Baedeker travel guide
As Baedeker one is guide for destinations in Germany and abroad respectively. He first appeared in 1832 in the the namesake Karl Baedeker founded in 1827 Verlag in Koblenz , which in 1872 in Leipzig and from 1956 in Freiburg worked. The publishing house has been part of the MairDumont Group, based in Ostfildern, since 1997 .
Due to its concise style of language, the accuracy of the travel information and the generous cartographic and other equipment, it became a synonym for the travel guide par excellence in the 19th century, especially in the German-speaking countries with its red linen cover and the gold-colored lettering in the embossed printing . The early inclusion of foreign language editions in the travel guide program also gave the Baedeker a worldwide reputation.
In addition to the Baedekers City Guide series, which was discontinued in 2010, the Baedeker guides appeared from 1979 to 2012 under the title Baedeker Alliance Travel Guide in the colors of the two companies involved, “red / blue”. Since 2013 they bear the sole name Baedeker again . The color codes that have now been introduced were initially retained; In the cover design, which was fundamentally revised in 2018, only the series name “allianz-blau” is underlaid.
From the beginning of 1832 to 1918
The volumes edited by the publisher's founder until 1859
Similar to a publisher generation before him Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus his success in the German encyclopedias market through the acquisition and processing of a previously there already offered lexicon had founded the publishing success of took Karl Baedeker publishing house with the purchase of the publishing house of Franz Friedrich Röhling by the founder of the publishing house, born in 1801. With this acquisition in 1832, the 1828 by the historian Johann August Klein (1778-1831) written book Rhine trip from Mainz to Cologne , manual for fast travelers (D 0), which sprang from the then in full bloom Rhine romanticism, became the property by Karl Baedeker about. After this travel guide was supplemented by a map of the course of the Rhine lithographed by the Becker brothers , its second, revised edition appeared in 1835 - the German-speaking Baedeker began to conquer the travel guide market. For this volume, Bau-Inspektor von Lassaulx provided architectural-historical notes on buildings on the Rhine, which were then dropped in the subsequent edition. In 1839 the third edition of the Rheinreise (D 2) appeared. Karl Baedeker had now fundamentally revised this volume, the Biedermeier binding of which was drawn by David Levy Elkan , in terms of content and typography, and tightened the content significantly. However, Baedeker continued to adhere to the now obsolete author's statement “JA Klein” because the title had been introduced to the book market and it promised better sales opportunities. It was not until the 7th edition of 1852 (D 6) that the original author could no longer be found on the title page. By 1858 (D 9), the Rhine journey , from 1854 under the title Rhineland (D 7a), which was to be used until 1931, and now extended to the Dutch border, had reached 10 editions. The subsequent edition of 1860 (D 10) then appeared under the aegis of Ernst Baedeker. The editions initially contained outline drawings by Johann Adolf Lasinsky , which appeared in a series of images in 1829. In the 1860s they were replaced by other lithographs, until after 1866 no illustration was made using views.
In 1835 an excerpt from the 2nd edition of the Rheinreise , text pages 309 to 372, was published as a separate volume under the title Moselreise (D 34), which describes the river from Trier to Koblenz and is supplemented with historical remarks. Only two more editions followed in 1839, supplemented by preliminary remarks and a map, and in 1846, additionally by a plan. There were no translations.
Only very late was a small Baedeker edition from 1847 Bad Bertrich in Uesbachthale on the Moselle (D 37) discovered in the library of the British Museum , to which Alexander von Humboldt had written an introduction in letter form. On 128 pages and a “situation map”, this volume dealt with the town of Bad Bertrich in the Eifel with its healing springs and paid tribute to the geologist Ernst Heinrich von Dechen . The title mentioned in the volume Rheinreise from 1849 found no subsequent edition, as it did not correspond to Karl Baedeker's final concept of processing larger travel areas and otherwise only European capitals, which are particularly attractive for tourism, in separate editions.
Belgium and Holland
In 1839, the publishing house expanded its range to include Belgium (D 262), which appeared in 1830 as the new kingdom on the European map. In terms of technology and cultural history, the outline of the Belgian railway system contained in the fifth edition from 1853 (D 266c) is extremely interesting. It includes the legal basis, the expansion and structure of the rail network , the procurement of rolling stock and the fare. Even the average procurement costs for steam locomotives ( Bfr 37,500 ) or wagons (Bfr 2428) are given. The Belgian route costs were also compared with those for the German and English main routes in thaler amounts. The explanations are proof of the immense importance the author attached to the still young means of transport , as it opened up a much cheaper, faster and more comfortable way of getting to the travel destinations described in the Baedekern and thus ultimately increased the need for travel guides. Of course, Karl Baedeker overshot the mark a little when, in the discussion on the use of express wagons ( Diligencen and Messagerien [messenger vehicles]), he states that “all major roads that have not yet been rendered useless by railways ... several times a day from such Eilwagen used (to be driven on) ”- the motor vehicle that would become the basis of long-distance travel 100 years later with a new Baedeker generation and which would eventually populate the streets had not yet been invented.
Finally, in 1839, the volume Holland (D 259) appeared for the first time in a yellow Biedermeier cover with an introductory text of XXXI and a main part of 210 pages with only one card. Two further editions followed by 1854 (1845, 2nd edition: D 260, and 1854, 3rd edition: D 261b), the volume had grown to 31 (XXXI) and 216 pages with an additional five plans.
Germany and Austria
In 1842 the title Deutschland und der Oesterreichische Kaiserstaat ( Germany and the Austrian Imperial State) was published for the first time (D 38) , which was modified again and again until the 1930s . Had the voluminous volume, whose route descriptions reached in the east to Lemberg (today: Lviv ) in the south to Venice and Pesth / Ofen , in the west to the French city of Metz and in the north to the Danish city of Copenhagen and in its third edition from 1846 (D 40a ) for the first time the legendary Baedeker stars gave the reader hints of noteworthy sights.Already with 600 pages it was debuted, by the end of the 1850s it had swelled to over 800 pages (1858, 8th edition, D 45) and was right unwieldy. The division of the title into the volumes Austria, South and West Germany (Part I , D 53) and Central and North Germany (Part II , D 95) in 1851 satisfied customer demand for more manageable travel companions. By 1859, the 8th edition had been reached by counting the entire volumes.
In 1855, from the 6th edition of the entire volume, the part relating to the German-Austrian Alpine region was subjected to an extended treatment and appeared separately for the first time under the title Southern Bavaria, Tyrol and Salzburg, Upper Italy . With a 30-page introductory section, 200 pages main section and initially only two maps, the volume saw 30 follow-up editions up to 1914 with increasing Alpine tourism, most recently with a total of 703 pages, 75 maps and 11 panoramas.
The volume Switzerland (D 289) followed in 1844 and, in addition to an already quite extensive text section of 567 pages, initially only comprised a map and the panorama of the Rigi mountain range . Karl Baedeker's favorite project had 8 editions by the time he died (D 296a). The new stylistic concept of text shortening had now led to a page reduction to only around 450, but at the same time the volume was already provided with 7 maps and 9 plans, 2 mountain views and 2 panoramas as well as 16 views.
After eight years of preparatory work, the founder's last German-language work was finally published in 1855 in Paris and the surrounding area (D 329) on time for the great Paris World Exhibition , but Baedeker had completely overlooked this event so that he had to respond to it with a separate insert sheet.
Volumes in French
- Le Rhin
The company's founder edited a total of three volumes in French. In some cases, the content was largely translations of German-language editions, other volumes had a more independent text. Since Baedeker had already brought the Rhine journey to the market in the French translation as Voyage du Rhin (F 1) under its own publisher's name in 1832 , this volume must even be regarded as the actual birth of the "Baedeker". It was followed in 1846 by Le Rhin de Bâle à Dusseldorf . The volume appeared until the mid-1850s in a yellow cardboard volume designed in the Biedermeier style. This was completely printed with landscape views and images of striking buildings, such as the still unfinished Cologne Cathedral , the domes of Speyer and Worms as well as the Heidelberg castle ruins and the monuments of Goethe in Frankfurt and Gutenberg in Mainz (images). It was the binding paper printed in German and provided with French-language stickers for the front cover. During Baedeker's lifetime, between 1852 and 1859, this volume saw four subsequent editions (F 2-5). From 1859 he was named Bords du Rhin . All editions were accompanied by maps of the course of the Rhine and city maps.
- Suisse and La Hollande et la Belgique
The edition Suisse (F 41) that followed in 1852 , which was to have four editions by 1859, contained plans, maps and views as well as a panorama of the Faulhorn . Later the number of panoramas was to increase to 15 (1928). Shortly before his death, Karl Baedeker was finally able to complete the volume La Hollande et la Belgique (F 71), which was in the publishing program from 1859 to 1910.
Volumes edited by Ernst Baedeker from 1859 to 1861
After Karl Baedeker's death on October 4, 1859, his son Ernst , who was born in 1833 and who , as part of his training, also worked in London for Williams & Norgate , a later partner of Baedeker Verlag, took over the publishing business. In his short period of activity until his unexpected death on July 23, 1861, however, he could only write the first English-language title in addition to the volume Ober- Italien in German (D 355) and French (F 91) and L'Allemagne (F 20) , the Rhine (e 1) take shape; With the exception of L'Allemagne (1860), all of the novelties hit the book trade in 1861. Heinrich Ritter (1837–1917) had already joined the publishing house in 1853 , became an authorized signatory in 1862 and a partner in 1878; he was to play a major role in the publication of the travel guide until the First World War .
During Ernst Baedeker's management of the publishing house, the travel guide program developed by his father was continued. The Rhineland (D 10, 11th edition) as well as Germany (D 47a), Austria, South and West Germany (D 59a) and Central and North Germany (D 101a) appeared in German - each in 10. Edition -, Southern Bavaria (D 135 and 136a, 9th and 10th edition), Austria and Upper Italy (D 176, 9th edition), Belgium and Holland (D 268, 7th edition), Switzerland (D 296, 8th edition) and Paris (D 331, 3rd edition). In French there was Le bords du Rhin (F 5, 4th edition) as well as La Suisse (F 44) and La Hollande et la Belgique (F 71), both in the 5th edition.
With the Paris volume from 1858 (D 330b), Ernst Baedeker first used a city map consisting of three folded strips (north-center-south) - a type of map that was also used as a cartographic addition to the descriptions of London from 1862 and Rome from 1866 and Berlin should be used for many years from 1878.
Cooperation with John Murray
From 1860 there was a cooperation agreement with the English publisher John Murray , who had started publishing a travel guide series in 1836. Thereafter, this Baedeker volume sold in England at a higher price (four schillings six pence) than in Germany (the equivalent of four schillings). In return, Baedeker distributed, among other things, Murray's Handbook for Northern Germany in Germany. Later, from 1878 to 1918, the English-language volumes were published by the Scottish brothers James and Findlay Muirhead, who then implemented their own travel guide project, the Blue Guides , which are still on the market today .
Volumes edited by Karl Baedeker junior and Fritz Baedeker from 1861 to 1914
- Move to Leipzig
Karl Baedeker junior , born in 1837, had to take over the publishing house after the early death of his brother Ernst. On March 1, 1869, his brother Fritz (1844–1925) also became a partner in the publishing house. The parents' bookstore was sold in 1870 in return for expanding the publishing business with the increasingly successful travel guides. Both brothers moved the publishing house in 1872 from the provincial town of Koblenz in the Rhineland to the then German book trade metropolis of Leipzig , first to Königstraße 8 (today: Goldschmidtstraße), and in 1877 to Nürnberger Straße 43b (later: 46). As early as 1867, Paris and northern France had appeared in the 6th edition for the World's Fair .
But as early as 1877, Karl Baedeker junior suffered a mental illness, which ruled out further collaboration with the publishing house, so that in 1878 Fritz Baedeker alone shaped the further development of the company and the publishing program. In particular, his merit is the development of the factual, concise “Baedeker style”, in which any text redundancy was eliminated while concentrating on the essential information . He also paid great attention to improving the map material. In view of the publisher's wide-ranging plans for spending on long-distance travel destinations, the previous approach of essentially completing the routes by the publisher himself to obtain the travel information and only resorting to expert sources in exceptional cases was no longer feasible. For this purpose, external employees with special knowledge of the areas to be worked on had to be recruited.
- French-language titles
According to the title page, the French-language titles were published from 1883 in cooperation with the Parisian bookseller and publisher Paul Ollendorff . He initially had his business premises in Paris at 28bis rue de Richelieu . For his publishing activities, he founded the Société d'Éditions littéraires et artistiques in 1898 and relocated his company to Chaussée d'Antin 50. According to the company's advertising leaflet, Ollendorff was also responsible for the distribution of the English and German-language editions.
Volumes for German-speaking travel areas
- Partial volumes for Germany and Austria
After the content of the volume, which encompasses Germany and Austria, the volume of which had grown from edition to edition and thus became increasingly unwieldy as a travel companion, the publisher found an additional offer with a breakdown of this travel area to be more customer-friendly. In 1851 the volumes I Austria, South and West Germany (D 53 ff.) And II Central and North Germany (D 95) were published.
From 1872 (D 64), the 15th edition of Volume I was entitled South Germany and Austria . The 16th edition (D 65) followed as early as 1873 because of the Vienna World Exhibition . It received an appendix "The Vienna World Exhibition of 1873" and was provided in the city map of Vienna with a picture of the Prater that was extended to the east by the exhibition area ; later editions have the original plan size again. Since the 21st edition of 1887, the travel areas of southern Germany and Austria have only been dealt with in separate volumes (D 70 ff. And D 84 ff.).
In parallel to the aforementioned volumes, the publisher offered travelers who wanted to travel exclusively to the Austrian Empire, a volume from 1853 on Austria (D 172). It covered the territory of Austria-Hungary including Veneto, Dalmatia and - in later editions - Bosnia and Herzegovina. From 1873 to 1913 the band name followed with Austria-Hungary (D 183-196) also the described area. Since 1887 (D 84, 21st edition), Baedeker also offered the Austria volume “without Hungary, Dalmatia and Bosnia”. In 1913 the 29th edition (D 92) came out.
- Southern Bavaria
In 1914 Südbayern was published in the 36th edition (D 162), so the volume reached the highest number of editions among classic Baedekers before Switzerland and the First World War . In addition to a complete volume, the Verlag für Bergwanderer also presented a variant in five individual volumes along with a register volume in a gray cardboard slipcase printed with the abbreviated title of the edition, which at 9 marks was only one mark more expensive than the normal edition despite the significantly more complex production.
- Central and Northern Germany
From 1880 (D 110, 19th edition), Anton Springer also controlled the volume II Central and Northern Germany , which since the previous edition of 1878 (D 109) only had the title North Germany and was delivered in the classic linen cover , in the foreword a 20-page treatise “Zur Kunsthistorischen Orientirung”, which was essentially unchanged until 1914 and which began in the 10th century and extended into the second half of the 19th century.
For reasons of size, in 1889 the 23rd edition of the volume Nord-Deutschland had to be subdivided again into the sub-volumes Nord-West-Deutschland (D 114 ff.) And North-East Germany (D 123 ff.), With Springer's art-historical introduction two new ones Part of the volume was added.
- North-East Germany
This volume contained all areas of the empire east of the line Hof-Leipzig-Wittenberge-Hamburg- Cuxhaven and additionally Berlin, Magdeburg , Brandenburg and the North Frisian islands with Heligoland . The trip to Denmark was also described here.
- North-West Germany
All parts of the empire west of the above-mentioned line including the Altmark , the Harz and Thuringia were assigned here. From 1899 (D 117, 26th edition), Hamburg and the North Frisian Islands with Heligoland were also included in this volume, so that these descriptions were now included in both sub-volumes up to 1914, which, in line with the wishes of users for an overall description of the North Sea coast, was also included in met this band.
- Germany in one gang
The entire volume for Germany and Austria, Germany (D 52), was last published in 1872 in its 15th edition with a rather unwieldy 1000-page volume, if you add the numerous maps and plans. A new edition of the Germany volume, but now without Austria and therefore only half as large, came about in 1906 under the title Germany in one volume (D 223). It was to experience three editions by 1913 and continue after 1918 to 1936 (6th edition).
Due to its special touristic importance, the territorially overarching volume Rhineland was continued from the 12th (D 11, 1862) to the 32nd edition (D 31, 1912). At first there were 12 lithographic views, but these were dropped in 1866 (D 13, 14th edition). In contrast, the number of maps and city plans was continuously increased from fourteen and thirteen to 70 maps and 62 city maps and floor plans (D 31).
From 1878 a separate volume for the German capital, Berlin and its surroundings (D 200) had to be included in the publishing program in order to fend off a competing product from the publishing house Alexius Kiessling , the so-called "Berliner Baedeker". To conquer the market, he simply made use of the awareness and appreciation of the Baedeker brand. Going to court would have been too lengthy, so by 1883 “Separat-Abdruck [e]” from northern Germany (D 109 to D 111) were brought onto the market.
The volume, which was only edited independently with the fourth edition of 1885 (D 203), also dealt with the nearby Potsdam with its palaces and the Sanssouci Park , which most of Berlin's visitors are likely to have visited. Due to the growing importance of Berlin as the economic, political and cultural center of the empire , which went hand in hand with a surge in visitor numbers, the demand for the title required an issue cycle of roughly two years until 1914 (D 217, 18th edition).
The Swiss volume was also updated every two years; in the 1860s there was also an annually updated edition at times. Here, too, the 9 views 1864 (D 298a, 10th edition) still bound in the ninth edition of 1862 (D 297a) were omitted. By 1913 the 35th edition had now been reached with 77 maps, 21 city maps and 14 panoramas (D 323).
Expenditures for travel destinations in the rest of Central Europe
In addition to the issues for Germany and Switzerland and the separate volume for Austria-Hungary, which also included parts of today's Poland ( Galicia with Krakow), the Czech Republic and Slovakia , there were no separate Baedeker for Central Europe. The rest of Polish territory was included in the Russia Volume , to which it belonged under constitutional law until 1918.
Expenditures for travel destinations in Western and Northern Europe
- Belgium and Holland
The description of the countries Belgium and Holland, which were united in a common band as early as 1858, experienced a further nineteen pre-war editions from 1861 due to the popularity of these travel destinations. In the early volumes, the art historian Karl Schnaase was cited as an "informant" when assessing the paintings described, before later Anton Springer , in the 1914 edition with additions by Jaro Springer, the older Dutch art and Walter Gensel the newer art of both countries 1800 dealt with in short essays. Most recently, the title comprised over 550 pages and was u. a. equipped with 18 maps, 36 plans and a street directory of Brussels .
- Paris, rest of France and the Riviera
For France there were still German-language editions only for the first city volume of the House of Baedeker, Paris , the 1st edition of which was from 1855 and of which fourteen editions were available by 1914. From 1865 it was published quite successfully in English and French (18th edition in 1913 and 1914 respectively). For world exhibitions held in Paris in 1867 , 1889 and 1900 , plans provided with plans were added loose or bound to the Paris volumes .
It was not until 1889 that a volume followed for the Riviera, which has also become increasingly popular among German tourists (five editions until 1913). On the other hand, the remaining parts of the country were initially only presented in French-language editions from 1884 onwards: four editions appeared for northern, central and southern France before the First World War ( Nord-Ouest , Nord-Est , Sud-Ouest and Sud-Est de la France ) . English editions are also available in six editions for northern and southern France : Northern France began in 1889 , and Southern France , which was on the market from 1891, was again divided into an eastern and western volume from 1895 to 1898 ( South-Eastern - and South-Western-France ).
