020 for Avatar 2 , December 17, 2021 for Avatar 3 , December 20, 2024 for Avatar 4 and December 19, 2025 for Avatar 5 .

In a press release on May 7, 2019, Disney moved all avatar sequels again. Avatar 2 will now be released on December 17, 2021, Avatar 3 on December 22, 2023 and Avatar 4 on December 19, 2025. In addition, December 17, 2027 has been specified as the start date for Avatar 5 . In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic , all start dates have been postponed by another year.


  • Jody Duncan, Lisa Fitzpatrick: AVATAR. The film - the making of. Knesebeck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-86873-269-6 . (With over 500 pictures and sketches)
  • Lisa Fitzpatrick: Avatar. James Cameron. The discovery of a new dimension . Knesebeck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-86873-189-7 . (Official companion book to the film)
  • Inge Kirsner: AVATAR. Simulations of freedom. In: Thomas Bohrmann, Werner Veith, Stephan Zöller (Eds.): Handbuch Theologie und Popular Film . Volume 3. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2012, ISBN 978-3-506-77535-1 , pp. 169-179.
  • Simon Spiegel: The blue miracle. Naturalization, alienation and digital figures in James Cameron's “Avatar” , in: Stranger Worlds. Paths and Spaces of Fantasticism in the 21st Century , edited by Lars Schmeink and Hans-Harald Müller, DeGruyter Verlag, Berlin and Boston 2012, pp. 203–222. ISBN 978-3-11-027655-8 , PDF online .
  • Maria Wilhelm, Dirk Mathison: James Cameron's Avatar. The Pandora Survival Guide. riva, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-86883-096-5 .

Web links

Commons : Avatar - Departure to Pandora  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ French, Philip: Avatar was the year's real milestone, never mind the results . In: The Observer , March 14, 2010. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved on March 29, 2010. 
  2. Rich Johnston: Review: AVATAR - The Most Expensive American Film Ever ... And Possibly The Most Anti-American One Too. , Bleeding Cool . December 11, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  3. a b Certificate of Release for Avatar - Departure for Pandora . Voluntary self-regulation of the film industry, December 2009 (PDF; test number: 120 826 K).
  4. Age rating for Avatar - Departure to Pandora . Youth Media Commission .
  5. grossing results from Avatar. Inside Kino, accessed April 25, 2010 .
  6. New “Avatar” record: best-selling DVD ( memento from April 30, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), time online from April 26, 2010
  7. a b c d e f g Eriq Gardner: Read James Cameron's Sworn Declaration on How He Created 'Avatar' . In: The Hollywood Reporter, December 10, 2012
  8. Kirsten Acuna: James Cameron Swears He Didn't Rip Off The Idea For 'Avatar' . In: businessinsider.com of December 13, 2012
  9. Judy Hevrdejs, Mike Conklin: Channel 2 has Monday morning team in place . In: Chicago Tribune , August 9, 1996. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  10. Randy McMullen, Joe Garofoli: People . In: Contra Costa Times , August 9, 1996. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
  11. Mike Sampson: Cameron's Project 880 is ... In: JoBlo.com. January 17, 2006, archived from the original on February 14, 2006 ; accessed on September 8, 2014 (English).
  12. Sheigh Crabtree: Cameron comes back with CG extravaganza. The Hollywood Reporter , July 7, 2006, accessed December 29, 2009 .
  13. Lynn Smith: Special-Effects Giant Signs on for 'Avatar' . In: Los Angeles Times , August 4, 2006. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  14. Jody Duncan, James Cameron: The Winston Effect: The Art History of Stan Winston Studio . Titan Books (UK), 2006, ISBN 1-84576-150-2 .
  15. ^ Jen Waters: Technology adds more in-depth feeling to the movie experience . In: The Washington Times , September 28, 2006. Retrieved December 22, 2006. 
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  19. James Cameron en Chine pour faire la publicité de son film "Avatar" People daily , December 24, 2009 (French)
  20. Lauren Davis: Did James Cameron Rip Off Poul Anderson's Novella? August 26, 2009, accessed July 27, 2011 .
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  23. ^ Brendon Connelly: Everything We Know About James Cameron's Avatar. June 8, 2009, accessed December 29, 2009 .
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  28. ^ Sharon Waxman: Computers Join Actors in Hybrids On Screen. In: The New York Times . January 9, 2007, accessed December 29, 2009 .
  29. Harry interviews James Cameron regarding AVATAR - Part 1! January 9, 2007, accessed December 29, 2009 .
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