- London and the rest of the UK
The second city band after Paris was followed by Baedeker London and its surroundings, along with travel routes from the Continent to England and back , on the occasion of the World Exhibition of 1862 , which initially only included excursions into the immediate vicinity of London, such as the Crystall Palace in Sydenham , Hampton Court or Windsor , described and partly delivered with an appendix to the world exhibition. The follow-up edition, published in 1866, expanded the travelogues to include South England, Wales and Scotland , for which an additional map and plans of Edinburgh and Glasgow were added while at the same time renouncing the plans of the continental European starting points for the canal crossing . The extensions continued up to the eighth edition of the London Band of 1884. Thereafter, the general description of Great Britain was separated from that of London, and in 1889 the first edition of Great Britain appeared, which also included Ireland . By the outbreak of World War I, a total of 17 editions of the edition for London and four for Great Britain (most recently in 1906) were published, although the latter was not to be continued in German after the war. The English edition Great Britain (7th edition: 1910) , which was published for Great Britain as early as 1887, two years before the German-language version, did not, in contrast to the German-language version, contain a description of Ireland; a French-speaking one never came on the market.
The French edition of Londres appeared for the first time together with the second German edition in 1866 and last in 1913 in the twelfth edition. On the other hand, the English parallel editions for London did not start until 1878, at the same time as the sixth German edition, and by 1915 - like the German - due to the generally shorter edition cycle, it had 17 editions. In order to improve the manageability of all London editions, the city and street maps as well as the street directory of London from 1887 onwards were summarized in an appendix, which after the easily possible separation from the integration could be taken from the volume and used as a separate brochure.
- Sweden and Norway
The growing interest in travel to Scandinavia is documented by the Baedeker Sweden and Norway published for this travel area from 1879 onwards , including trips to Spitsbergen and Iceland, with 13 editions by 1914. Since they also included the travel routes through Denmark, they covered all Scandinavian countries, with the exception of Finland, which belonged to the Russian Empire as the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1918 and was dealt with in the Russia volume from 1883 (see there). The English edition Norway and Sweden was also available in 1879 - the order of the countries in the title was exactly the opposite of the German one - which was then presented in the 10th edition in 1912. The French-language title Suède et Norvège , on the other hand, did not appear until 1886 and was only reprinted three times, the last time in 1911. All these editions were the only ones from the program to have a separate phrasebook, here for the Scandinavian languages.
- Spain and Portugal
It was not until 1897 that the publishing house Spain and Portugal dedicated an edition, which was offered for at least 16 marks, to the Iberian peninsula , which at that time was still a little off the beaten track from the main tourist flows, followed by a volume in English in 1898 and in French in 1900. As early as 1882 the Higher Regional Court Judge Ludwig Passarge from Königsberg started a two-and-a-half-month trip to the collection of materials on behalf of the publisher and the well-known art historian Carl Justi wrote a 50-page introduction to art history. The publication, which was planned for 1883, was delayed by 14 years for various reasons. Despite the long processing time, however, many errors crept in. However, this only became fully clear to the public when an unchanged reprint had appeared after the very tight first edition and had now triggered clear criticism. As a result, the fundamentally revised 2nd edition was published in 1899 without any editing notice. While the volumes Spain and Portugal and Spain and Portugal had four editions each up to 1914, the French version Espagne et Portugal only had two.
Expenditures for travel destinations in Southern and Eastern Europe
Descriptions of large areas of the Balkan countries are contained in the volume Austria-Hungary (D 183), which has been published separately since 1873 . In its last pre-war edition of 1913 (31st), this Baedeker was equipped with at least 75 maps and 76 plans and thus described Serbia , Bosnia-Herzegovina , Dalmatia , Romania and Montenegro in addition to the two core countries of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy , with the emphasis on the larger cities in these countries. Only with the 1913 edition did the publisher include a detailed description of the country by Norbert Krebs, a private lecturer in Vienna .
The edition for Upper Italy followed in 1866 the arrangements for Central Italy and Lower Italy, with which the Apennine Peninsula was presented in a comprehensive arrangement. The large streams of travelers who followed in the footsteps of many famous German travelers to Italy in the 18th and 19th centuries resulted in a corresponding demand for these titles, so that by 1914 the Upper Italy volume had achieved eighteen editions and the other two still fourteen or fifteen. For travelers with limited financial and time options, Baedeker offered for the first time in 1890 an all-Italy volume limited to the area from the Alps to Naples , which in 1908 saw its last, sixth pre-war edition. From the 1870s onwards, the editions of Upper and Central Italy were preceded by an outline of Italian art history written by the Leipzig art historian Anton Springer ; the Bonn professor Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz had been won over for Lower Italy .
After the traveler to the classical antiquities of Greece was initially limited to the descriptions of excursions to Athens offered in the first editions for Lower Italy, which were also offered as separate editions by Karl Wilberg , who is based in Athens and has family ties to Baedeker The Greek volume (D 466), first published in 1883, contained a detailed travel description of the most important ancient Greek sites. The archaeologist Habbo Gerhard Lolling prepared the entire manuscript . The building researcher Wilhelm Dörpfeld and the archaeologist Karl Purgold were responsible for depicting Olympia , while Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz wrote the art-historical introduction; it was revised for the 4th edition (1904) by the later director of the Berlin antique collection Robert Zahn .
The attractiveness of this volume was increased from the second edition of 1888 by two illustrations and a panorama of the Greek capital. A total of five editions were printed up to 1908, in which the large overview map was always in a pocket in the back cover. An English-language edition Greece followed in 1889 (4th edition: 1909, E 237). In French, however, only a single edition appeared in 1910 ( Grèce , F 216), the history of which had been placed in the hands of the Lyon university professor Henri Lechat.
Starting with West and Central Russia in 1883 (D 457), the Russian Empire was opened up. This volume initially provided a description of Poland ( Generalgouvernement Warsaw ), the Baltic States , the Grand Duchy of Finland and from central, central and southern Russia to the Crimean peninsula . At the same time, a short guide to the Russian language was published to offer German travelers a practical introduction to the Russian language , which is much more foreign than English or the Romance languages. Like the travel guide, it appeared in five editions until 1912. In the last edition of Russia (1912, D 462), for which the renowned geographer Alfred Philippson wrote the introduction to regional and folklore of European Russia , there were then also long-distance Asian destinations that could be reached indirectly from Germany via the trans-Siberian railway , such as Port Arthur and Beijing as well as the route to the Persian capital Tehran - it led by rail to Baku , then by water to the port of Enselí-Kasian and finally by carriage via Rasht - have been described. Even then, hunting tourism was popular among the wealthy. So you could hunt the " elk ... on a driven hunt , in front of the pack and with the help of the curl " and the bear "in winter with drivers ", as explained in the Russia volume from 1912. Of the volume, which was published in a total of seven editions, there were three French-language editions from 1893 to 1902 (F 210-212), but only one in English from 1914 (E 244), the content of which corresponded to the last German from 1912. The language guide appeared in 1883 (1888 - 2nd edition, pp. 12, 12b) also in a French version as Manuel de langue russe (S 13) and in 1914 in an English version , Manual of the Russian Language (S 14), so it corresponded with its publication largely with the respective published travel guide volumes.
Praised as the Venice of the North , St. Petersburg , the former Russian capital, which was rich in museums and art treasures , attracted many travelers even before the First World War, especially as it was not too difficult to reach by sea across the Baltic Sea . Accordingly, in 1901 a “special print” (D 464) from the fifth edition of the Russia volume was published for this city and its surroundings , which was followed by another edition in 1913 (D 465).
Middle East travel expenses
- Syria and Palestine
In 1875 the prestigious title Palestine and Syria (D 478) was published as the first non-European volume in an arrangement by the Swiss orientalist Albert Socin , who was to experience seven editions by 1910 (up to D 484). From the 3rd edition (1891), Immanuel Benzinger took care of the updating and improvement . In contrast to all other editions current at the time, this volume was initially offered illustrated with six views of Jerusalem and two more of Damascus and Baalbek , after the last time the Swiss volumes contained lithographs of travel destinations in a Baedeker in 1867. Shown were z. B. the Western Wall , the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Via Dolorosa . After two more views of Palmyra were added to the second edition in 1880, none at all were included in the subsequent edition of 1891. Only the panorama of Jerusalem, which was initially added as a steel engraving to the first edition, was present in all editions. With comprehensive information on geography, population, history, art history and the Arabic language as well as Islam along with the relevant literature information in the context of an introduction of over 120 pages, this volume presented the state of the art in oriental studies at that time and thus went far beyond a mere travel guide.
In 1876 the English-language counterpart Palestine and Syria (E 254) followed with 10 views. It reached five editions by 1912 (E 258); Lawrence of Arabia is said to have always carried the latter with him in the Arab struggle for independence . A French translation followed six years after the English version (F 217), again with the 10 views, which could only reach three subsequent editions by the First World War (1912, F 220). All subsequent editions in foreign languages appeared without the views, but always with the panorama of Jerusalem.
The third and last edition of this volume, published in 1894, was initially edited by the professor at Leipzig University , the Egyptologist Georg Ebers ; he had toured Egypt and Nubia in 1869/70. Contributed u. a. Ascherson as well as the geologist Karl Alfred von Zittel and the ornithologist M. Theodor von Heuglin . It was not until 1891 that Egypt followed in a single edition , second part: Upper Egypt and Nubia up to the second cataract . The manuscript by Georg Ebers and Johannes Dümichen , completed in 1877 , had to be brought up to date because of the Egyptological research that had progressed in the meantime, something that August Eisenlohr was concerned with.
In 1897 both volumes were merged to form Baedeker Egypt (D 489), which had already been revised by the Leipzig Egyptologist Georg Steindorff and which had another four editions by 1918 (D 493). This volume was not a simple travel guide either. The names of "successful Egyptologists who were significantly involved in excavations and research" contained in the place and subject register made "an excellent compendium of Egyptology". In these volumes, the interested traveler was in a continuously expanded introductory part u. a. familiarized with the ancient and modern history of Egypt, the meaning of hieroglyphic writing and Egyptian art history. In the last editions there were also explanations about the Egyptian dialect of Arabic, which should make it easier for the user to interact with the population, especially in the bazaars and off the main travel routes. Like the Syria-Palestine Volume, the Lower Egyptian Baedeker was provided with seven views up to the 4th edition.
An English translation of the volume for Lower Egypt was available as early as 1878 ( Egypt Part First: Lower Egypt, with the Fayûm, and the peninsula of Sinai , E 245). There were also eight editions of the English counterpart by 1929 (up to E 253). On the other hand, the French edition, which only appeared in 1898 (F 221), was followed by four subsequent editions up to 1914 (up to F 224).
- Constantinople and Western Asia Minor
It was not until 1905 (D 497), relatively late compared to the other oriental travel destinations, that travelers to the Orient were given a travel guide dedicated to the former Eastern Roman and later Byzantine residence, which at the time of publication had been under Ottoman rule for over 450 years . The arrival routes led across the Balkans , so that this volume also included travel advice for Serbia , Romania and Bulgaria with corresponding plans for their capitals. The second edition (D 498), with significant additions to the text and map material, appeared in 1913.
Expenses for the Mediterranean region
In the first time in 1909 placed Mediterranean band (D 417), the tourist primarily of interest, in part, secular ports and the marine regions of all neighboring states of the Mediterranean, which predominantly another in North Africa colonial subjected had status, a common processing. The volume was primarily intended for the cruise ship travelers of Norddeutscher Lloyd and HAPAG , who could thus fall back on the Baedeker quality for their purposes without having to travel through several expensive country volumes such as "Greece", "Constantinople and Western Asia Minor ”,“ Palestine and Syria ”or“ Egypt ”. But it was also used by the travelers of the Austrian Lloyd , whose SS Thalia organized several Mediterranean tours annually since 1907. An English parallel edition ( The Mediterranean , E 179) appeared in 1911, which corresponded to the German volume in terms of equipment and volume.
India edition for travel destinations in Asia outside the Middle East
With the publication of the India volume at the end of 1913 (D 499), the publisher presented a further, but also the last long-haul travel destination of the classic Baedeker period in comprehensive editing. In addition to India, the then countries and areas Ceylon , India , Burma , the Malay Peninsula , Siam and Java were dealt with, although the original plan to include East Asia had to be abandoned for reasons of size. The title, which was only published in German, came about at the first suggestion of the director of North German Lloyd, Heinrich Wiegand , and with the support of this company. The manuscript was prepared by the explorer Georg Wegener . Its ethnographic and art-historical introductory text was written by the famous Indologist and Tübingen professor Richard Garbe , and A. Faller provided the practical advice. The Archaeological Survey of India assisted in the indexing of the Vorderindischen antiquities collection . Baedeker's India was a high point of upscale travel guide literature, and the publisher was able to catch up with the competing series of Meyer's travel books , in which a one-volume world travel guide was already available in 1907 , which was revised in 1912 in the 2nd edition, but now in two volumes, and also India and even East Asia covered with.
A revision of other comparable long-distance travel destinations, with the exception of the subsequent editions of the English-only volume for Canada ( Canada , 1922, 4th edition, E 266) and the Egypt volume (1928, 8th edition), should be carried out by the publisher for not give for a very long time. The First World War probably did not allow the sale of the India band to any great extent, and in view of the further political and economic development in Germany after 1918, there was little room for the realization of time-consuming and cost-intensive long-distance trips for a larger part of the population. As a result, there could not be a great need for appropriate travel guides. This can also be deduced from the information contained in the volume for preparing a trip to India, the financial framework of which is likely to have exceeded the budget of a traveler even with a middle income, if, for example, there is talk of bringing a full bed or one's own washbasin for convenience to enlarge.
For the first time again in the Baedeker Allianz series , India and comparable destinations were presented again in extensive country volumes or volumes for country groups, which, however, were intended to appeal to a much wider travel audience under fundamentally changed economic and political conditions.
- North America with Mexico
After throughout the 19th century, thousands of German via Bremerhaven or Hamburg to leave home in the direction of North America had to build a new existence, the United States came at the end of the 19th century the focus of German travel audience. With the volume North America in 1893, the year of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America , which was held in Chicago seven months later , the North American tourists were provided with reliable tools for the upcoming ship passage and stay in the New World. In addition to the obligatory travel information on money, the language, the system of measurements and weights as well as the means of communication, the reader was provided with additional information on geography, history and also the Germanness in North America in a fifty-page introduction. The map material was drawn up by the US geographer Henry Gannett . A second, expanded edition followed in 1904, which u. a. for cards and a. of Southern California , Mexico , and plans of Boston, Brooklyn supplemented, Denver, Detroit and Indianapolis. With now 25 maps and 32 plans, the band should enable travelers to find their way around the host country without major problems.
A first English-language edition, which was largely independent in terms of content, was even published a few months before the German-language one in 1893 and was to see four subsequent editions by 1909. The last one described the earthquake of 1906 that destroyed a large part of the city of San Francisco . Its introduction was clearly tailored to British tourists and went noticeably beyond the German-language edition with detailed descriptions of the railway system, history , the constitution and government , the indigenous population and finally the development of art. It was not until 1894 that the French-language edition Les Etats-Unis , based on the German edition, followed , which also had only a subsequent edition in 1905. An excursion to Mexico was included in all editions ; the last English-speaking one also gave travel advice for visiting Alaska .
- Canada (Canada)
Canada was the only Baedeker to appear in English only in 1894 and was initially reprinted in three revised editions until 1908. As for the United States edition, the author was JF Muirhead, who, according to the preface, had traveled through most of the described areas of Canada himself. Hamburg ( Hamburg-Amerika-Linie ) and Bremen (Norddeutscher Lloyd) were specified as departure points for German tourists to Canada , whereby New York was first approached and from there Montreal, Canada .
Publishing activities under Fritz Baedeker during the First World War
When the war began on August 1, 1914, most of the classic travel destinations, such as Italy, France and Great Britain, were hostile countries and were therefore ruled out as travel destinations. But the war conditions in general also restricted the remaining travel options so much that continuation of the publishing activity on the previous scale was no longer possible. Although the 17th edition London and its environs appeared in New York in 1915 , as before in collaboration with Charles Scribner's Sons , the volume Mittel-Italien (15th edition) announced in the publisher's announcements for the pre-war volumes was no longer available the readership had to wait until 1919 for the new Baedeker titles to appear.
Baedeker editions from 1919 to 1932
The beginning of the so-called inter - war period presented Baedeker Verlag with extreme challenges. Due to the inflationary development in Germany, which led to a dramatic loss of wealth for large parts of the population, the procurement of foreign currency, which is essential for a trip abroad, had become very expensive. This led to a strong reduction in travel flows to classic holiday destinations such as France , Great Britain and Italy. Long-distance travel to the United States, the Orient or India was even less of an option for most Germans. The volumes for these regions, which were completed immediately before the outbreak of war and which had hardly found sales during the war, continued to be difficult to sell and put a heavy burden on the publishing house due to the capital tied up in them.
Fritz Baedeker died in 1925 as soon as the economically extremely difficult period of inflation was survived. Now his sons Ernst, Dietrich and Hans Baedeker had to continue running the publishing house together. In the Roaring Twenties of the Weimar Republic tourism initially took off again , only to break off all the more after the onset of the global economic crisis in 1929.
For some areas the publisher printed so-called emergency editions. These described sub-areas of originally comprehensive volumes: Holland, Norway and Austria – Hungary (excluding the newly formed Republic of Austria). The Baedeker house, together with the newly processed sub-areas, was able to at least offer descriptions of the remaining territories in the pre-war state, until these too were subjected to a revision in accordance with the changed political and cultural conditions. Since they were only available for a short time, they are correspondingly rare.
Expenditures for German travel areas
Country guide for Germany
The one-volume country guide for Germany, the third edition of which was last published in 1913 (D 225), was revised in 1925 (D 226) and then appeared again in the fifth edition in 1932 (D 227), whereby the automobile was conceptually more powerful as a means of travel was brought into focus.
Northern and Southern Germany, Southern Bavaria and the Rhineland
In the German editions, the titles for the Rhineland , Southern Bavaria and Berlin were initially continued in the old form . The Rhineland was edited twice, in 1925 (D 32) and 1931 in the 34th edition (D 33), and maps and street directories for cities such as Frankfurt and Cologne were added. The edition for southern Bavaria appeared as early as 1921 under a new title Munich and Upper Bavaria (D 240a) before the publishing house returned to the old naming with the volumes from 1925 (D 163) and 1928 (D 164).
In English, the last edition in the classic form 1925 Northern Germany (17th edition, E 31) and 1929 Southern Germany (13th edition, E 449) came onto the market. While Southern Germany was noticeably expanded and, in addition to the ocher-colored text dust jacket , was partially delivered with a picture dust jacket (mute card), the size of the edition for Germany's north remained roughly the same as the previous edition from 1913. This also applied to the last edition of Berlin and its environs from 1923 (6th edition, E 65). The Rhine from 1911 (E 107b) had already been reprinted in 1919 , before the last revised and reduced edition was published in 1926 - the Alsace-Lorraine region , which had returned to France through the Versailles Treaty, was now missing (18th edition, E 18 ). For the French-speaking pre-war counterparts of these three titles, which were published between 1909 and 1911, the publisher saw no more sales opportunities since the end of the World War.
Expenses for Berlin
The publishing house was unable to maintain the two-year publication cycle of the Berlin volume before the war . After all, the 19th edition appeared in 1921 with an advertising attachment (D 218), which was reprinted in 1923 without it. A newly designed 20th edition (D 220) followed in 1927, in which the majority of the maps were summarized in a separate paginated appendix.
Regional volumes for German landscapes
Taking into account the changed situation among German travelers, who were now primarily looking for their travel destinations in Germany, the publishing house, under the leadership of Ferdinand Moll, made a virtue out of necessity and published by quoting the geographer and zoologist Friedrich Ratzel , according to which " the German ... above all (should) know what he has in his country ", since 1920 regional volumes successively for all parts of the fallen empire that remained with Germany after the Versailles Treaty . These fanned out the larger areas of expenditure for southern, north-east and north-west Germany very strongly. The first editions appeared in 1920 for Brandenburg (D 229a), the Harz (D 231a), Saxony (D 234a) and Thuringia (D 236a), followed by editions for Hanover and the German North Sea coast (D 239a), the Black Forest (D 241a) and Westphalia (D 244a) in 1921. Finally, the series of regional volumes was supplemented in 1922 by issues for the Baltic Sea coast (D 245a) and Hesse –Nassau (D 246a), and 1923 for Silesia (D 247). After Northern Bavaria (D 249) in 1924, the regional band series was not completed until 1925 with Württemberg (D 251), whose geographical overview was written by Robert Gradmann and Julius Baum was responsible for the Swabian art history .
The titles published until 1922 ("a" variants of the catalog numbers) were given an extensive advertising attachment. It was missing in the later reprints, initially unchanged in terms of content ("b" variants) and the revised subsequent editions for several titles. This first appeared in 1925 for Thuringia , now supplemented by an introduction to art history by the Jena art historian and director of the local city museum , Paul Weber , and the Harz Mountains . The Black Forest followed in 1927 . In the following year, the second edition of Saxony appeared with an introduction to art history by Cornelius Gurlitt and Brandenburg , for which Paul Ortwin Rave gave the relevant explanations. In 1930 Northern Bavaria was revised and supplemented by a description of the Bohemian border areas with Pilsen , Budweis and Eger ( Cheb ). The band are therefore u. a. also included information on the language , currency and automobile traffic in the neighboring country .
One with a loading rate of 1.25 RM cheaper extract from the submitted second edition 1925 Thüringen- band appeared for the Goethe 1932 (D 252) -year, wherein the text event-driven by Gerhard Peters has been revised. After the war destruction of large unsold remnants in 1943, it is now one of the rarest recent editions.
Expenditures for foreign travel areas
Given the rapid succession of editions before the First World War, the volumes with foreign travel destinations were only presented revised at longer intervals. This may be due on the one hand to the high standard already achieved in terms of the "processing density" of the travel areas and on the other hand to the more difficult sales conditions. Last but not least, the economic and cultural development of most countries took place at a slower pace than was the case in many European countries during the period of dynamic economic growth in the second half of the 19th century (see the rapid expansion at the time of the railway network or the rapid growth of many European capitals). This meant that the travel conditions and destinations were no longer subject to such rapid change that the Baedeker requirements, which were revised at very short intervals, would have had to be taken into account.
Among other things, for the Balkan states as the successor states of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy that collapsed in 1918 , one of the emergency editions already mentioned (D 197) was initially published in 1926 as an extract from the 1913 complete edition of the Austria-Hungary volume under the title Austria-Hungary (Without today's Austria) , which also lacked the earlier introduction with practical travel and cultural information. However, the revision of all successor states announced in it came only partially. So until 1945, in addition to areas of the Balkans, the countries Poland and Romania as well as large parts of Czechoslovakia and Hungary were missing .
The German-language volume Dalmatia and the Adriatic (D 419), dedicated to the Adriatic region and covering over 300 pages of travel destinations in the Balkans , was completely redesigned by Ferdinand Moll with the participation of Franz Babinger (Albania part) and Norbert Krebs (regional studies) to the island of Corfu and Albania .
- Belgium and Holland
Two of the oldest national titles in the Baedeker series, Belgium and Holland , which were presented in one volume from 1858 onwards after individual editions up to 1855, received a final, again separate processing. For example, after an emergency issue for Holland with an excerpt from the last joint 25th edition from 1914 (D 286b), a revision of Holland in 1927 (D 287), which was carried out with the collaboration of Franz Dülberg and supplemented with a street directory of The Hague and Amsterdam was.
In 1930 followed the volume Belgium and Luxemburg (D 288), whose art history Jacques Mesnil (Paris) had recreated and in which the traveler could now also fall back on a street directory for Antwerp in addition to that of Brussels . The blame on Belgian civilians for German retaliation during the First World War in the cities of Aerschot and Dinant in this (pages 36 and 284) and in the English edition, Belgium and Luxemburg (16th edition, ) led to a dispute in a Belgian court in May 1933 . E 195), which were based solely on German sources. The court-ordered text addition about the Belgian position did not come about due to further political developments in Germany. The French text by Belgique et Luxembourg (20th edition, 1928, F 90) did not contain the objectionable passages.
The French-language pre-war editions were still offered by the publisher; However, no revisions were made. Only the Paris volume has been continuously updated in all three languages. It appeared in an expanded scope in 1923 (D 347) and in 1931 in the 20th edition (D 348) with a separate plan appendix like the issues from 1900. It was designed by Karl Baedeker III (1910–1979) with the assistance of Jacques Mesnil and Eduard Reusch (Leipzig) presented. Since the 20th edition from 1931 often comes with a supplement to the Paris World Exhibition of 1937 , it can be assumed that the publisher still had sufficient numbers in stock in 1937 and that it was only now able to achieve higher sales, which the book market did for its first appear in the immediate aftermath of the Great Depression was still denied. Similarly, there were also English and French editions, first published in 1924 for the Olympic Games (E 113 and F 162) and for the last time in 1937, with a different edition year 1932 on the title page (E 114) and 1931 (F 163).
The English Northern France volume from 1909 ( Northern France. 5th edition. E 119) had to be reprinted again in 1919, while the last edition for the southern half of the country from 1914 (E 126) was still sufficiently available. The publisher delivered both of them until the second half of the 1930s. The only edition of The Riviera was new in 1931 . South-Eastern France and Corsica. The Italian Lakes and Lake of Geneva (E 127), which had street directories for Lyon, Milan, Turin, Marseille and Genoa. A year earlier and already in its 6th edition, the German-speaking Mediterranean bathers were given the Riviera-Band (D 354) developed by Eduard Reusch once again in a slightly expanded scope, although here too in many cities, such as Nice and Genoa or Marseille, street directories made it easier to find travel destinations. The growing crowd of motorists was served with numerous new street descriptions. This requirement was supposed to satisfy the demand until the outbreak of the Second World War .
- Great Britain and London
A German-language edition for Great Britain was last published in 1906. Even now, only the English-language editions were continued with the volume from 1927 (E 222); a last from 1937 was to follow it in the Third Reich (E 223). London was also only presented to those familiar with the English language in two editions of 1923 (E 213) and 1930 (E 214). The French-language London editions had already been discontinued in 1913.
All current German editions for Italy have been updated: Upper Italy 1928 (D 373) and 1931 (D 374) - Hans Nachod , who emigrated to the USA in 1939, was responsible for introducing art history -, Central Italy and Rome 1927 (D 389) and Unter-Italien 1929 (D 405) as well as the compact title Italy from the Alps to Naples 1926 (D 413) and 1931 (D 414). Subsequent editions in French were only available in 1926 for Italie des Alpes à Naples (F 143), 1929 for Italie centrale et Rome (15th edition, F 124) and 1932 for Italie septentrionale (19th edition, F 119). On the other hand, all three English subtitles for Italy, Northern Italy (E 142), Rome and Central Italy (E 158) and Southern Italy and Sicily (E 175) were published for the last time in 1930 after the third edition of Italy in 1928 from the Alps to Naples (E 178).
- Austria and Hungary
For the former total area of the monarchy, see the introductory notes for the Balkan states. For lovers of the Austrian Alpine landscape, the 37th edition of the volume Tyrol, Vorarlberg and parts of Salzburg and Carinthia was published in 1923 (D 167) as a partial volume of the edition published since 1855 with the original title Südbayern, Tirol und Salzburg , Ober-Italien . The Italian place names introduced after the separation of South Tyrol from Austria were now taken into account; the geography was provided by Dietrich Baedeker (1886–1869). The volume was reprinted twice by 1932, the last in 1929 under the title Tyrol and Etschland (D 169). The rest of Austria was already included in the volume Austria from 1887 . In 1926 there was the 30th edition (D 93) and in 1931 the last edition (D 94), which was in the publisher's offer until 1943. Together with the Austrian capital, the second capital of the former dual monarchy, Budapest , was then dealt with in a joint city volume in 1931 (D 198), which was not to be continued.
The English-language Alpine Guide, published from 1879 until before the First World War under the title Eastern Alps , was finally presented to the public in 1927 as Tyrol and the Dolomites including the Bavarian Alps (13th edition, E 54) with slightly reduced content. After an 18-year break, there was also another volume for Vienna (street directory) and the Danube Republic in 1929: Austria together with Budapest, Prague, Karlsbad, Marienbad (12th edition, E 59). It also covered the Bohemian spa world, but the description of the Balkans in the context of this volume had become obsolete due to the new political conditions on the Danube.
- Poland and the Baltic States as well as European Russia
The Russia volume, which had described parts of Poland and the Baltic States, was certainly not reprinted because of the political upheavals in Russia , which had significantly weakened travel by then. There was also no longer any room for an edited new edition of the Austria-Hungary volume , which until 1914 contained Galicia and Krakow , in the old area. So the tourists to these travel destinations were still dependent on the often outdated information of the last edition of the above -mentioned pre-war Russia volume from 1912 (D 463) and the so-called emergency issue for Austria-Hungary from 1926 described above for the Balkan states.
The originally third edition of the publishing house for foreign countries, which had to be published every two years before the First World War due to the high demand, only had three editions in the Weimar Republic (D 324-327): 1920 (reprint: 1924), 1927 and 1930 - before it was published for the last time in 1937. The last-mentioned Switzerland volume (38th edition), the geography of which was revised by Otto Flückiger and art history by Doris Wild , was published in 1931 as the second edition ever in four parts in an illustrated slipcase, from Published by the publisher as "casing", delivered. This repeats the motif of the dust jacket supplied with this issue. With this cover variant, which was only set up at a later date - there is no reference to this in the foreword and instead, as is generally the case in the volumes, the division of the entire volume is explained to the buyers - especially mountain hikers who had to observe weight restrictions on their luggage should be addressed.
Revised subsequent editions of Switzerland (E 26-28) were printed three more times between 1922 and 1938 , whereas the French title Suisse only printed in 1921 (F 69) and 1928 (F 70).
In 1929 an emergency edition (D 455) was published for Norway, which was based on the complete edition for Scandinavia, but did not contain the descriptions of Sweden. After the Scandinavia volume was split up in 1929, this was followed by the edition devoted to Sweden and Finland along with travel routes through Denmark (D 454), which was only followed in 1931 by a Norway volume (D 456) , again including Denmark, Iceland and Svalbard , for which Helmut de Boor provided the historical overview. Both volumes, which were edited by Ernst Baedeker III and whose regional studies / geography was contributed by Gustav Braun , were only published in German; they lacked the extensive phrasebook that came with the pre-war edition.
- Spain and Portugal
For Spain and Portugal, in 1929, just in time for the world exhibition in Barcelona , there was a final fifth edition, completely revised by Gerhard Peters (D 476), who had worked on it from the end of 1927 and who had also undertaken a three-month trip through the Iberian Peninsula in 1928. Hans Nachod provided the historical outline , and the art-historical introduction written by Carl Justi had now been revised by Gertrud Richert . The third edition of Espagne et Portugal (F 215) was published as early as 1920 .
Comprehensive travel advice for the territory of Czechoslovakia was also contained in the volume Austria-Hungary until 1914 , which could not be continued after 1918 with the disappearance of the multi-ethnic state. The second edition of the regional volumes of Saxony (D 235) in 1928 updated the Czechoslovak capital Prague and the popular Bohemian baths ( Karlsbad , Marienbad , Teplitz ) as well as the Bohemian Forest of Northern Bavaria (D 250) in 1930 as essential travel destinations for the newly formed state described.
- Egypt and Sudan
The sensational excavation successes in the Valley of the Kings by Howard Carter led to the Egypt volume in a revised edition from 1928 (D 494). It was also edited by Georg Steindorff, who was also responsible for the remarks on the history and art history, religion and hieroglyphic writing of ancient Egypt, while u. a. the Islam of CH Becker , the introduction of the Arabic dialect in Egypt by Curt auditor and land and people of Egypt by the Englishman Henry Lyons were discussed. The edition (E 253), which was still in English in 1929, was supplemented by an outline of Christian art by the Italian orientalist Ugo Monneret de Villard .
As evidenced by the publisher's advertising in the front book cover of the India volume (D 499), it was still available.
The fourth edition (3rd edition 1907, E 265) of the exclusively English-language Canada volume was extended for the last time as early as 1922 (E 266). Still is the gold mining of rivers in the area Klondike and Yukon noted that but its peak had long since passed.
Baedeker in the time of National Socialism and the Second World War
Issues from 1933 to 1939
Still suffering severely from the effects of the world economic crisis, which was only gradually ebbing, the publishing house first met the law on the restriction of travel to the Republic of Austria of May 29, 1933, which was not repealed until 1936 and a fee of 1,000 marks for Hitler came to power provided for any private trip to or through Austria. Especially the volumes for Tyrol and Austria, which was also a transit country for Italy, were printed in frequently revised editions and may have suffered a slump in demand due to the law, as did the Italian volumes. Then less than a month later, the Law on the National Committee for tourism, while also addressing the tourism gleichgeschaltet was and the selection of the series had to go in the future in conformity with national political interests. All these difficulties meant that in October 1934 the publishing house had to take out an interest-free loan of 120,000 marks from the Reich Tourism Committee in order to be able to secure further travel guide production. Baedeker's main competitor on the travel guide market, the Bibliographical Institute , where Meyer's travel books had been published since 1862 , was hit much harder: he had to discontinue his traditional travel guide series in favor of Baedeker; In return, however, the publisher received the print jobs for the Baedeker production, which had previously been placed at the Leipzig printing houses Grimme & Trömel and Breitkopf & Härtel .
Volumes for Germany including Berlin until 1939
The travel guides dedicated to the German areas reflect in particular the radical restructuring of public life in the German Reich that began in 1933. The renaming of many prominent streets and squares after the leaders of the National Socialist regime or its symbolic figures can be read on the city maps, and the deletion of the synagogues in these after the Reichspogromnacht in 1938 documents the ongoing persecution of Jews in Germany and Austria. The references to the z. The partly newly formed authorities and NSDAP agencies make the elimination of all other political forces from public life visible. And finally, the inclusion of supposedly important politically justified places to visit, such as Horst Wessel's room in the Berlin edition of 1936, shows what spiritual orientation tourism in the German Reich should take.
- Expenditures for the German Reich as a whole
The sixth edition of the volume for the whole of Germany, which has been published since 1906, came onto the market again in the Olympic year 1936 as the German Reich and some border areas (D 228) and, like the previous edition , had a large map of Germany in a pocket on the back cover on which the already completed motorway routes were drawn. Due to the expected demand from foreign visitors for the 1936 Olympics, this edition was presented both in French ( Allemagne , F 40) and in English ( Germany , E 66) with the same equipment. Incidentally, Allemagne was the only French-language volume that appeared again during the National Socialist era.
For the first time two years later appeared as a completely new type of Baedeker , the car guide German Empire edited by Oskar Steinheil (D 255). This volume was tailored directly to the needs of a car traveler and accordingly also functioned as the official guide of the German Automobile Club ( DDAC ). It was divided into three parts: the Reichsautobahn, the Reichsstraßen and the cities and landscapes. The introductory part contained information on the distances between the cities at that time, the applicable traffic signs and the domestic and foreign police license plates of the vehicles. In 1939 a second edition was published as Car Guide for Greater Germany (D 256), which included Austrian, which has since become part of the German Empire.
- Regional editions
According to the listings in the front mirrors of the then current titles, many regional volumes from the 1920s, such as the Baltic Sea coast , North Sea coast , Brandenburg , Saxony or Hesse-Nassau, were still available in the 1930s, so that after 1933 no reprints had to be printed. However, revisions were required for some preferred travel areas, especially the German mountain landscapes such as the Harz, Black Forest and southern Bavaria as well as the Giant Mountains in Silesia. So appeared u. a. In 1935 the third edition of Thuringia (D 238). With this title, the map of the Leuna area had to be omitted from copies sold during the Second World War, so that geographical information about this war-important place does not fall into the hands of war opponents. In preparation for the 1936 Winter Olympics , the 39th edition of the Munich and Southern Bavaria volume (D 165) was likely to have been published in the same year . The third edition of Black Forest followed in 1936 (D 243). Both of the aforementioned titles were sold both bound and paperback. For visitors exclusively to Munich and its surroundings, from 1935 the publishing house offered the second German city band, Munich and its surroundings, as a brochure, the front of which was decorated with the Munich Frauenkirche . Augsburg (D 253). Its content was taken over from the Südbayern-Band of the same year, identical to the text and map. The volume Norddeutschland (D 254) was also published as a spin-off in 1936, especially for visitors to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, as it was much more manageable than the complete edition for the German Reich of the same year (D 228) due to its smaller size. A second edition followed for Silesia in 1938 (D 248), which had been revised by Fritz Hölzel . The geographical overview was contributed by the important geographer Joseph Partsch and the Silesian art history by the Breslau professor Dagobert Frey . Notes on youth hostels were also included in this volume. In the middle of the Second World War there was a fortieth edition for southern Bavaria in 1942 (D 166) and in 1943 the third edition of the Harz volume (D 233).
In the volumes Norddeutschland und Berlin and Deutsches Reich published in 1936, a supplement on the Reichssportfeld was inserted during the sale for the Summer Olympics . Likewise, the small edition of the Berlin volume from 1933 , which is still sold, was delivered from 1934 with an addendum to change the name of Berlin streets and squares.
Expenditures for European travel areas
- The one-volume description of the European continent, which was started in 1933, remained a fragment.
- The volume Paris from 1931 (D 348) came back to the bookstores in 1937, now with a supplement to the world exhibition , at which Germany was represented with a representative pavilion , and a map of the Paris Metro . The 20th edition of 1931 (F 163) and 1932 (E 114), often with a supplement like the German edition, continued to be offered in French and English.
- The new edition of the English-language volume Great Britain (9th edition, E 223), which now comprised 96 maps and plans, was mainly written by Hermann Augustine Piehler - the outline of the history of architecture came from Edward Freeman - was published in 1937 for the coronation of George VI.
- Also in 1937, the last edition of the volume Switzerland (D 328), which had achieved 39 editions since 1844, was completed. Compared to the previous edition, the number of maps had been reduced from 82 to 75 despite the fact that a road map was included for the first time. So one waived u. a. to the "around Zurich " and the " spiral tunnel of the Gotthard Railway ". Winterthur was omitted from the plans . Finally, the number of pages in the volume was also slightly reduced. In contrast, the number of panoramas rose by three, with some previously used being replaced by more attractive ones , such as Brévent , “Eismeer” ( Jungfrau Railway ) or Piz Languard . The scope and features of the last edition of Switzerland (1938, E 94) corresponded to the German.
Mediterranean, Canary Islands and Madeira
An unchanged popular travel area, the Mediterranean Sea, found another description in 1934 - reduced compared to the first edition of 1909 - (D 418), which only comprised 584 pages (1909: 635). However, the foreword had now been expanded to include a historical outline of the Mediterranean area by Paul Herre and some Adriatic locations, such as Ragusa and Kotor , were newly included. The Canary Islands , however, were no longer available. These were included in the Baedeker for Madeira (D 477), also published in 1934 . This brochure band should probably also the needs of passengers on the scheduled travel with the KDF - ships with cover, which were headed and this destination in several trips. In 1939 this title was also available in an English translation (E 243), but it was only able to be delivered three and a half months until the start of the war on September 1, 1939, so that a large remainder was destroyed in 1943 and is therefore very rare.
Other long-distance tourist destinations were not reworked from 1933 to 1945; Existing printed sheets from older editions were still bound in accordance with demand and can be identified from the list of editions contained in the available Baedeker travel manuals.
Expenditures during the Second World War
Although travel literature no longer enjoyed a priority in book production with the beginning of the Second World War, publishing production could initially be continued to a limited extent despite existing material problems and personnel restrictions, so that even some new titles could be developed during the first years of the war for example until 1943 for the area of the Generalgouvernement conquered by the German Reich . The gradual concentration of all available material resources in Germany on warfare then led to the complete collapse of the travel market, so that the publisher got into economic distress. In addition, the continuation of the publishing house in the last years of the war was extremely endangered by the complete destruction of the publishing house in the hail of bombs of the Second World War (see below), so that at the end of the war it was on the verge of ruin.
Expenses for Germany
Only on the basis of two regional volumes , The Harz and its Vorland and Südbayern, Munich and the Bavarian Alps for the old Reich territory, and the following volumes for countries that are affiliated or militarily occupied, it can be seen that Baedeker Verlag initially also had one under war conditions ongoing publishing activity.
Expenditures for countries attached to Reich territory or militarily occupied
For the area of Alsace-Lorraine annexed by the German Reich from 1940 to 1944 , which had come to France under the Versailles Treaty , the regional volume Das Alsace , Strasbourg and the Vosges appeared in 1942 in two versions: as a so-called French brochure with a dust jacket and as simple paperback. Both front covers were adorned with a view of the western front of the Strasbourg Cathedral .
- General Government
In 1943 the volume Das Generalgouvernement appeared . In classic Baedeker fashion , the volume described Polish areas that were administered as the Generalgouvernement from 1939, 1941 to include the Galicia district . Until 1918 they belonged to Russia as Weichselland and as Galicia to Austria-Hungary (or from 1939 to 1941 to the Soviet Union ). The volume was intended to provide information about the “scope of the organizing and constructive work” of the German Reich in the “Vistula region”. It came about at the instigation and with the personal and official support of Governor General Hans Frank . Until then, the authors were well-known scholars such as the art historian Dagobert Frey , who was now exposed to Nazism , as well as employees of the Cracow Institute for German Ostarbeit and the administration of the Generalgouvernement. The content corresponded to the positions of National Socialist Ostforschung , which saw Poland's historical and cultural development as shaped by German colonization. If names are mentioned in the description of cultural achievements “in the Vistula region”, they are never Polish, but German or occasionally Italian. Nor is the important history of the Jews in Poland discussed. Occasionally it is noted that a city is “now free of Jews ”, as in Krakow and Lublin . In the case of the latter, it was also emphasized that 57 percent of the city was still Jewish in 1862 and that it had a Talmud school with the largest Talmud library in all of Europe. Current political measures, such as the Zamość campaign , were only hinted at. There is talk of a nearby Palatinate settlement area from around 1800, "the z. Is currently being strengthened by new settlements ”.
In 1943 a revised edition for "Tyrol, Vorarlberg, western Salzburg, Hochkärnten" was presented again in the 41st edition. It essentially corresponded to the previous edition of 1938. It is very likely that a large part of the edition was destroyed in the bombing of the main building of the publishing house, so that this volume is extremely rare.
- Vienna and Lower Danube
Special expenses for the Organization Todt (OT)
In 1944, on behalf of Reich Minister Albert Speer, the editorial office of the Inspector General issued two special editions, each as a so-called “manual for front-line workers” for the paramilitary organization Todt and the Speer transport units involved in military construction projects . The texts contained excerpts from Baedeker volumes in alphabetical order. One volume was intended for Italy, Baedeker's OT Leader Italy , and another for the occupied states of Belgium, France and the Netherlands, which were included in the Western Front: Baedeker's OT Leader West . Little is known about the number of copies and distribution channels; in any case, these editions appear very rarely on the second-hand book market.
In 1942 there was still a final binding quota for the India volume (D 499), in which the large overview map of the subcontinent was enclosed in a sloping canvas pocket in the back cover. A binding rate of 1943 is available for the volume “Mediterranean”, now due to the war economy without marbling the book cut. With regard to the travel restrictions caused by the war, use for military purposes is obvious for both editions.
Destruction of the publishing house with the publishing archive and issues that were not published during World War II
On the night of December 3rd to 4th, 1943, the Leipzig publishing house of Baedeker Verlag at Nürnbergerstrasse 46 was completely destroyed in an Allied air raid on Leipzig . The entire archive of the publishing house and the remaining stocks of earlier editions went up in flames. This explains the great rarity of some titles that had already been printed in a limited edition and whose remnants had now also been destroyed.
According to the information on the front of the Vienna and Niederdonau edition from 1943, editions for Franconia , Württemberg (revised 2nd edition) and Hungary were planned. Due to the circumstances of the war, the completion of these volumes during the war was no longer possible. Due to the war economy and official orders, the travel activities of the German population were already considerably restricted at this time, so that there could hardly have been any practical need for these travel guides.
While various manuscripts were irretrievably destroyed in the hail of bombs, that of the new volume Yugoslavia planned for 1944 is stored in the vault of the Library of Congress in Washington.
Baedeker in Leipzig from 1945 to 1949
Since the publishing house was located in the Soviet occupation zone after the end of the war , it was subject to the licensing regulations of the local military authorities . There, Karl Baedeker was granted a personal publishing license with the number 345, so that he could initially continue his work. In view of the destruction of the publisher's archive, as a result of which all map templates and the other records necessary for the production of travel guides were lost, it was not possible to quickly build on the publishing program before 1945. In addition, the devastation of the war and the post-war economic hardship brought holiday travel and educational tourism, for which the Baedekers were primarily tailored, largely to a standstill. Regardless of these circumstances, the publisher succeeded in working with the Leipzig Bibliographical Institute in 1948 to bring out a volume that had been planned before the war for Leipzig, its own place of publication. The brochure with a foreword by the then Mayor of Leipzig, Erich Zeigner , written by Hans Baedeker (1874-1959), on the one hand reflected the destruction of the city during the war, but on the other hand also documented the unbroken will of the people of Leipzig to rebuild. Due to the entry of the location of the Soviet military administration in Leipzig in an attached city map, after their intervention, the holdings that had not yet been sold had to be provided with a retouched map in which the object description had been deleted. In a similar presentation, a guide for Stuttgart was published in 1949 with an edition of 20,000 copies, where the Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung in Stuttgart was the co-publisher and, in addition to Leipzig, Hamburg is also named as the place of publication .
With this edition, the more than 70 years of publishing activity of Baedeker Verlag in Leipzig, from where the company had achieved international renown, came to an abrupt end; it was not revived there even after German reunification .
Baedeker editions from 1949 to 1978
Country, regional and city editions in classic Baedeker presentation
Karl Friedrich Baedeker (1910–1979), a great-grandson of the company's founder, founded a new publishing house in Malente in 1948 under the old name , for which he received a license from the British occupation authorities. From 1949 onwards, a series of regional editions appeared in this, which were furnished in a classic manner, with Baedeker cooperating with the Munich-based Richard Pflaum Verlag on the regional editions for Bavaria and the Städteband for Munich . Since the publisher had not received any burden compensation , many early post-war editions could only appear with financial support from the public sector or business.
Even for today's reader of the early post-war volumes from the early 1950s, the detailed description of the enormous war damage, especially in the German inner cities, should be of great historical interest. For example, a map of Frankfurt's old town from 1950 with white spots for the totally destroyed city quarters vividly shows the enormous extent of the historical building fabric that was lost in the hail of bombs of the Second World War.
In the volumes of this time, however, the economic conditions of the cities and regions were given broad space. For example, the statements in the volume Hamburg und die Niederelbe (1951) edited by Otto U. Brandt and Kurt Eitner about the Port of Hamburg and the shipping companies operating there (e.g. F. Laeisz , Rickmers Rhederei AG , Robert Miles Sloman jr . ) and shipyards ( Blohm & Voss , Deutsche Werft , Howaldtswerke ) of a level of detail never again achieved due to changed user interests. Likewise, the volume Ruhrgebiet (1959) covers over 100 pages - authors were u. a. Paul Kukuk , Walther Däbritz and Wilhelm Brepohl - the coal mining , which has since disappeared, and the industries associated with the region, such as the mining , chemical and metal industries , which had also financially supported the publication of the volume, dealt in depth.
It is possible that in the late 1950s there was still resentment among some Baedeker authors towards some of the writers exiled during the Nazi regime. Nobel laureate Thomas Mann , who died in 1955, was not mentioned in the 1960 edition of Munich and the surrounding area among the famous personalities listed there in the “memorial plaque”, although the omission was also related to his critical Munich Wagner lecture from 1933, Leiden and Richard Wagner's greatness . Also Stefan Zweig , in the detailed description of the Salzburg Kapuzinerberg in Southern Bavaria not named band from 1953, although he remained until 1933 located there from 1919 Paschinger Schlössl lived and worked. On the other hand, when describing the area around Berchtesgaden, the Berghof was mentioned as a badly damaged former house of Hitler.
German-language regional volumes
When the post-war initial difficulties had been overcome, the first volume of a new series of regional editions (landscape volumes) was able to follow the two volumes still published or developed in Leipzig in 1949: Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg . In 1950 the second edition (1st edition 1935) followed the already mentioned volume Munich and Surroundings and in April 1951 Frankfurt am Main . This volume was thus available to visitors in good time for the International Motor Show, which has since moved from Berlin to Frankfurt . In the same year, Hamburg and the Lower Elbe followed .
Step by step, the range of offers was expanded to include almost all western German regions. In connection with the regional volumes published before the war, the publisher published the third edition in 1951, Northern Bavaria , 1953 Southern Bavaria (41st edition) and Cologne and the Rhineland , 1956 Black Forest (4th edition), Tyrol (42nd edition) and Wiesbaden / Mainz , 1959 Ruhr area , 1962 Rheingau / Rheinhessen and finally in 1962 North Bavaria-East Bavaria (4th edition). Several volumes, such as Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg , were also reprinted, but overall "the sales figures (...) were sobering" and did not "catch up with the pre-war successes".
The Berlin volume, which was last published in 1936, was completely rewritten with five editions between 1954 and 1987; this also applied to the small Berlin edition, which was first published in 1933 and is now quite rare , which was published several times between 1968 and 2002, now in the city guide series.
Country band USA
Only one country volume , USA , was published in two editions in 1974 and 1979 in the traditional Baedeker format after 1945. It followed on from the volume North America , which was last published in 1904 , reflected the rapid development of this state since then and was intended to take account of the increased transatlantic travel traffic. Travel information for Mexico as in the 1904 volume is no longer included. The title was continued in the same format from 1983 to 1990 in the Baedeker Allianz series (see there).
Foreign language editions
Analogous to the previous publishing practice (cf. Canada and Nordest-France etc.), individual titles were also designed exclusively as foreign-language editions, because the publisher obviously required German users to have appropriate language skills and, last but not least, certainly thought of corresponding export revenues. As early as 1951, the 20th edition of the volume London and its environs appeared , which had a final reprint in 1955. Between 1966 and 1970 the publisher published a completely reworked edition for Great Britain ( Great Britain I to III) in four volumes ; the planned fourth volume for Scotland was no longer published due to the difficult economic situation in Great Britain.
Finally, three regional volumes for regions that are particularly attractive for tourism and where many foreign visitors were to be expected were presented again in translations: Northern Bavaria, Franconia, Upper Palatinate , Lower Bavaria ( Northern Bavaria , 1951, 3rd edition), Southern Bavaria ( Southern Bavaria , 1953 ) and Tirol ( Tyrol and Salzburg , 1961, 14th edition); they, too, tied in with corresponding pre-war publications.
Editions of the Baedekers Autoführer-Verlag
In 1951, Karl Friedrich Baedeker joined forces in Stuttgart with the publisher and cartographer Kurt Mair (1902–1957) and with Oskar Steinheil , who had worked on the first car guides of the German Reich from 1938 and 1939, and founded Baedeker's car guide publishing house in Stuttgart. In this first the Shell car guides and the car travel guides appeared, as the car gradually began to replace the railroad as the classic means of transport for travel in the 1950s, so that this had to be taken into account with a completely new conception of all travel guides. The book format, now held in portrait format, had been enlarged significantly, as the travel guide could easily be carried in the car even with this configuration. It wasn't until the late 1970s that the classic small format was used again in the short-lived series of compact travel guides . The content of all volumes was loosened up by drawings.
Shell Car Guide
- German-language editions
From 1952, Baedeker's Shell car guides for the German regions were initially published in parallel to the regional guides still edited by Karl Baedeker Verlag, but in a departure from the traditional appearance of the red Baedeker travel guides at a price of DM 4.80 . Corresponding to the corporate color of the Shell Group, with which we cooperated in the production, the brochures were in fact kept in a yellow-red tone and provided with the Shell company logo. On the front cover they usually had a building typical of the title area, which the dust jackets also repeated. The editions prepared by Oskar Steinheil were devoted to individual, narrowly defined landscapes. Starting with the Bavarian Alps , continued with volumes a. a. on Franconia , Hesse and the Harz Mountains, the ten-volume series ended with the volume North Sea / Baltic Sea . In terms of content, they were divided into five sections: general geographical information on the travel area, road conditions and accommodation, tour suggestions, detailed street descriptions and information on places and landscapes. These regional travel guides saw several editions up to 1973, which, depending on the title, varied greatly between three ( Hessisches Bergland ) and nine ( Black Forest ) depending on the title.
The editions from 1968 appeared under the changed title Baedeker's car travel guide in red laminated brochure, the design of which corresponded to the country guides of car travel guides discussed below .
- French-language editions
Under the title Guide automobile Shell , only three volumes appeared in French translation from 1953 onwards. Starting with Rhin et Moselle ( Rhine and Moselle ), followed by Forêt-Noir. Lac de Constance ( Black Forest and Lake Constance ) and concluded in 1956 with Alpes Bavaroises ( Bavarian Alps ), the short series surprisingly comprised exactly the German titles with the highest circulation.
From 1953 to 1979 - for Germany even until 1990 - the "car travel guides" were published in connection with the country guides and the first two car travel guides for the German Reich from 1938 and 1939. The content was usually divided into four parts: An introductory section with general information was followed by a larger route section, which was followed by an alphabetical treatise on the towns and areas along the routes. Finally, the user was given information about the accommodations located on the travel routes. At least one large overview map for the travel area was included in all volumes. A three-color map section of the rice area treated was shown on the red dust jacket
- Issues for Germany and German-speaking countries
From 1953 to 1990, the first volume in the new series was the title Deutschland , also overseen by Oskar Steinheil , which covered the territory of the old Federal Republic and West Berlin and had 14 editions by 1990. The edition count, however, tied in with the two pre-war editions for the German Reich, so that the first volume from 1953 was already the third edition. As evidenced by the subtitle, he was the official guide of the General German Automobile Club , which is likely to have generated additional demand for the book.
One of the first three foreign volumes followed for Switzerland as early as 1954 ; the first edition for Austria was only available in 1956 (1975: 9th edition).
- Issues for Western and Northern Europe
Also in 1954 there was another foreign band for Spain and Portugal , with which a classic travel area of western continental Europe was to be covered again. Then there was Scandinavia in 1957 , which had eight editions by 1976.
- Issues for Eastern and Southeastern Europe
After Upper Italy in 1954 and Central and Lower Italy , still the classic travel destinations for German tourists, had been processed, a volume for Yugoslavia and Greece was published in 1956 and in 1965 (1973: 3rd edition) the volume Turkey , which also followed Contained routes to Beirut and Jerusalem , with which he reached into Asia . The latter two editions took into account the travel destinations in the Balkans and the Middle East that were rediscovered by the West German population .
- Expenditure for socialist countries in Europe
The Czechoslovakia band launched in 1968 is of historical interest . It appeared as a quick reaction of the publishing house to the political changes in this country initially promised by the Prague Spring of 1968. However, it was delivered exactly on the day the Warsaw Pact troops marched into the country, so that the tape was initially not a great success. Apart from the then non-aligned Yugoslavia, due to the transit routes in the common band with Greece from 1956, only one band followed for the then socialist Bulgaria in 1969. On the one hand, tourism here - not least because of the favorable foreign exchange rates - led many West German travelers to the climatically favorable Black Sea , on the other hand the country bordered Greece and Turkey, so that it had to be crossed on transit routes for these destinations, so that the publisher dared a separate edition. In contrast to the other German-language editions, no subsequent edition was necessary for both volumes.
- Foreign language editions for Western Europe
In 1955, the first French-language edition of the volume published a year earlier for Switzerland was available. There were three other editions up to 1958 - with Northern Italy, the Benelux countries as well as Spain and Portugal, only selected European countries were considered. With these editions, as with the eight English-language editions between 1957 and 1967 (including Switzerland 1957, 2nd edition 1967, Austria and Benelux 1958, France 1961, Scandinavia 1963 and Yugoslavia 1964) , the publisher wanted to become active in the export business, as the buyers were hardly to be found in Germany.
In 1957, a short-lived series of three small travel guides was published in cooperation with the Touropa travel agency . These brochures contained, with the parts general route overview, practical information and route description as well as two railway route maps, short travel information on the areas "Tyrol-Italy", "Switzerland-Riviera" and " Salzkammergut- Yugoslavia", extracts from the car tour guides of the same name according to the needs of Touropa had been taken from package tourists who went on vacation .
Country Guide USA
In a revised form - now also with color photos, drawings and tables - the travel guide for the USA , which was published until 1909, was again edited in 3 editions (1974, 1979 and 1983). The first edition of the volume, bound in the classic Baedeker format with over 800 pages, was designed by Oskar Steinheil, who died in 1971; the original manuscripts came from Ingeborg Kramarz and Hans Kramarz. The introduction to the history of the country was written by Helmut Blume , and Wolfgang Lindig provided an ethnology of the Indians in the USA. Many institutions and transport companies in the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany contributed illustrations, information and plans or provided advice on content. The subsequent editions were expertly updated and a. by Hans Baedeker, Monika I. Baumgarten and Helmut Linde. Partial editions were published together with Lufthansa , which is then also mentioned on the dust jacket.
Together with the publishing house Hachette , in the series “Les Guides Bleus” (The Blue Guides) - in a completely blue cover - French-language volumes were edited in 1976, 1980 and 1983 under the title états-unis . The features of the volumes, which are somewhat higher in format, are clearly inferior to the German-language editions. All maps and plans, which, according to the publisher's instructions, have been partially revised according to user interests, were only printed in black and white. The additional photos and drawings of important travel destinations from the German editions are also completely missing. Pronunciation instructions have also been dispensed with. On the other hand, the information on accommodation and excursion destinations is more extensive, so that a total of over a thousand pages is reached.
Compact travel guide
The attempt made with the compact travel guides in the years 1976 to 1979 to implement a new content structure remained an episode and was not continued: A general map of a travel area from "Mairs Geographical Publishing House" was added to a general map of a travel area by "Mairs Geographical Publishing House" individual grid squares described selectively. The only eight editions of this type of travel guide, which were used to discuss major foreign cities ( New York , Rome and Prague) as well as regions attractive to tourists ( South Tyrol / Dolomites , Lake Constance and Vosges / Alsace ) as well as the island of Mallorca , which is particularly popular with German holidaymakers , hit obviously the needs of the buyer are insufficient. The volumes for Paris and Greece (mainland and islands ) already listed as published in the volume Vogesen / Elsass (1978), as well as the only announced issues for the Italian Riviera , the Black Forest and Carinthia, Ceylon , Denmark and the French Riviera and the cities of Athens, Hong Kong and London.
City guide for German-speaking cities from 1963 to 2010
The editions of this travel guide series by Karl Baedeker Verlag, initially published in narrow booklet volumes in the classic Baedeker format, began in 1963 and ended in 2010. However, in addition to the editions available for Berlin from 1878, there were precursors before the Second World War (Munich and Augsburg 1935) and after 1945 (including Leipzig 1948).
The front cover depicts the respective city arms. The spine of the book, initially unprinted, bore the city name from 1968 and, in some cases, the volume number in the 1980s. The back cover was initially adorned by a building or monument from the city. In addition to the tourist information about the place and the traditional, multi-colored map of the city and / or inner city, the brochures mostly also contained a historical city view based on Merian and were provided with black and white illustrations. Floor plans and site plans were also supplemented with red picture elements. At the end of the tape, there was some advertising for Baedeker's travel guide production, but also for other companies. The format was enlarged slightly from 1983 onwards, with the texts being completely re-set in larger font sizes . From 1988 the coats of arms supralibros were replaced by a photo with a striking building. At the end of the 1990s, drawings and descriptions of the most important sights of the city described were printed on the previously empty book mirrors , and at the turn of the millennium the title on the front cover and spine changed to "Baedeker" without the genitive "s". The sales price had been printed on the back of the book next to the barcode title since 1994. The first volumes cost 2.40 DM or 2.80 DM , depending on the size, and the last 6.50 to 8.95 € .
The row authors came from the publishing family, were historians, local historians or travel journalists. The drawings very often come from the pen of Gerhard Gronwald († 1965) and Katja Ungerer . The city plans and maps were mostly contributed by the Lahr- based companies Georg Schiffner and Christoph Gallus. The content of the volumes was constantly updated in subsequent editions. The series' title canon peaked in the late 1970s and early 1980s. From 1989 it was gradually thinned out. In the end, only issues for a few larger cities, such as Basel or Berlin (small issue), as well as for tourist strongholds such as Bamberg or Konstanz remained ; At the turn of the millennium there were only a good one and a half dozen city guides left. The majority of the other locations had been incorporated into the regional volumes of the Baedeker Alliance series or had received separate editions there.
In 1986 a city guide for (West) Germany was drawn up on the basis of the city guides, which described the most important cities of the old Federal Republic and West Berlin, but also contained a brief “Excursion to Berlin (East)” and came up with colored city center maps and coats of arms.
Old Federal Republic and accession area
For the territory of the old Federal Republic, the series began in 1963 with the tapes Kiel and Lübeck as well as Hamburg and the island of Helgoland . Later many tourist strongholds, such as Bamberg, Freiburg and Nuremberg, or cities with connections to the Baedeker publishing house, like Essen (seat of the GD Baedeker publishing house ) were added.
In view of the division of the city of Berlin , which existed until 1990, district volumes should be edited for all western districts in order to improve their tourist development. This began in 1967 with Schöneberg and ended with Zehlendorf in 1987. Only for Neukölln was the plan not implemented.
Due to the relatively easy entry of German citizens to East Berlin, its famous museum landscape was a worthwhile additional travel destination for visitors to West Berlin. In 1968, a separate edition for East Berlin was published . Only for Leipzig was a volume published in 1973 on a city located in the GDR, which was due to its status as a hub of East-West trade .
After German reunification , no other East German city found its way into the series. They were already (Dresden, 1986) or have now been integrated into the respective Baedeker Allianz regional volumes.
Austria, Switzerland and France
A description of the Mozart city of Salzburg by Kurt Pomplun could already be found in the series in 1964. Graz and Innsbruck followed in 1969 and Vienna, which Gerhard Peters worked on, in 1979 . Two Swiss cities were also given a volume each: Geneva (1972) and Basel (1978), whereas the volume announced for Zurich in 1975 was not published. Although Strasbourg, strictly speaking, does not belong to the purely German-speaking cities, it was added to the series in 1973 due to its special historical and linguistic development and its proximity to the border with Germany.
Foreign language editions
The tradition of English and French language city editions was resumed after 1945. The city volumes of Frankfurt am Main , Munich , Cologne , Berlin and Salzburg were thus joined by their counterparts, which were mainly sold abroad: Frankfurt and the Taunus (1951), Munich and its environs (1950), Berlin (English editions: 1965 [large Edition], 1971 [small edition]; French edition: 1971) and Salzburg (English edition: 1964); partly there were follow-up editions. In 1974 the volume for Baden-Baden was translated into French and English. Overall, all these foreign-language volumes may have lacked publishing success, as there were no successors for most of the other cities.
Era of the Baedeker Alliance travel guide from 1979 to 2012
After Kurt Mair's death in 1957, his son Volkmar (* 1931) took over the management of the publishing house. In 1972 the Baedeker Autoführer-Verlag then moved from Stuttgart to Ostfildern-Kemnat in the new Mair Group's publishing building. After Karl Friedrich Baedeker died in 1979 and his son died shortly afterwards, Langenscheidt KG acquired the Freiburg section of the publishing house. In 1987, the two publishing houses Baedeker Autoführer-Verlag and Karl Baedeker Verlag finally merged to form Karl Baedeker GmbH based in Ostfildern / Kemnat. This publishing house was acquired in 1997 by Mairs Geographischer Verlag , which belongs to the MairDumont group, with all naming rights. Rainer Eisenschmid is currently the editor-in-chief and Stephanie Mair-Huydts is the publisher and managing director.
Preliminary remarks on the Baedeker Allianz travel guides
In the spring of 1979 the Baedeker Autoführer-Verlag started the series of Baedeker Allianz travel guides , which until 2012 represented the classic Baedeker band. Since the classic car traveler was increasingly being replaced by the air traveler, the concept also followed this trend, in which the focus of the presentation is no longer the trip itself with the most varied routes and the most interesting intermediate stops, but the travel destination. The series was edited by Peter Baumgarten . The spectrum ranged from the classic country volume to volumes for certain holiday regions to city editions for larger metropolises. The red city guides , which had originally also been created for the larger cities, were gradually replaced by the Baedeker Alliance editions. Only for smaller places for which the larger format would not have been economical due to the volume of material, such as Leipzig, Lübeck or Regensburg, and as a "small edition" for Berlin, the city guide series was continued parallel to these issues until the series was discontinued in 2010 .
Baedeker Allianz travel guide in portrait format
The first editions, which were devoted to the old Federal Republic and some European countries such as France, Italy, Yugoslavia and Greece, were in a very slim portrait format of 14.5 cm × 26.5 cm, similar to the earlier car travel guides, in a stable Cardboard cover offered. The outside of both book covers was adorned with an identical color photograph of a typical travel destination, as was the lettering on the front and back of the book. The volumes were u. a. with a "large car map" pasted on the back, which bore the vehicle's country number , city and area maps printed in the text, photographs of the most important tourist destinations and tables of concise country and travel information. The structure comprised four main points in the following order: general presentation of the travel destination, alphabetically arranged travel destinations, practical information (including language, travel time and means of transport, accommodation, catering and shopping as well as information on special destinations) and a register. The European travel countries were followed in 1981 by non-European destinations such as the Caribbean , Mexico, New York or Tokyo .
Baedeker travel guide "GDR" in portrait format
In 1980, through a license from the Leipziger Tourist Verlag, the GDR area was also fully represented in the range of travel countries for the first time . According to the legal notice, the content had been prepared by Tourist-Verlag and only received its final version from Baedeker Verlag. On the one hand, this ensured that the travel guide could be taken without objection to the GDR, because otherwise Western print products that were otherwise not part of the “cultural heritage” were not allowed to be imported into the GDR, and the final layout at Baedeker was at least able to take account of its publishing requirements. Surprisingly, however, the 9-page chronology of the most important events in German and GDR history, which was based on the Marxist conception of history and in which the basic treaty of 1972 is highlighted, remained unchanged.
For those interested in recent German history, the volume should offer a very stimulating reading today , as the specific travel regulations made by the GDR leadership due to the divided Germany for tourism, following Baedeker's travel guide concept, have been described in detail. This begins with the local border traffic and the listing of the border crossings only passable for the incoming travelers , continues with the customs and foreign exchange regulations including the minimum exchange as well as the restrictive export and import regulations and ended with the police reporting obligation for travelers arriving in the GDR. It is also worth mentioning the reference to the elimination of summer time in the GDR from 1981, which was initially given in the volume , which was then corrected as incorrect on the back of the intent.
The GDR volume adorned with the crown gate of the Dresden Zwinger on the front cover appeared without the addition and the logo “Allianz” on the cover and in the book title. Only the car map did not deviate from the standard with its inscription "Baedeker-Allianz-Travel Guide".
Baedeker Allianz travel guide in 8 ° book format
The rather unwieldy portrait format with stiff book covers was later dispensed with in favor of a paperback cover in the normal book format. The flexibility of the brochure made it easier to transport again. The large main card was now placed in the plastic envelope that was supposed to protect the more sensitive paperback.
From September 2010 onwards, the Baedeker were also delivered with a separately enclosed 16-page “Special Guide”. For the holiday regions, this deals primarily with geographically, artistically, culturally or also culinary topics that are particularly striking.
Baedeker Alliance Travel Guide Asia. East Asia • South Asia and USA in 12 ° book format
In this series, the publisher only returned to the original Baedeker format and classic cover (here in red linen) of the travel manuals, which were last used in the country volume USA (1974, 1979, 1983): in the 1000-page volume Asia. East Asia • South Asia , which, however, was a licensing of the title All-Asia-Guide , which was published in the 13th edition of the Far Eastern Economic Review . The volume, which costs 75 DM , describes the states of East and South Asia after a compact overview of the region, starting with Bangladesh and ending with Vietnam . Mairs Geographischer Verlag contributed the card glued to the back.
With regard to the USA country guide, which is also continued in the Baedeker Allianz series, see the comments made under Baedekers Autoführer-Verlag .
Baedeker editions since 2013
Baedeker Allianz travel guide (remainder)
The publisher offered three older titles until 2016: Ruhr Area , Greek Islands and Russia - European Part .
Baedeker travel guide
A newly designed Baedeker generation came onto the market in 2013. The addition “Allianz” has been dropped, the band name is written in a sans serif font. The blue stripe on the upper edge of the cover was retained. The brochures with rounded corners - this was already available from the Baedeker Shell car drivers - are for the first time equipped with infographics (see under " Equipment ") and are published under the motto "Knowledge opens worlds". The Baedeker Alliance editions, which are still divided into four parts , have been expanded to include a section entitled "Experience and Enjoy", which should reflect the spirit of the times after the turn of the millennium. The large main card now found space in a separate, lockable plastic cover, which significantly improved handling. There are currently over 100 volumes available with travel destinations in all parts of the world, with the exception of Antarctica.
Baedeker SMART travel guide
As new releases in 2015, the publisher also offers so-called Baedeker SMART travel guides , which are described by the publisher as compact travel guides in a ring binding . The current Baedeker colors "red / blue" are only contained in a rectangular field here on the front cover, under the impression of the row name. The cover now bears a full-page photo typical of the country. Taking into account the reduced text volume, they are comparatively more expensive for some destinations than their normal Baedeker travel guide counterparts.
Baedeker with alphabet title and Baedeker SMART travel guide from 2018
2018 the appearance of the series was revised again: The series title was reduced to a red rectangle, the "Alliance Blue" a narrow underpin in white is only capital letters printed series name remained. This gives the cover photo greater dominance as an eye-catcher. In the red title field, the free-standing initial of the title catches the eye, which is followed in a separate line by the band name written in serifs . The book pages are held together in the Moleskine style by a color-coordinated elastic band. Opening the main card facilitates an easy zip version. The previous level of the price levels, which is determined by the volume of the band, was retained.
The SMART volumes now have bindings with two cover photos. They are separated by a wide horizontal red stripe with the band name in cursive.
Until all titles have been converted to the new equipment with content updates, editions with both versions will still be distributed in parallel.
Design of the issues
After the first monochrome cardboard cover with a glued-on spine label ( Rheinreise , 1835), the volumes were bound in a yellow Biedermeier cardboard cover from 1839 on, with black and white miniatures from the travel area covered, often also with coats of arms for the respective parts of the country, was printed (see also the illustration on the Internet). This type of binding was used for the editions "Rheinlande" (D 7b) and "Le Rhin" (F 4c) until 1855 and 1856 respectively. At least in 1851, editions of Switzerland and Germany were bound with a linen binding that had been embossed in the Biedermeier style.
Classic red linen or half-linen cover
Karl Baedeker only introduced the red binding with gold embossing in 1846. It is very likely that he was inspired by the competing products of the English travel literature publisher Murray. It was a plain linen cover with a grained ground and rectangular coffering , which was only interrupted in 1851 by the interlude in the Biedermeier style. At the end of the 1870s, the “classic” Baedeker binding with the characteristic print design and embossed decorative lines was used. Due to its use for well over half a century until the end of the Second World War, with now high editions of many editions, it achieved a great degree of popularity.
In 1889 - on a trial basis? - In contrast to the "Baedeker red", a pink linen cover is used. A similar color can then also be found in some issues from the 1920s, although this was probably due to fading due to inferior material. The latter bindings are only made of half linen, so that the book cover and spine show different shades of color.
The publisher's name was printed in italics in the English and only a few German editions, but in normal, upright letters in most French and German editions. The spellings were also different: “Baedekers” in German, “Baedeker's” in English and “Baedeker” in French.
Red leatherette tape
For the travel guides from 1953 to 1978, an upright red leatherette cardboard tape with a red protective cover was used. The respective travel area of the volume was sketched on the dust jacket.
Red-blue cardboard tape
This type of integration in two formats was used for part of the early Baedeker Allianz travel guides. The two colors, which are supplemented by the Baedeker lettering and the Allianz group's company logo, symbolized the two partner companies that were responsible for publishing the travel guides.
- Classic red paperback
From the 1930s onwards, individual editions were also sold in paperback. With this cover z. For example, the excerpt from the Thuringia Baedeker for Weimar and Jena , Rudolstadt , Ilmenau, published in Goethe's 1932 , was sold, although the back of the book remained beige. This edition followed in 1933 Berlin and Potsdam, small edition (D 222) as well as Rome and surroundings (D 415), 1935 Munich and surroundings, Augsburg (D 253) and 1936 Berlin and Potsdam (D 221), which appeared exclusively in this way. In contrast, the editions Munich and Southern Bavaria (39th edition, D 165) and Thuringia (3rd edition, D 238) appeared in 1935 both in paperback and hardback. After 1945, this version of the cover was used by city guides for German-speaking countries and compact travel guides.
- Red and yellow paperback
The Shell car guides for Germany supplied by Baedeker Autoführer-Verlag for the Shell Touring Service are two-colored. The Baedeker red has been joined by yellow as the Shell Group's brand color, whose trademark, a yellow scallop shell , also adorns the envelope.
- Red and blue brochure
This type of integration was used for most of the Baedeker Allianz travel guides delivered from 1979 to 2012 and the currently published Baedeker travel guides . To protect the brochure, some of the volumes were provided with a transparent plastic cover.
Since 2013 the volumes have been published with a new logo, a narrower blue stripe and rounded corners in a so-called "Flexi-Cover" (publisher's information) without a plastic cover; the addition to the series “Allianz” was also omitted.
Design of the book spine in the classic format until 1945
In 1851 the red linen bindings showed decorations in the Biedermeier style (see adjacent illustration: Germany I. ) and thus linked to the yellow cardboard volumes with views printed on them that had been used first. The original linen design had existed as early as 1846, with strongly structured horizontal embossed lines from 1852 ( Paris 1860). In the Baedeker binding design that followed around 1880 (until 1945), the back lines were narrower and reduced in number ( India 1914).
The publisher's name and the book title were usually embossed horizontally on the spine of the book as on the front cover. However, a vertical text arrangement is also used ( Silesia 1938), which was the standard for paperback covers from the 1930s ( Berlin 1936). For reasons of space, it was necessary to dispense with the back cover for the separate bindings of partial travel areas; only the number of the volume was printed on it ( Südbayern 1914).
From around 1900, in a few cases even earlier, the Baedeker travel guides were provided with dust jackets to protect the cover until they were sold. The title, the number of maps, plans and panoramas, the year of issue and sometimes the retail price are stated on these simple ocher-colored envelopes. With these dust jackets, collectors are still making new discoveries, as they were very often thrown away by the buyers before use due to their lack of decoration and the publisher's records no longer exist.
From the late 1920s, a new type of dust jacket was used. As an eye-catcher for buyers, it was supposed to visually enhance the book cover, which had been used unchanged for over 50 years, by repeating the red of the book cover, which had become a trademark, but also provided a silent sketch of the travel area covered in the Baedeker on the front . In some cases, landscape images or striking buildings (e.g. the Strasbourg Cathedral or the Wroclaw City Hall ) were used. The red dust jackets for the volumes in the classic Baedeker format continued to be used after 1945, but now mostly bore superimposed arms. However, in the last edition for Great Britain ( Great Britain , 3 volumes from 1966 to 1970), the classic travel area sketch was used again in a slightly modified form and with labeling. These envelopes were also laminated, like the dust jackets of the travel guides, which were already published from 1953. The travel countries covered in the volume were also shown in a three-color area sketch on their covers.
In the case of the paperback Baedeker Allianz editions, the cover of which was already graphically designed, transparent plastic envelopes were used to protect against traces of use, which also had to include the large travel card on the back.
Text-neutral insert folders and issues in a slipcase
In order to be able to reduce the weight when taking the Baedeker with you, the publisher recommended - in some cases on the accompanying notes - that the gauze be cut open at the designated points on the back of the book block, so that parts of a Baedeker can be carried separately for smaller travel areas. To protect these booklets obtained in this way, Baedeker offered special insert folders with the title-neutral impression of Baedeker's travel guide - English counterparts are available with the title Baedeker's Guide Books - at a price of 1 Mark , in which the partial volumes were inserted. A retaining strap prevented it from falling out. Sometimes these covers were also used to hold travel guides for competing editions, such as: B. Meyer's travel books to include (see example image). However, despite the advertising by the publisher, the buyers made hardly any use of this storage facility; they mostly shy away from destroying the original binding. Accordingly, the linen ceilings rarely appear today.
Partial volumes in Schubern
Since the division of extensive volumes for mountain hikes was obvious from the start, the publisher also offered an edition variant in partial volumes for two titles with travel destinations in the high mountains . In 1914, the volume Südbayern was published not only in one volume but also in five individual volumes and a register volume in a cardboard slipcase with the abbreviated title of the issue. A small binding rate of the 38th edition of the volume Die Schweiz, Chamonix , the Northern Italian Lakes , published in 1930, was also delivered in 1931 in four cardboard parts in an illustrated slipcase, which the publisher called a case. But these multi-volume versions remained slackers , and it was mainly the covers that were bought. So the publisher left it with these two attempts.
In contrast to many other competing products, the Baedeker from the classical period up to 1945 generally did not contain any views of landscapes, cities or buildings. Lithographs or wood engravings were only included in the very early volumes of the Rheinreise up to 1864 and Switzerland up to 1867 as well as in the first two editions of Palestine and Syria (here: Jerusalem) and the Egypt volumes . This also applied to their foreign language counterparts . It should be noted that the publisher handled the number of views in German and foreign-language editions published simultaneously and at the same price differently. For example, twelve lithographs were included in the Rhineland (13th edition) and four lithographs for Bords du Rhin (6th edition). According to the front cover mirror, both were available in 1864 at the price of "1 thal. 10 Sgr. ".
Lithograph from Stolzenfels Castle from: Bords du Rhein (1864, F 7)
Lithograph of the Rhine Falls (Schaffhausen) from: Suisse (1863, F 45b)
Wood engraving with ruins of Palmyra from: Palestine et Syrie (1882, F 217)
Wood engraving "Views of various graves of the caliphs " from: Lower Egypt (1885, E 246)
By Publisher considers the illustrations that were no more useful to the reader more expensive because it is in place even be able to make picture of the sights, unnecessarily making, thus driving sales prices up. Accordingly, they would ultimately prove to be barriers to sales. So they disappeared from the volumes again from the middle of the 1890s.
Only after the Second World War were black-and-white drawings used again to loosen up the description of the travel area, but these could be printed together with the text at low cost. Beginning in 1974 with the country volume USA with color photos and then consistently with the conceptually completely redesigned Baedeker Allianz series from 1979, extensive use was made of modern typographical means for a clearer representation of travel destinations and individual travel objects ( color photography , three-dimensional building sections, etc.), as these were now available at low cost and had become the standard on the travel guide market.
Supplements and links to current events
- Side dishes
If changes in a travel area had to be reacted to without a new edition of a volume pending, the content of which could be adapted accordingly, free supplements were added to existing editions and these were also given to the booksellers so that they could use them with their stocks could add. However, this was particularly true of current events that were only of short duration and therefore did not require any long-term content adjustment of a volume. Reactions to the industrial exhibition in Paris in 1855 and the world exhibitions in London in 1862 , Paris in 1867, 1889 and 1937 , Vienna in 1873 , St. Louis in 1904 and Brussels in 1910 were only given in the form of supplements . Inserts also provided information about the Museum in Gizeh ( Baedeker's Lower Egypt ), the International Building Exhibition in 1913 and the International Exhibition of Book Trade and Graphics ( Bugra ) in 1914, both of which were held in Leipzig. Later, the enclosed information leaflet referred to the Passion Play in Oberammergau in 1922 and 1930 or described a plan for the Reichssportfeld , which was enclosed with several Baedeker issues for the Olympic year 1936, the location of the competition venues on the Berlin Olympic site.
Finally, leaflets have also recently been used, e.g. B. for the volume Berlin-Tiergarten from 1984 with a self-adhesive outline map of Greater Berlin, which should be pasted over the existing one in the volume in order to correctly depict the new urban district structure in the east of the city. Parts of the districts of Weißensee and Lichtenberg had been spun off and formed the new, independent district of Marzahn with effect from January 5, 1979 .
Mostly the supplements were delivered by the publisher, so that the bookseller had to insert them into the copies they had, which very often simply did not happen. Since the risk of loss from the Baedekern was generally quite high with loose leaves, these are mostly very rare. Volumes with existing inlays are therefore traded by collectors with sometimes considerable price surcharges.
Here the edition would be Berlin and Potsdam. Small edition (1933, D 222) to be cited. In the upcoming binding rate in 1934, an addendum was included in front of the street directory listing street names that have been renamed since 1933, partly for political reasons. For example, from the was Reichskanzlerplatz of Adolf Hitler -Platz or the square in front of the Brandenburg Gate the Hindenburg -Platz become. But also train stations had new names, which are often still used today, such as Ostkreuz , Innsbrucker Platz or Schöneberg , which were listed in the supplement.
In order to avoid the censorship by the Turkish authorities before the First World War , which could lead to the removal of the Baedekers, the publisher recommended using censorship notes enclosed or glued in. a. for the volumes Constantinople and Western Asia Minor (D 497) from 1905 as well as Palestine and Syria (E 257) and Palestine et Syrie (F 219) - both 1906 - which Baedeker received before arriving in a Turkish port or on the border in the To tuck skirt pocket .
Building floor plans
Floor plans were made of the most important sacred ( churches , synagogues , mosques , monasteries ) and profane structures ( castles , museums and galleries , libraries and administrative buildings) and included in the Baedeker. Since these could be printed in the text, this means of illustration was used extensively.
So-called infographics are currently used as an innovative medium in order to be able to present travel knowledge in an easily understandable way with a quick overview. Additional information can be called up on additional websites or videos via QR codes , which are printed in the graphics and can be scanned using smartphones .
Maps and plans
Initially, the cartographic additions were supplied by the "Kartographische Anstalt Eduard Wagner " from Darmstadt . In 1872 Wagner decided to work with Ernst Debes , who came from the publisher Justus Perthes in Gotha , in order to be able to add the plans and maps, for whose accuracy and richness of detail the Baedeker was praised, to the travel guides in an even better quality . The cards that were created after the merger are diverse in their appearance. The choice of colors and the type of relief display change between the scales. Above all, hatching, lines running in the direction of the slope, were used. Contour lines, the most important method of representing the shapes of the earth's surface at the end of the 19th century, were rarely used. Later, relief hillshading was sometimes used.
After the Baedeker Verlag had moved to Leipzig in 1872, the "Geographische Anstalt Wagner & Debes" followed there in 1873 and supplied most of the maps and plans for the Baedeker until 1945. From 1873, Eduard Wagner's son Heinrich Wagner ran the business together with Ernst Debes further. In addition to these, the Berlin Heinrich Kiepert ( Palestine 1875 and Lower Egypt 1877), Johann August Kaupert and Leopold Kraatz and the Egyptologist Richard Lepsius ( Lower and Upper Egypt ) drew maps for Baedeker. In principle, at least one large overview map, which was integrated either before or after the main text, was supplied for the travel area covered. From the Greece edition (1883, D 467) this could also be included separately in a pocket in the back cover. This card arrangement is u. a. still with the volumes India (1914, D 499), the German Reich and some border areas (1936, D 228) and southern Germany (1937, D 83) as well as after 1945 in the 2nd edition, the city guide for Stuttgart from 1955 (K 633 ), to find. The maps of the City Guide of Stuttgart (1949 ff.) And some district guides of West Berlin were also inserted into the brochure to make them easier to use. One shortcoming of the paperback city guide is the fully integrated city map, the legibility of which is clearly restricted in the middle part near the binding. The city guide editions for Berlin from 1975 and 1979 even included a city map that went beyond the format of the brochures.
There is also a summary of maps and plans in a separate plan annex .
From 1940, the editions published since January 1, 1933 had to be stamped, which documented their saleability in accordance with the ordinance on the publication of cartographic representations (KartVeröffVO, RGBl. 1940 I p. 294), to which two implementing provisions were issued. According to this, depictions of certain war-relevant locations were not allowed to be included in the Baedeker or not in such detail that they could be used by opponents of the war for military purposes.
The Baedeker Allianz travel guides and the new Baedeker generation from 2013 also have a separate, folded main map that is inserted in the back of the envelope or an integrated transparent pocket and a full-fledged map that can also be purchased individually in this quality or corresponds to a city map.
Conversation books and language lessons
In order to enable travelers to communicate quickly on their journeys, Baedeker published a Traveller's Manual of Conversation in four languages (English, German, French and Italian) as early as 1836 . This paperback intended for English travelers was followed by editions for German and French readers in 1864. The books were limited to an index of words and short questions, since the publisher required the user to have a basic knowledge of these four languages.
The Russian language, which is much more foreign to Central Europeans, was then devoted to a separate volume, Brief Guide to the Russian Language , first published in 1883 (subsequent editions 1888, 1897, 5th edition 1912) , to which from 1893 a French variant Manuel de langue russe (subsequent editions 1897, 1903 , 1922) and in 1914 an English edition of the Manual of the Russian Language followed. Only the volume Sweden, Norway included a Danish-Norwegian-Swedish phrasebook from the beginning (1879) .
Incidentally, in the introductory part of many volumes, basic information was given on the languages that travelers would primarily encounter on their routes. These were held in somewhat more detail in the oriental volumes of Palestine and Syria as well as Egypt with explanations on the Arabic language.
The bound Baedeker were mostly provided with two ribbon bookmarks in red and green (later blue) color. These enabled the reader to repeatedly access the travel information they needed quickly.
In particular, for volumes that describe a mountainous travel area, it was advisable to increase the visual attractiveness by recording unfoldable panoramas that offer a panoramic view of known, easily accessible mountain heights. The early Switzerland volumes already contained a panorama of the Rigi . Later there were those in the volumes for Southern Bavaria (from 1874), Sweden and Norway (from 1891), Austria – Hungary (from 1910) and Upper Italy (from 1906).
But imposing cityscapes also encouraged the publisher to take pictures of panoramas to promote sales, especially since these vividly illustrated a travel destination in its effect on the user. The volumes for Greece (from 1883) with a panorama of Athens , Palestine and Syria (from 1875) with one of Jerusalem or Central Italy and Rome (1874 to 1903) with a Rome panorama should be mentioned. Initially, the panoramas were produced using intaglio printing, later as cheaper lithographs or letterpress printing.
In the editions that were devoted to the most important tourist capitals of Europe up to the beginning of the Second World War as a city volume, the most important city maps and plans were summarized in a separate plan appendix at the end of the volume and included as a brochure with cardboard cover and a page number. This made them easy to remove from the Baedeker and so they could be used separately. Plan appendices can be found from the 1880s in the volumes for Berlin (1927 only), London, Central Italy and Rome as well as Paris.
Stars for special sights
From 1846, following the example of Murray, Germany and the Austrian Imperial State gave particularly noteworthy sights with a Baedeker star in the third edition . For a long time this was considered the highest award in tourism. In order to recommend the must-see destinations among the highlighted destinations to the traveler, a double star was later awarded, which is still used in the current editions.
In connection with the Baedeker stars, the so-called Baedeker Blitz ( Baedeker raids ) can be seen. In Great Britain , this refers to attacks by the German Air Force during the Second World War between April and June 1942 on cities with cultural and historical value such as Exeter , Bath , Norwich , York and (after an attack on Cologne ) on Canterbury . After an attack by the Royal Air Force on Lübeck, they were announced at a press conference of the German Foreign Office as attacks on cities that "have three stars in Baedeker". That Hitler personally chose the targets falls into the realm of legend.
Comparative Money Tables
The volumes up to 1914 were often preceded by a currency table as a frontispiece or in front of the half-title . It made it much easier to convert the prices of the country of travel to those of the user's country of origin, especially since before 1900, in Great Britain even until 1971, many currencies were not in decimal form . For many European currencies, the conversion rates document the enormous changes in value that had occurred before the introduction of the euro , which ultimately leveled them out. In 1874, for example, a mark cost only 0.60 Dutch guilders and a French franc had to pay 0.80 marks - an amount that is also the same for the comparable denomination of the other member countries of the Latin Union , such as Switzerland , Belgium or Greece , was valid (see adjacent figure). For comparison, also non-euro currencies: A Russian ruble was worth 3.20 marks at the time, a pound sterling 20 marks or a Turkish pound worth 18.50 marks.
Coats of arms and heraldic panels
Karl Baedeker's favorite band, Baedeker's Switzerland , was initially equipped with a colored coat of arms of the Swiss cantons as a frontispiece . The 22 cantonal coats of arms printed on the edge of the page surrounded a traveler who was holding a shield with the Swiss national coat of arms. Likewise, in Baedeker's Central Italy and Rome from 1889 onwards, the coat of arms of the popes was shown in black and white, indicating the length of time they held office. In the subsequent editions of the German regional volumes from 1936, Black Forest , Silesia , Southern Bavaria and Harz , and the issues for the areas that were connected to the German Reich immediately before or during World War II, Tyrol , Alsace and Vienna and Lower Danube , the city arms were at the beginning of the descriptions of the larger cities. In the 1936 edition for Berlin it is shown on the back of the title page. This practice was continued with the town books after 1945, which also had the town coat of arms on the front cover until the change to a colored front photo. The latter also applied to the two English-language editions for London from 1951 and 1955.
Before the Second World War, in particular, many Baedeker books were preceded by travel essays or a dedication text. The German and French-language editions were mostly based on a saying about traveling by Johann Michael Moscherosch , who with his pseudonym Philander von Sittewald. 1650 is used:
Those who want to travel,
do not take much with you, start
early in the morning
and leave your worries home.
In the case of the English-language volumes, Geoffrey Chaucer printed a request for the best possible reception of the book by the audience . After 1918, quotations from Goethe's Faust or other well-known literary works were also used.
See above under enclosures and attachments .
The numbering of the individual editions is based on a family tree model: If individual travel areas were divided up for reasons of the scope of the material, the numbering of the sub-volumes followed the original complete edition. For example, there is no first edition of the volume Nordwest-Deutschland . Rather, it came onto the market for the first time in 1889 as the 23rd edition, following the previous editions for Germany as a whole. Ultimately, this principle leads to the fact that the separate volume of the 6th edition of the volume Das Deutsche Reich und some border areas , which was published for the 1936 Summer Olympics for North Germany , including Berlin, is also known as the 6th edition, although it had previously been published there were no 1st to 5th separate issues.
However, the regional volumes for Germany were from 1920, such as Brandenburg , Saxony and Silesia , which strictly speaking branches of previous editions for Northeast Germany included, as well as Northern Bavaria, Franconia, Bavarian Forest , Schwarzwald or Württemberg and Hohenzollern , previously in the band Southern edited had been provided with a separate edition count. This also applied mutatis mutandis to the city volumes of Berlin , which were initially published in three editions from 1878 as "separate impressions" from Northern Germany , as well as Munich and the surrounding area (EA 1935).
Indication of the year of publication
Baedeker Verlag also followed the publishing practice, in which titles published at the end of a year were given the year of publication of the following year on the title page. This is evident from the contemporary entries of the first buyers on the date of purchase in the volumes, which can often be found. Since Hinrichsen's bibliographies and other collector's catalogs regularly follow the title page information, in addition to the purchase entries for the individual titles, further clarification can only be found through the announcements in the Börsenblatt für den Deutschen Buchhandel, but above all a registration signature with the year of those libraries where the At the time of the new publication, deposit copies were to be submitted, such as the German National Library or other state libraries. The volume India with the title page indication “1914” bears the DNB signature “1913 A 848”. It must have been recorded as a new addition as early as 1913. Even the Baedeker font, edited by Baedeker Verlag in 1998 . A name becomes a global brand (p. 111) not quite correctly noted here as the year of the first edition "1914".
The publisher's first attempt to present multimedia travel guides using CD-ROM in the second half of the 1990s was only an interlude . For the PC operating systems Windows 3.1 / 95 and 3.11 / 95 as well as Mac 7.01, the Munich-based systhema Verlag has produced CD-ROMs with the red / blue "Baedeker Alliance" look for selected, particularly popular travel destinations under the title multimedia.adventure and delivered with a booklet designed in the same way , which gave installation and operating instructions. The CD-ROMs were developed on the basis of the respective book editions, but had their own content. In addition to the photos and texts found in the books, they also offered videos and slide shows as well as animated maps and a travel dictionary with pronunciation. The travel countries Italy and the USA, the island of Bali and the cities of Rome and Paris have been processed in this form. However, handling a CD-ROM on the go may not be as practical as this travel guide format could establish itself as a fully-fledged alternative to the printed book.
MAIRDUMONT be of the titles of the Baedeker series also e-books , according to publisher considering the legal book prices , up to 30% cheaper than the print output in formats EPUB , which with most popular readers how Tolino , Sony Reader , Kobo , TrekStor or BeBook can be read, and PDF is offered. Internet links are available in the text of the EPUB titles with which - due to the format, only online - the publisher's supplementary material for the respective travel guide text (maps, graphics, etc.) can be accessed. According to the publisher, in order to avoid improper disclosure or use, the e-books are marked with a so-called watermark, which can be used to identify the first buyer.
Special editions for companies and associations as well as congress organizers
Already in the classic Baedeker period, the publisher made its travel guides available to companies and associations to a limited extent so that they could create special editions for their business friends; this practice continues to the present day. The easiest way to use the Baedeker is to attach an additional imprint for the intended use or the company logo on the cover with the otherwise unchanged content. Alternatively, the entire book content is used, but this is bound in a non-Baedeker-typical cover, mostly with the addition of pages from the publisher. From the outside, these issues are no longer immediately recognizable as Baedeker.
The recognized high quality of Baedeker's maps and texts often prompted larger associations to use excerpts from Baedeker volumes from ongoing production when holding their meetings or congresses, in order to provide participants with well-founded descriptions of the venue and its surroundings as well as the most important sights at hand. The Baedeker information was partly taken over verbatim, but only more or less processed. It is not uncommon for the bindings to match the Baedeker look to a large extent, so that in these cases binding by the Baedeker Verlag is obvious or at least the availability of the bindings for bookbinding work is an option. Finally, only excerpts from city or landscape descriptions and the associated maps or even only individual maps are provided for independent use by the respective publisher.
Issues up to 1945
In 1885 the publisher produced an excerpt from the volume Allemagne (F 27) from 1884 for the International Geology Congress and bound it under the title Berlin et ses environs in typical Baedeker equipment. There was this title again in 1908 at the 12th International Press Congress. A regular French-language description of Berlin, on the other hand, was not in the publisher's range before 1945. For the company Burrough Welcome and Co. (London-Sidney-Cape Town) the publisher supplied the volume Londres (F 203) as an advertising edition, with some illustrations added before the title and it had received a dark red special cover. In 1903 there was the same title for the International Telegraph Conference in London in the original Baedeker cover, with the imprint "Conférence Télégraphique Internationale" and a coat of arms on the front cover.
Examples of editions with an excerpt from Baedeker use are the celebratory publication with a dust jacket for the general meeting of the Association of German Engineers held in Frankfurt am Main from 27.-30. August 1877 or the Leader of Budapest. On the occasion of the III. Traveling meeting of the International Association for Material Testing of Technology 1901 in Budapest. In the first example maps and plans as well as parts of the place descriptions etc. a. from Frankfurt, Mainz and Darmstadt to the 19th edition of Rhineland from 1876 (D 18). In the edition for Budapest, passages from the volume Austria-Hungary and Austria from 1898 by the architects Anton Palóczi and F. Just were added and reworked.
From the end of the 1920s, the publishing house also granted other travel literature publishers reproduction licenses for its maps, for example with the postal travel book of Dresden , where the Dresden city map and a Saxon map were used, or in 1931 with the city guide Prague and its surroundings from the Viennese publisher Dr. Hans Epstein.
Issues after the Second World War
Especially in the 1950s and 1960s, companies took advantage of the series' continued popularity and had small partial editions made with additional prints or in special covers in order to distribute them to customers for advertising purposes . First of all, the Düsseldorf mineral oil company MIHAG and the Northwest German Exhibition Company ( NOWEA ), which is also based there, deserve special mention . MIHAG received six regional volumes between 1956 and 1963, including a. Black Forest (1956), Ruhr area (1959) and Schleswig-Holstein (1963), to the edition. They were bound in a light green plastic cover with the MIHAG logo and an additional colored advertising sheet. NOWEA also presented its first special edition of the Black Forest volume in 1956 and followed up with three more editions in 1963 , including its Schleswig-Holstein volume . As early as 1951, the Landesbank and Girozentrale Schleswig-Holstein, based in Kiel, added an additional print for Christmas to the first Schleswig-Holstein edition from 1949; the bank had also given a loan for the realization of this 1st edition, since the publisher had not received any burden compensation after moving from Leipzig to Malente . Also in 1963, on the occasion of the International Garden Show in Hamburg, an excerpt from the regional volume Hamburg and the Lower Elbe from 1962 was published under the title Hamburg and Insel Helgoland . An advertising insert from the exhibition management for the IGA was enclosed with some copies. Finally, in 1974, on the occasion of its 25th company anniversary, the Berliner Weberbank organized a special facsimile edition of the 2nd edition of the Berlin-Band Berlin and Potsdam and its surroundings for the friends of their company . Separate reprint from the 19th edition of Baedeker's Nord-Deutschland , which was accompanied by an event card.
In addition to the aforementioned issues, all of which are recorded in the Baedeker catalog from Hinrichsen, there were a number of corporate issues for business customers after 1945, the appearance of which very often has a purely company-typical layout, such as B. a blue and white paperback travel guide Leipzig from the Deutsche Kreditbank under which the 5th edition of Baedekers Leipzig from 1995 is hidden.
Reprint and facsimile editions
In order to make certain early editions, only available in small numbers and mostly only at very high prices, accessible again to a broader circle of readers, the publisher issued reprint editions on anniversaries, for example for Berlin (separate edition from 1878) and Germany and the Austrian Imperial State (Edition from 1846).
Other rare editions, some as facsimiles, were republished by other publishers, so that among others the quite rare editions Athens from 1896 (Pierway Inc., Eric P. and Peter Waschke, Vancouver) as well as Weimar and Jena from 1932 and India from 1914 (both publishing house Fines Mundi, Saarbrücken), more or less true to the original, but at least the content was made accessible for lovers of travel literature.
- As early as 1858, Baedeker's travel guides were highly valued by the renowned specialist journal Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen .
- At the world exhibition in Chicago in 1893 the publisher was awarded a medal for the volume "United States".
- At the Paris World Exhibition of 1900 , Baedeker's travel manuals received a Grand Prix award.
Advertising of the publisher
Self-promotion in the press and the volumes themselves
Initially, the publisher's announcements preceding the content of the volume also included references to other volumes that could be delivered, e.g. B. in the second edition of the “Rheinreise von Straßburg bis Düsseldorf” from 1839 (D 2), where for the title “Belgium. Handbook for travelers ”(D 262) and“ Holland. Handbook for Travelers ”(D 259) was advertised. Baedeker also made the public aware of new releases by sending review copies. The then in the press, u. a. In the 1850s, Baedeker printed book reviews published in the Kölnische Zeitung , the Preussische (Adler-) Zeitung, the St. Galler Blätter or the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung ("Judgments of the Press") in his travel guides in front of the title page. From 1859 until the end of the Second World War, only the publisher's program was listed on the front cover and the header . The list included either only German-language editions or mixed-language editions that also contained French and English-language titles. The title, the equipment (including the number of maps and plans as well as the panoramas and floor plans) and the current price of the volumes were given.
Occasionally the volumes were also accompanied by advertising slips for other issues; one of these referred for example in the volume Berlin (20th edition, 1927, D 220) to the Brandenburg volume (D 230), published in 1928 in the 2nd edition.
The publisher also only operated advertising to a limited extent and only occasionally took part in book exhibitions. In particular, he regarded the volumes Russia , Palestine and Syria , Greece and Egypt as “noble advertising” for his travel guide production.
Finally, the publisher also used envelope strips (so-called belly bands) to promote sales, with which the content of the ribbon is pointed out, as u. a. in the 42nd edition of "Südbayern" (1958), the 4th edition of the city guide "Munich and Surroundings" (1960) or the 7th edition of "Berlin. Handbook for Travelers ”(1965).
External advertising in the volumes
From the beginning, it was an iron principle for Karl Baedeker to refrain from any advertising by companies in order to avoid the publisher becoming economically dependent, especially on hotels and restaurants. This might have resulted in content-related compromises in the volumes and thus endangered the Baedeker's reputation as objective travel guides. The publisher expressly pointed out this fact in the foreword of most editions.
The first exception arose after the First World War. Due to the advancing inflation, the market situation could hardly be calculated. It was no longer possible to bypass ads in the German regional volumes. However, these notifications were handled by the “ Invalidendank ” foundation , an institution committed to war invalids. In view of the lingering global economic crisis , probably in order to improve the profitability of the editions, the volumes Germany (D 227) and Weimar and Jena , Rudolstadt , Ilmenau (D 252) published in 1932 and the 1933 titles Berlin and Potsdam were added. Small edition (D 222) and Rome and surroundings (D 415) again added advertisements. Most of the advertising entries were booked by the hotel industry . But also producers of travel utensils, such as the company Zeiss for binoculars or Peek & Cloppenburg for travel clothing, as well as banks and travel agencies or the Jena Planetarium ( Weimar and Jena ) made advertising for themselves. In the band Berlin and Potsdam. Small edition from 1933 even includes an advertisement for the large Berlin department store Nathan Israel , which was in Jewish ownership, that was booked before the Nazi seizure of power .
Finally, after the Second World War, some city volumes (e.g. in Hamburg and the Lower Elbe 1951 after the rejection of a financial subsidy by the Hamburg economic authorities in November 1950) started accepting advertisements again. The advertising entries in the first post-war years are probably due to the generally still tense economic situation, which Baedeker Verlag also had to adjust to. Advertisements can be found again in the 1970s in the small-format city guides and district Baedekern of West Berlin to support their publication with this income. These were mostly advertisements from companies that were not directly related to the travel organization, so that there was no need to worry about influencing the content of the Baedeker. Very often was Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung sole interested party in the town leaders and relied sure the educated middle class as the dominant buyers ahead.
In principle, the advertising entries followed the main part with the travel information within the volume. Alone at Baedekers Berlin. Small edition from 1933, a paperback edition, in addition to the advertising pages inside the book, the back of the book also bears an advertising imprint for the color film Agfa -Isochrom, which came onto the market in 1932.
- Brochures up to 1945
In the classic Baedeker era, there were also advertising brochures very rarely. I.a. one of these was published for the Leipzig Bugra in 1914. From the second half of the 1920s, there are then publisher brochures that refer to all available titles that are in preparation. The special attention of the publishers to the regional volumes for Germany is illustrated by the fact that the leaflets a four-page insert "Baedeker Germany volumes" with the self-known from the volumes Germany map contained in the boundaries of the individual processing areas were imprinted in red. In addition, the listed location and area details were assigned to the relevant regional volumes. At the end of the brochures printed by Grimme & Trömel in Leipzig there were references to separate editions for the English and French editions.
A leaflet as an order card with a picture of the red and white dust jacket, which drew attention to the first edition of the Car Guide German Reich , published in 1938 , appeared in the same year. It was also found in the volume Deutsches Reich (6th edition, 1936) in the binding rate of 1938.
In early 1937 at the latest, an eight-page leporello (155 × 107 mm) "Where should I travel?" With it, the publishing house presented its considerable stock range in all three languages of the Baedeker manuals and the new publications planned for spring 1937. The latter includes Great Britain and Switzerland (also the last editions until 1945) as well as southern Germany . The volume Rome and Surroundings , which was also announced , was not reissued , however. Next are u. a. mentions the volumes Das Deutsche Reich , Norddeutschland as well as Berlin and Potsdam , which were published last year for the Olympics, as well as the foreign-language titles Austria (1929), Canada (1922), Allemagne (1936) and Palestine et Syrie (1912).
- Post-war brochures
From the 1950s onwards, annual publisher directories were created on a larger scale in leporello form or as leaflets or brochures for the new publications and the available titles for distribution through bookshops.
Anti-advertising as a means of propaganda
During the First World War - very likely - the French publisher Hachette used advertising stamps that called for the purchase of their own travel guide production, the “Guides Bleus”, and the boycott of the French-speaking Baedeker, which was well established in France.
Baedeker as a collector's item
Catalogs, bibliographies, series of publications
A first Baedeker bibliography , which was created by Alex W. Hinrichsen (1936–2012), was followed by a first catalog by the same author in 1988 , which appeared in its second edition in 1991 as Baedeker's travel guides 1832–1990 and is still authoritative. The numbering of the titles carried out by Hinrichsen is used exclusively on the second-hand book market and by collectors. For the issues up to 1945, which are mainly collected, it was structured as follows:
- The German-language titles begin with D 0 (Rheinreise o. Year, approx. 1832) and end with D 499 ( India , 1914). The number D 171 , Tirol (41st edition), which appeared in 1943 shortly before the demolition of the publishing house, is likely to be the latest edition, apart from the two OT editions from 1944, which were not intended for regular trade.
- The English-language titles begin with E 1 ( Rhine , 1861), they end with the number E 266 for the 4th edition of Canada (1922). The most recently published title, however, was the volume Madeira ( E 243 ) published in 1939, shortly before the start of the Second World War .
- Finally, the French-language titles begin with the Rheinreise ( Le Rhin ) as F 1 and end with the number F 226 ( Les Etats-Uni [USA], 1905). The latest edition here was Allemagne ( F 40 ), the 15th edition of which came on the market in the Olympic year 1936.
A far more complicated picture emerges for the editions after 1945, as a large number of different types of travel guides had appeared here, which were summarized by Hinrichsen for a better overview of the catalog users. So received:
- the regional volumes, which were largely published in the classic Baedeker manner up to 1963, are identified by an N (1–43),
- the city guides a K (1–704, each with a group of ten per title, so that the subsequent editions can also be classified without problems. However, this was not enough at least for the tourist strongholds of Bamberg and Nuremberg with many subsequent editions),
- the compact travel guide also has a K (901–908),
- the Shell Car Guide a G (1-94),
- the car travel guide - large countries guide a H (1-219),
- the country travel guides (USA only) an L (1 and 2 for its, up to the editorial deadline, two editions),
- the Baedeker Allianz travel guide , the letters A , B or C .
An R was awarded for reprint editions , including those published outside of Baedeker Verlag . In the Hinrichsen catalog of 1991 only 12 editions were listed; In the meantime, however, further reprints have been published.
Between 1980 and 1992, Alex W. Hinrichsen published a series of publications for Baedeker collectors, originally Mitteilungen für Baedeker-Freunde , later called Reiselleben and Reisen und Leben .
Antiquarian Baedeker offer
While there is a fairly wide range of titles on the second-hand book market from around the 1880s onwards, due to the larger print runs in connection with good sales, of the titles for the main travel destinations such as Germany, Italy, Austria or the cities of Paris and London, the early ones are Editions of the Baedeker from the 1840s to 1860s and partly from the 1870s, especially those still delivered in Biedermeier binding, are mostly in great demand. But also some first editions of later titles and volumes for travel destinations with not too large tourist flows at the time of their publication, so that the sales figures of the editions were also limited, such as Syria and Palestine , Greece or Russia , are not to be found that often. Some regional and city editions from the interwar period , such as the Baltic Sea coast , Silesia or Württemberg as well as Berlin , Munich and Augsburg or Rome, are also offered to a not quite as large extent . After all, with the destruction of the Leipzig publishing house, existing stocks of titles that were difficult to sell or that were only completed shortly before the bombardment were burned, so that their supply has been greatly reduced and they are traded at correspondingly high prices. These expenses include E.g. the India volume from 1914, the updated separate edition from the Thuringia volume from 1925 for the Goethe workshops from 1932 or the 41st edition for Tyrol from 1943.
Most editions after 1945, on the other hand, arouse less bibliophile interest. Nevertheless, the first editions of the newly published city volumes (Leipzig, Stuttgart, Frankfurt am Main) and the other editions of the Baedekers City Guide series , which in their appearance in the 1960s and 1970s still resemble the classic Baedeker editions from the prewar period, or the rare Touropa editions from 1957 also many enthusiasts. Especially the city guides, which are often published in many editions over several decades , reflect the recent urban development of the tourist destinations discussed and the changes in their economic and cultural life over the course of time.
I.a. Bertelsmann published licensed editions of several titles of the Autoreisführer, published by Baedekers Autoführer-Verlag between 1953 and 1979, and the Baedeker Allianz tourist guide (until 2012) for its book club , some of which other book clubs also participated in.
UK Automobile Association (AA) editions
Many editions of the Baedeker Alliance series were licensed by the British organization The Automobile Association with similar features. The envelopes were in Baedeker red, had a front photo and were provided with white Baedeker lettering on a blue background and the AA logo of the Automobile Association. Country guides, regional guides and city guides have been relocated. In addition, there were maps and street atlases under the title Baedeker / AA Mapes .
French editions of Hachette
Various city and country volumes have been published by the Parisian publisher Hachette Livre , including a. the extensive country volume USA from 1974 as états unis , which is held in a departure from the otherwise used red and blue cover design in blue and black, a reminiscence of the Guides bleus .
Italian editions of the Istituto Geografico De Agostini
The publishing house Istituto Geografico De Agostini, founded in 1901, today De Agostini editore , based in Novara , mainly took over volumes from the world's major metropolises, such as New York, London and Moscow, and various national volumes (Egypt, Spain and France).
Other license expenses
Broadcast of the Baedeker series
Travel guides designed similar to the Baedeker
Quite a few domestic and foreign publishers tried to use the popularity of the appearance and content of the Baedeker for their own publishing projects: for example, the texts and maps were used in some cases, the content structure was adopted and the classic Baedeker cover design with the red linen and the in Imitated the title text embossed in gold, but without using the series name itself in the book title. The TCI travel guides of the Italian Automobile Club ( Touring Club Italiano ) deserve particular mention here, whose chairman Luigi Vittorio Bertarelli had previously unsuccessfully sought a cooperation with Baedeker Verlag and therefore began to publish travel guides himself from 1914 onwards Italy (initially planned seven volumes) and its colonies at that time should describe; club members received the expenses free of charge. But the red covers of some of the early Greaves travel guides by the Berlin publisher Albert Goldschmidt around 1860 were confusingly similar to the Baedekers. The A. Hart life's Publishing came even until 1878, first as the Baedeker with the then 65 years used classical binding patterns were equipped with its red involved in Baedeker guidebooks manner on the plan. Since the series was published on a larger scale until 1915, it must be assumed that the Baedeker publishing house agreed with this practice.
Sometimes the popular series name was also used for other travel guides, other guides or even completely different types of literature. These so-called pseudo- Baedekers used the title name Baedeker - not always in the correct spelling - either to make their own competing products easier to sell (“ Kiesslings Berliner Baedeker” ) or to draw attention to the fact that the reader was going through a journey, a Event or any other subject of consideration is being conducted . Sometimes the cover was imitated so that it was confusingly similar to a real Baedeker. This applies to a volume Baedeker's Orient published by the Hottingen Reading Circle in 1899 . It was written by the archaeologist Hugo Blümner as a memory book (64 pages and a route map) about a fictitious member ship voyage from Hottingen to Jeddo to a festival of the reading circle on March 18, 1899. Most of the time, however, the designers only leaned more or less on the original, so that the user could see at first glance that he was not looking at a Baedeker travel guide. So there was a festival-bather in this form to celebrate the silver wedding of the ruling couple of Austria-Hungary. April 24, 1879 ( Franz Joseph I and Elisabeth ).
The awareness of the Baedeker brand could also be used for purely advertising purposes by opening up advertising materials such as Baedeker. This should particularly arouse customer interest. For reasons of topicality, these short-lived printed works were mostly thrown away after reading them and now appear only very rarely. The example shown shows an advertising brochure in Baedeker red from the company Koppel, Frisch & Cie. , Which was then located in Goldschmiedgasse 4-6 in Vienna . from 1908/09, which as emperor. and royal. Court and chamber supplier for high-quality fabrics advertised itself. Even the saying by Philander von Sittewald , which was added to many Baedekers , was taken over in an alienated manner: If you want to buy, choose 'fine, quiet, walk steadily, take' - just take money with you - start early in the morning and leave your worries home. Ph . From the Dresden chocolate company Jordan & Timaeus an advertising edition “Baedeker's Schlaraffenland” is known (around 1880), which contained 5 chocolate bars instead of a book text in a deceptively real-life red canvas box.
Books related to the Baedeker
- Werner Bergengruen : Baedeker of the heart . Verlag Tradition, Berlin 1932. (This title had to be renamed on the intervention of the Baedeker Verlag, then appeared as a spa treatment for the heart )
- Arthur Holitscher : Narrenbaedeker: Notes from Paris and London. with woodcuts by Frans Masereel . S. Fischer Verlag , Berlin 1925.
- Kurt Münzer , Hermann Struck : The soulful Baedeker. Also a handbook for travelers through Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Tyrol . German publishing house Vita, Berlin 1911.
- Ludwig Thoma : Käsebier's trip to Italy. (= Piper library. 199). Piper Verlag, Munich 1964 (contains Baedeker quotes)
- Jules Verne mentioned Baedeker in several of his novels , for example in Clovis Dardentor , where, when the heroes of the novel reached the island of Mallorca , he said: "If you don't know a country, the best thing to do is to consult your Baedeker" . (A. Hartleben's Verlag, Vienna / Pest / Leipzig 1897, p. 78).
Book series What is not in the "Baedeker"
From 1927 Piper Verlag published the series Was nicht im “Baedeker” in 17 volumes. The graphic artist Walter Trier drew the colored illustrations on a yellow background for the dust jackets or book covers of 14 of these titles, which were published as paperboard, paperboard or linen editions with the publisher's signature . For the other three volumes, one of the illustrators also designed the dust jacket for the texts. In the second edition of the Rome volume from 1938, which only appeared in 1938, the designer of the cover, which is no longer typical of the series, is not apparent.
The texts that began with Eugen Szatmari's description of Berlin and a revised version of the volume for Rome by Hermann von Wedderkop in 1938 were written by various, often local artists, such as Otto Pankok , Olaf Gulbransson or Ernst Aufseeser , but also by Henri Matisse , Pablo Picasso and Jean Cocteau , provided with black and white illustrations. Volume II on the City of Vienna was also presented in an English translation. The series sees itself as a tongue-in-cheek alternative to the very factual Baedeker content, which is limited to the essentials, and is fed from the subjective point of view of the respective authors of the travel area.
In 1995 and 1997 the Connewitzer Verlagbuchhandlung from Leipzig presented reprint editions of 5 titles.
Book series Wat niet in Baedeker Staat
The idea of Piper Verlag was picked up in 1930 by the Amsterdam publisher AJG Strengholt. Volumes on the cities of Amsterdam (1930, 1932), Rotterdam (1931) and The Hague (1931) have been published under the title Wat niet in Baedeker Staat . Originally 7 more titles were planned, but they did not appear. In contrast to the Piper series, in which only exceptionally more than one author per volume had their say, in the three Dutch series volumes articles from different authors were put together in a kaleidoscopic manner by the respective editors and illustrated in the first two volumes alongside the predominant drawings also photos the literary representations. The volume for Rotterdam even only contains photographs.
- In the radio play " Prof. van Dusen - Voices from the Beyond" (Case No. 42) by Michael Koser, produced by RIAS Berlin in 1980, the reporter Hutchinson Hatch quotes the fictitious Baedeker "Band Mitteldeutschland, Edition 1903" with the description of the fictitious Health resort "Bad Emsingen, Principality of Schleus-Reitz-Wittgenstein". (CD, Track 1, 0:40–2:15, Verlag Maritim / HighscoreMusic)
- Even competing products cited the Baedeker to support their own statements. So was 1860 Lloyd Guide From Vienna to Trieste to the special effect of the Piazza San Marco at the viewer with a full moon noted that "Baedeker, which one sentimentality certainly can not complain, the but healthy sense of natural and artificial beauty, ... express ( noted): 'The most wonderful effect is the St. Mark's Square with its surroundings ... on a bright moonlit night.' "The quote was most likely taken from the then current Baedeker Germany and Austrian Upper Italy from 1858, p. 142.
- The Baedeker also owes its mention to its accuracy in the humorous British opera La Vie Parisienne by Alan Patrick Herbert and A. Davies-Adams (which, contrary to widespread information, is only vaguely based on the French original by Jacques Offenbach (see Pariser Leben ). In the libretto by AP Herbert it says: “For Kings and Governments may err // But never Mr. Baedeker.”
- The Grimm dictionary quoted the “Switzerland” Baedeker for the keyword “hiking”.
- In 1892, Adolph von Menzel depicted a train traveler with a Baedeker in his hand on his painting On the journey through beautiful nature .
- TE Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) is said to have always carried the English-language edition of Palestine and Syria ( Palestine and Syria , published 1876) with him while he and his Arab allies waged the Arab War of Liberation against the Turks from 1916 to 1918 .
- The German astronomer Freimut Börngen named the asteroid 23578 he discovered in the Tautenburg observatory in 1995 after Karl Baedeker.
- On IC line 5 from Cologne to Leipzig via Hanover, Magdeburg and Halle / Saale , the IC Karl Baedeker ran in 2001 and 2002 as IC 624 from Cologne to Leipzig and IC 625 in the opposite direction. The two 8-page (IC 624) and 10-page (IC 625) Zugleporellos for passengers contained brief biographical data on the publisher's founder and a reference to Leipzig as the former headquarters of the publisher.
- I.a. In the films Room with a View and Death on the Nile with Peter Ustinov , the Baedeker has moved into the picture as a travel companion.
- Peter H. Baumgarten, Monika I. Baumgarten (eds.): Baedeker. A name becomes a global brand. Karl Baedeker, Ostfildern 1998, ISBN 3-89525-830-X .
- Alex W. Hinrichsen: Baedeker's travel guides 1832–1990; Bibliography 1832-1944; Directory 1948–1990; Publishing history. 2nd Edition. Ursula Hinrichsen Verlag, Bevern 1991.
- English: Alex W. Hinrichsen: Baedeker's Travel Guides 1832–1990. Bibliography 1832-1944; Listing 1948-1990. History of the publishing house. 2nd Edition. 2008 ( partially digitized ).
- Ursula Hinrichsen (Ed.): Messages for Baedeker friends (from issue 6, 1983 Travel Life and from Issue 15, 1987 Travel and Life ). Ursula Hinrichsen Verlag, Holzminden 1980–1992; 24 issues, Bdkr.com texts online ). (
- Burkhart Lauterbach: Baedeker and other travel guides. A sketch of the problem . In the Folklore Journal. Half-yearly publication of the German Society for Folklore. 85, 1989, pp. 206-234. (Digitized version)
- Katja Mittl: Baedeker's travel manuals. Functions and evaluations of a travel companion of the 19th century (= all books. Studies of Erlangen book studies. 22). Erlangen / Nuremberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-940338-02-0 . (Digitized version)
- Otto Mühlbrecht: Baedeker (1st Art.) . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, p. 759 f. (Family item).
- Susanne Müller: The world of Baedeker. A media culture history of the travel guide 1830–1945. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2012, ISBN 978-3-593-39615-6 .
- Karl Friedrich Pfau : Baedeker (2nd Art.) . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 46, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1902, pp. 180-182. (Family item).
- Elias Weirauch: The maps in Baedeker travel guides between 1827 and 1945. A cultural history of travel and travel guides . AV Akademikerverlag, Saarbrücken 2014, ISBN 978-3-639-78680-4 . (Print on demand / e-book)
- Official website of Baedeker Verlag
- Publishing history of Baedeker Verlag at Baedeker.com
- Baedeker myth . In: State Library Center Rhineland-Palatinate
- Private website for Baedeker collectors
- List of all German-speaking Baedekers from 1828 to 1944
- Digitized Baedeker editions in the Internet Archive
- Historical Baedeker travel manuals in the travel! Digital Corpus
- The serial number of the catalog numbers in this article follows the information given by Hinrichsen: Baedeker's travel manuals 1832–1990. Bevern 1991. It is explained in detail here . Since the first volume of the Rhine journey had not yet been written by Karl Baedeker, he received a "0" from Hinrichsen.
- The first edition of the Rhine journey from Mainz to Cologne from 1828 as (digitized)
- Digitized the tape from 1835 by Dilibri Rheinland-Pfalz
- Compare the article by Heinrich Krohn: Karl Baedeker and his competitors. In: Travel and Life. Issue 16, 1988, p. 5 ff. (Online)
- A "Baedeker" that has remained unknown for a long time: Bad Bertrich in Uesbachthale on the Moselle. In: Messages for Baedeker friends. Issue 2, 1980, p. 24 (online)
- The volume is currently cataloged in several public libraries. The Bayerische Staatsbibliothek provides an online version .
- digitized on the website flandrica.be
- K. Baedeker: Belgium. Guide for travelers. 5th edition. Karl Baedeker, Coblenz 1853, p. XV.
- VII. Express car. and VIII railroad. In: K. Baedeker: Belgium. Guide for travelers. 5th edition. Coblenz 1853, pp. XV ff. (Online)
- K. Baedeker: Holland. 2nd Edition. Karl Baedeker, Coblenz 1845 (online)
- History of the series on the official website of the "Blue Guides"
- Alex W. Hinrichsen: New Findings in Baedeker Research. In: Reiseleben. 1986, No. 13, pp. 18-36 ( online ).
- Baedekers Greece , Leipzig 1904, p. VI (4th edition)
- On the history of the origins of the Greece Baedeker, compare Hans-Jörg Kalczyk: “Habbo Gerhard Lolling and the Baedeker of Greece”. in: Reisen und Leben, Issue 18, 1989, Ursula Hinrichsen, Holzminden 1989 ( online ).
- Compare the biography of Lechat at the French Institute for Art History INHA (digitized version )
- Russia . Karl Baedeker Verlag, Leipzig 1912, p. XXIX.
- The Orientalist and Arabist Heinrich Thorbecke , who died early in Halle , wrote a positive review of the German and English first edition in the Jenaer Literaturzeitung No. 15 from 1877 .
- Hinrichsen: Baedeker's travel handbooks 1832–1990. P. 43.
- on the front page of the next year than Year indicated
- Olga Meraviglia: A Mediterranean Cruise. Intimate travel memories . Leykam, Graz 1910, p. 171
- Compare with his editorial work the autobiographical contribution by Gerhard Peters: Editor to Baedeker's travel handbooks 1925–1934. In: Travel and Life. Issue 15, 1987 (online)
- Baedekers Württemberg and Hohenzollern , Verlag Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1925, p. V
- The title page of the reprint still shows the year of issue of the original publication (1913). Due to the advertisements in the front mirror of this and other Baedeker editions from 1925 to 1927, the year of publication can be narrowed down to 1926. In that year the 30th edition of the new Austria Volume for the Republic was published.
- Judith C. Joos: Trustees for the Public? British book publishers between intellectual independence, economic interest and patriotic obligation during the Second World War . Verlag Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2008, p. 114 ff.
- The dating results from the inventory list of the front mirror, which is included in the partial volume, in which the volumes for Paris, Northern Italy and Norway from 1931 are already listed.
- Gerhard Peters: Editor of Baedeker's travel manuals 1925–1934. In: Travel and Life. Issue 15, 1987 ( online version )
- Compare the wording of the law ( RGBl. I No. 57 of May 30, 1933, p. 311 online ) and the text of the supplementary ordinance of the same date (RGBl. I No. 57 of May 30, 1933, p. 312 (online ) )
- Compare the text of the law (RGBl. I No. 69 of June 27, 1933, p. 393 (online) )
- Peter H. Baumgarten, Monika I. Baumgarten (ed.): Baedeker. A name becomes a global brand . Karl Baedeker, Ostfildern 1998, p. 53 f. The repayment of the loan was conditionally put down in 1943.
- Berlin and Potsdam . Karl Baedeker Verlag, Leipzig 1936, p. 72.
- Arnd Krüger : The Olympic Games of 1936 and the world opinion. Bartels & Wernitz, Berlin 1973, ISBN 3-87039-925-2 .
- Gerhard Peters: Editor of Baedeker's travel manuals 1925–1934. In: Reisen und Leben , 1987, issue 15 .
- The General Government. Travel guide. Karl Baedeker. With 3 maps and 6 city maps , Leipzig 1943; Full text digitization on mapywig.org.
- Götz Aly / Susanne Heim: thought leader of annihilation. Auschwitz and the German plans for a new European order , Frankfurt a. M., Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag 2004, here the sub-chapter: Baedekers Generalgouvernement , p. 188 ff.
- This is emphasized with details in the preface, Das Generalgouvernement. Travel guide. Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1943, SV
- Information from the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg on the Institute for German Ostarbeit, Krakau
- The General Government. Travel guide. Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1943, pp. 135f.
- L. Laurence Boyle: Chronological overview of the publishing house Karl Baedeker. In: "Reiseleben", Heft 8, 1984, pp. 9-12 (online)
- Compare the illustration of the front cover in the sales archive of a Berlin antiquarian
- Compare e.g. B. the order on a further reduction of the vacation of civil servants and employees in the public service for the vacation year 1943 of March 2, 1943 (RGBl. I No. 22, p. 122 alex.onb.ac.at ), the order on the Vacation of civil servants, employees and workers in the public service for the vacation year 1944 from April 13, 1944 (RGBl. I No. 16, p. 94 alex.onb.ac.at ), the order on a temporary vacation ban for civil servants from April 24 , 1944 August 1944 (RGBl. I No. 37, p. 176 alex.onb.ac.at ) or the regulation on the restriction of travel of February 1, 1945 (RGBl. I No. 4, p. 21 alex.onb.ac .at ).
- Michael Wild: Baedekeriana. An Anthology . The Red Scar Press 2010, p. 121
- Frankfurt am Main . Karl Baedeker Verlag, Hamburg 1951, p. 76.
- Susanne Müller: The world of Baedeker. A media culture history of the travel guide 1830–1945. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2012, p. 53.
- cf. Munich and the surrounding area. Karl Baedeker, Hamburg, and Richard Pflaum Verlag, Munich 1960, p. 33 (memorial plaque)
- Southern Bavaria. Karl Baedeker, Hamburg, and Richard Pflaum Verlag, Munich 1953, pp. 314, 331.
- A compilation of all volumes published from 1948 to 2002 can be found under the short title list of the so-called "Freiburg editions" 1948–2002 .
- Baumgarten: Baedeker. A name becomes a global brand. P. 91.
- Also in the Stadtführer Bonn from 1977 on page 107 (nn), under "Stadtführer", a first edition Paris from 1977 was listed at a price of 6.90 DM. Again the band was u. a. in the city guide Basel (1978, nn [p. 128]) now indicated as prepared for 1979.
- Baedekers Vosges / Alsace. Compact travel guide . Baedekers Autoführer-Verlag, Stuttgart 1978, p. 96 (nn).
- Baedekers Augsburg. Short city guide . Karl Baedeker Verlag, Freiburg 1977, p. 35 (nn). See also the catalog of the German National Library, which only contains eight editions.
- Baedeker's GDR. German Democratic Republic . Baedekers Autoführer Verlag, Ostfildern-Kemnat 1980, nn [p. 301].
- Strict adherence to travel regulations was the top priority for West German and West Berlin travelers at the time, in order to avoid any complications with the GDR authorities from the outset, which resulted in heavy fines in Deutscher Mark (DM) or heavy fines Crimes under GDR law could even lead to deprivation of liberty.
- Baedeker's GDR . Baedekers Autoführer Verlag, Ostfildern-Kemnat 1980, p. 254.
- Publishing program 2018 . MAIRDUMONT, Ostfildern 2018, p. 12 ff.
- See the illustration of the volume Belgium. Handbook for travelers who want to find their way around quickly and easily. 2nd, completely revised edition. Bädeker, Koblenz 1843, on the website of the Lippische Landesbibliothek Detmold for their exhibition on the 150th anniversary of Georg Weerth's death in 2006 Exhibition on the 150th anniversary of Georg Weerth's death Part 5: “Today the most interesting topic in the world” .
- Surprisingly, the map printed in the volume already contained the new east Berlin (21st) urban district "Marzahn" without any further explanation of its new formation, which the correction slip now gives, but no longer depicts it, but only provides the outdated district structure in terms of cartography. Gluing in would only make the textual deficiency worse.
- The texts are literally in German: "The excessive zeal of the Turkish censorship sometimes extends to travel manuals. You avoid difficulties if you put the book in your jacket pocket before crossing the Turkish border or before arriving at a Turkish port." and in French: "Le zèle intempestif de la censure turque n'épargne même pas les guides du voyageur. Afin d'éviter des désagréments, on fera bien, avant de franchir les frontières du pays ou d'entrer dans un port turc, de mettre son guide en sûreté dans une de ses poches. "
- A Short Guide to the Russian Language, 1897 (digitized version)
- Peter H. Baumgarten, Monika I. Baumgarten (ed.): Baedeker. A name becomes a global brand. Karl Baedeker, Ostfildern 1998, p. 32.
- See e.g. B. Karl Baedeker: Handbook for travelers in Germany and the Austrian imperial state . Verlag Karl Baedeker, Coblenz 1853, p. II.
- The English dedication reads: Go, little book, God send thee good passage. And specially let this be thy prayer: Unto them all that thee will read or hear. Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, Thee to correct in any part or all. (See e.g. Karl Baedeker: The United States with excursions to Mexico, Cuba, Porto Rico, and Alaska . Verlag Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1909, p. IV).
- Karl Baedeker: Mediterranean . Verlag Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1934, p. IV)
- cf. Karl Baedeker: Silesia. 2nd Edition. Verlag Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1938, half-title: Excerpt from Eichendorff's poem Abschied .
- Compare the DNB entry .
- Technological development has taken a different approach to using electronic media as an alternative travel guide, especially with the use of the Internet by smartphones and tablet computers .
- Notes on the telegraphy conferences from 1868 to 1908 in: Julius Hatschek (started), Karl Strupp (continued): Dictionary of international law and diplomacy . Volume 2, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and Leipzig 1925, p. 708 (digitized version)
- In the foreword, the Redactions Commission thanks "Mr. Carl Bädecker (sic!) From Leipzig" for making the Baedeker material available.
- Hinrichsen: Baedeker's travel manuals 1832–1990 . Ursula Hinrichsen Verlag, Bevern 1991, p. 281.
- August Petermann: Communications from Justus Perthe's geographical institute about important new research in the entire field of geography. Annual volume 1858.
- Alex W. Hinrichsen: On the advertising activities of the Karl Baedeker publishing house. In: Travel and Life. Issue 18, 1989 (online)
- Alex W. Hinrichsen: Baedeker's travel handbooks 1832-1990 . Ursula Hinrichsen Verlag, Bevern 1991, p. 50.
- Kurt Eitner, Alex W Hinrichsen: The chronology of the Baedeker of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein between 1949 and 1983. In: Travel and life. Issue 20, 1990.
- Compare the illustration on p. 82 in: Alex W. Hinrichsen: Baedeker's Travel Handbooks 1832–1990 . Ursula Hinrichsen Verlag, Bevern 1991.
- The text on the brand is literally translated: “'Guides bleus' are French, published by Hachettes, on sale in all bookshops. Don't buy Baedeker; You would turn the money to Germany. "
- The full texts of these publications can be viewed on the Bdkr.com website.
- Compare the brief explanations on the status of the 1990 licensed editions from Alex W. Hinrichsen: Baedeker's travel guides 1832–1990 . Ursula Hinrichsen Verlag, Bevern 1991, p. 227 f.
- Paul L. Feser: Baedeker imitations . in travel and life. Issue 24, 1992, (online)
- Baldo Podic: TCI - the Italian Baedeker. In: Reiseleben , Heft 13, 1986, p. 6 ff. (Online)
- Compare e.g. B. the volume for Switzerland from 1865 (online)
- Reinhard Öhlberger: False Baedeker on a large scale. In: Travel and Life. Issue 6, 1983 (online)
- The red linen volume was published by a Comité of "Eintracht", Association of the Administrative Personnel of the Vienna Journals, J. Stöckholzer von Hirschfeld, Vienna 1879, and has 48 pages plus 8 woodcut portraits.
- Compare the images on the websites of Ketterer's 391st Munich Art Auction ( digitized ) and the Verband Deutscher Antiquare eV (digitized version) .
- Compare the catalog entries at DNB portal.dnb.de
- [August Mandls]: From Vienna to Trieste, along with journeys from Bodenbach, Olmütz, Krakow, Linz, Pesth to Vienna and from Trieste to Venice. Travel guide for all stations of the KK Priv. Southern runway . Literary-artistic department of the Austrian Lloyd, 2nd edition. Trieste 1860, p. 207.
- AP Herbert, A. Davies-Adams: La Vie Parisienne. A Comic Opera in Three Acts (Very remotely related to the Offenbach opera with the above title) . Ernest Benn Limited, London 1929. Baedeker quotation on p. 39.
- The Baedeker-Verlag itself also speaks of "the English translation of the libretto for Jacques Offenbach's operetta 'La Vie Parisienne'", z. B. on his website . Herbert and Davies-Adams emphasize with a preliminary remark on p. 5: “This is not a translation, or even, strictly, an 'adaptation' [...] We have borrowed from MM. Meilhac and Halévy the title of their libretto , but very little else. Indeed (under instruction) we have never read it. "
- Hike. In: Hans and Jacob Grimm: Grimm's dictionary. Volume 3, 1862, Sp. 1043 (online)
- Susanne Müller: The world of Baedeker. A media culture history of the travel guide 1830–1945. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2012, p. 134.
- Compare the website trains with names for which there was no entry of the IC Karl Baedeker before 2001 , and the database long-distance traffic station Leipzig , which from 2003 no longer has an entry of the IC Karl Baedeker.